Volume 544 Number 7648



How to judge a book by its network p.5

A breakdown of purchasing habits shows where science books fall on the political spectrum.

doi: 10.1038/544005b


Pioneering cell transplant shows vision and promise p.5

Japan deserves praise for early success, but must still exercise caution in commercializing induced pluripotent stem-cell treatments.

doi: 10.1038/nature.2017.21757


Europe must find a new home for its drug regulator — and a way to keep using English p.6

Brexit is forcing agencies to relocate their headquarters, and member states to rethink their language choices.

doi: 10.1038/nature.2017.21762



Promising cancer drugs may speed tumours in some patients p.13

Early studies fuel scientists’ determination to understand how immunotherapy may sometimes make disease worse.

doi: 10.1038/nature.2017.21755


NIH research grants yield economic windfall p.14

More than 30% of biomedical studies funded by the US government are later cited in commercial patents.

doi: 10.1038/nature.2017.21752


Ancient bones reveal girl's tough life in early Americas p.15

Teenage mother who lived 12,000 years ago was malnourished but still roamed widely.

doi: 10.1038/nature.2017.21753


Compass protein attracts heap of criticism p.16

Debate grows over a molecule implicated in animal navigation.

doi: 10.1038/544016a


Genetic details of controversial 'three-parent baby' revealed p.17

But the child's parents have decided to forego long-term monitoring by researchers.

doi: 10.1038/nature.2017.21761

News Features


How the genomics revolution could finally help Africa p.20


doi: 10.1038/544020a

News & Views


Particle physics: The search for no neutrinos p.38


doi: 10.1038/544038a


Biogeochemistry: Large rise in carbon uptake by land plants p.39


doi: 10.1038/544039a


Biomechanics: The aerodynamics buzz from mosquitoes p.40


doi: 10.1038/nature21904


Structural biology: Receptors grease the metabolic wheels p.42


doi: 10.1038/nature21900


Materials science: Chain mail reverses the Hall effect p.44


doi: 10.1038/nature21902


Biochemistry: A wine-induced breakdown p.45


doi: 10.1038/nature21901



Background-free search for neutrinoless double-β decay of 76Ge with GERDA p.47

If neutrinos are their own antiparticles, neutrinoless double-β decay of 76Ge should occur; a new lower-limit half-life of 5 × 1025 years for this process has now been determined under background-free conditions.

doi: 10.1038/nature21717


Myeloid progenitor cluster formation drives emergency and leukaemic myelopoiesis p.53

During emergency myelopoiesis in mice, clusters of self-renewing granulocyte/macrophage progenitors (GMP) are transiently formed in the bone marrow cavity to produce a burst of myeloid cells; in leukaemia, GMP clusters persist and constantly generate myeloid leukaemia cells.

doi: 10.1038/nature21693


3D structures of individual mammalian genomes studied by single-cell Hi-C p.59

A chromosome conformation capture method in which single cells are first imaged and then processed enables intact genome folding to be studied at a scale of 100 kb, validated, and analysed to generate hypotheses about 3D genomic interactions and organisation.

doi: 10.1038/nature21429


Complex pectin metabolism by gut bacteria reveals novel catalytic functions p.65

The hierarchical deconstruction of the complex pectic glycan rhamnogalacturonan-II by the human gut bacterium Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron reveals seven new families of glycoside hydrolases and three catalytic functions not previously observed.

doi: 10.1038/nature21725



A massive, quiescent galaxy at a redshift of 3.717 p.71

A massive ancient galaxy with minimal star formation is observed spectroscopically at an epoch when the Universe is less than 2 billion years old, posing a challenge to theories.

doi: 10.1038/nature21680


Continuous-wave lasing in colloidal quantum dot solids enabled by facet-selective epitaxy p.75

By switching shell growth on and off on the (0001) facet of wurtzite CdSe cores to produce a built-in biaxial strain that lowers the optical gain threshold, we achieve continuous-wave lasing in colloidal quantum dot films.

doi: 10.1038/nature21424

化学:Pt/α- MoC触媒を用いて水とメタノールから低温で水素を生成する

Low-temperature hydrogen production from water and methanol using Pt/α-MoC catalysts p.80

As an alternative vehicle fuel, hydrogen can be generated in situ from methanol and water—a process that is shown here to occur under mild conditions using a catalyst that comprises platinum atomically dispersed on an α-molybdenum carbide substrate.

doi: 10.1038/nature21672


Large historical growth in global terrestrial gross primary production p.84

Long-term records of global carbonyl sulfide levels reveal that terrestrial gross primary production (GPP) increased by around 30% during the twentieth century—a finding that may aid understanding of the connection between GPP growth and climate change.

doi: 10.1038/nature22030


Ancient evolutionary origin of vertebrate enteric neurons from trunk-derived neural crest p.88

Whereas the enteric nervous system of jawed vertebrates is derived largely from the vagal neural crest, that of the sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) is populated by trunk-derived neural crest cells that may be homologous to Schwann cell precursors.

doi: 10.1038/nature21679


Smart wing rotation and trailing-edge vortices enable high frequency mosquito flight p.92

In addition to generating lift by leading-edge vortices (as used by most insects), mosquitoes also employ trailing-edge vortices and a lift mechanism from wing rotation, which enables them to stay airborne despite having a seemingly unlikely airframe.

doi: 10.1038/nature21727


Cerebellar granule cells encode the expectation of reward p.96

A sizable fraction of granule cells convey information about the expectation of reward, with different populations responding to reward delivery, anticipation and omission, with some responses evolving over time with learning.

doi: 10.1038/nature21726


CRISPR–Cas systems exploit viral DNA injection to establish and maintain adaptive immunity p.101

Analysis of spacer acquisition in Staphylococcus aureus reveals that type II CRISPR–Cas systems exploit viral DNA injection to ensure a successful CRISPR immune response.

doi: 10.1038/nature21719


The lung is a site of platelet biogenesis and a reservoir for haematopoietic progenitors p.105

Direct imaging of the lung microcirculation in mice indicates that it is a major site of mature platelet production from megakaryocytes.

doi: 10.1038/nature21706


Single-nucleus Hi-C reveals unique chromatin reorganization at oocyte-to-zygote transition p.110

Using a single-nucleus Hi-C protocol, the authors find that spatial organization of chromatin during oocyte-to-zygote transition differs between paternal and maternal nuclei within a single-cell zygote.

doi: 10.1038/nature21711


DHX9 suppresses RNA processing defects originating from the Alu invasion of the human genome p.115

In the absence of DHX9, circular RNAs accumulate and transcription and translation are dysregulated—effects that are exacerbated by concomitant depletion of the RNA-editing enzyme ADAR.

doi: 10.1038/nature21715


Structural insights into adiponectin receptors suggest ceramidase activity p.120

Structures of the adiponectin receptors ADIPOR1 and ADIPOR2 combined with molecular dynamics simulations and enzymatic assays suggest that both receptors have intrinsic ceramidase activity.

doi: 10.1038/nature21714

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