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Editorials

米国とヨーロッパとの貿易協定(環大西洋貿易投資パートナーシップ;TTIP)の影響を明確にする上で、科学者には重要な役割がある。

Trading places p.393

Scientists have a valuable part to play in clarifying the impacts of a proposed trade treaty between the United States and Europe.

doi: 10.1038/521393a

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今週号では、大きく進歩している人工知能研究の現状を評価した記事や論文を紹介する。

Silicon smarts p.394

A package of articles in Nature assesses the state of artificial-intelligence research.

doi: 10.1038/521394b

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すぐに認知されず引用もされないが、後に値打ちが分かって大いに注目される「眠れる森の美女」論文は数多い。

Wakey wakey p.394

Sleeping-beauty papers offer hope that authors of uncited works are in good company.

doi: 10.1038/521394a

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News

TTIPは、科学研究を進展させる可能性があるが、健康や環境保護を弱めるという懸念も。

Giant international trade treaties centre on science p.401

Proposed deals have potential to boost research, but also to weaken health and environmental protections.

doi: 10.1038/521401a

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抗生物質耐性が広がる中、新たな感染症治療を求めて自然界に研究者の目が。

Antibiotic alternatives rev up bacterial arms race p.402

From predatory microbes to toxic metals, nature is inspiring new ways to treat infections.

doi: 10.1038/521402a

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各国の炭素排出削減の約束を、共通基準に基づき科学的に評価する必要が。

Big compromises needed to meet carbon-emissions goal p.404

Independent assessments of national climate plans find little common ground between wealthy and developing countries.

doi: 10.1038/521404a

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エボラ出血熱の教訓を踏まえ、今後の感染症の大流行に研究開発が迅速に対応できるよう、WHOが計画作りへ。

Ebola teaches tough lessons about rapid research p.405

Public-health officials make plans for how to speed up responses to tropical-disease outbreaks.

doi: 10.1038/521405a

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スウェーデン・カロリンスカ研究所の胸部外科医Paolo Macchiariniが行った人工気管移植の先駆的論文には不正があるという調査結果が。

Artificial-windpipe surgeon committed misconduct p.406

Papers authored by Paolo Macchiarini misrepresented success of pioneering procedure.

doi: 10.1038/nature.2015.17605

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News Features

軍事技術:レーザー兵器が現実に

Military technology: Laser weapons get real p.408

光ファイバー技術の進展によって、長い間SFの世界のものだったレーザー兵器が、実際の戦場で使われる日が近づいてきた。

doi: 10.1038/521408a

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動物の行動:賢い魚

Animal behaviour: Clever fish p.412

スイス・ヌーシャテル大学のRedouan Bsharyは、霊長類に特異的とされてきた、協力、騙し、罰といった高度な社会的行動が魚類にも存在することを、観察と実験を通して明らかにしてきた。

doi: 10.1038/521412a

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News & Views

人工知能:本能を備えたロボット

Artificial intelligence: Robots with instincts p.426

ロボットが予期せぬ変化に適応できるようにするための、進化アルゴリズムが開発された。ロボットは、過去に達成した行動の記憶を探索することで迅速かつ本能的に行動を学習する。

doi: 10.1038/521426a

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細胞生物学:ゴルジ体での極性を持った輸送

Cell biology: Polarized transport in the Golgi apparatus p.427

ゴルジ体と呼ばれる細胞小器官からのタンパク質輸送は、どちらの方向へも可能である。細胞に極性を与える分子であるCDC42は、ゴルジ体での輸送の方向性を制御していることが明らかになった。

doi: 10.1038/nature14521

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海洋科学:気候振動の起源

Ocean science: The origins of a climate oscillation p.428

北大西洋での海水循環の強度の指標が、海水準の測定から得られている。これによって大西洋が気候の数十年変動に主な役割を担ってきたことの新しい証拠が得られる。

doi: 10.1038/521428a

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がんでの代謝:インスリンシグナル伝達を衰弱させる変化

Cancer metabolism: A waste of insulin interference p.430

多数のがん患者が、がん性悪液質と呼ばれる消耗性疾患で死亡する。ショウジョウバエを使った2つの研究により、インスリンシグナル伝達の阻害が悪液質に似た器官消耗を引き起こすことが明らかになった。

doi: 10.1038/521430a

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微生物学:楽あれば苦あり

Microbiology: Taking the bad with the good p.431

抗生物質の産生とその分解の間の相互作用のモデル化によって、これらの相反する働きが微生物群集の多様性を維持するのに極めて重要であることが明らかになった。

doi: 10.1038/nature14525

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古人類学:ヒトで混み合っていた中期鮮新世

Palaeoanthropology: The middle Pliocene gets crowded p.432

エチオピアで見つかった350万~330万年前のものと見られる新しいヒト族化石は、ヒトの進化の初期における種の多様性が、それ以降の年代と同程度であった可能性を示唆している。

doi: 10.1038/521432a

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Articles

古人類学:中期鮮新世ヒト族の多様性をさらに高めるエチオピア産の新種化石

New species from Ethiopia further expands Middle Pliocene hominin diversity p.483

A new hominin species, Australopithecus deyiremeda, which lived between 3.5 and 3.3 million years ago, at around the same time as species such as Au. afarensis (‘Lucy’), is discovered in Ethiopia; its morphology suggests that some dental features traditionally associated with later genera such as Paranthropus and Homo emerged earlier than previously thought.

doi: 10.1038/nature14448

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がんゲノミクス:化学療法抵抗性の卵巣がんの全ゲノム特性解析

Whole–genome characterization of chemoresistant ovarian cancer p.489

Whole-genome sequencing of tumour and germline DNA samples from 92 patients with high-grade serous ovarian cancer identifies frequent gene breakages that inactivate the tumour suppressors RB1, NF1, RAD51B and PTEN, and contribute to chemotherapy resistance; acquired resistance was associated with diverse mechanisms such as reversions of germline BRCA1/2 mutations and overexpression of the drug efflux pump MDR1.

doi: 10.1038/nature14410

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Letters

天文学:近傍電波銀河のジェットにおけるキロパーセクスケールの内部衝撃波の衝突

A kiloparsec-scale internal shock collision in the jet of a nearby radio galaxy p.495

Observations of a collision between two knots in the jet of nearby radio galaxy 3C 264 support the internal shock model of how the jet plasma is energized.

doi: 10.1038/nature14481

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光学・フォトニクス:固体の極端紫外高調波分光法

Extreme ultraviolet high-harmonic spectroscopy of solids p.498

Intense light interacting with a thin film of silicon dioxide is used to generate broadband extreme ultraviolet radiation; the spectra reveal detailed information on the energy dispersion of the conduction band of silicon dioxide, which is at present inaccessible by conventional photoemission spectroscopy.

doi: 10.1038/nature14456

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工学:動物のように適応できるロボット

Robots that can adapt like animals p.503

An intelligent trial-and-error learning algorithm is presented that allows robots to adapt in minutes to compensate for a wide variety of types of damage.

doi: 10.1038/nature14422

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気候科学:海水準の観測から明らかになった大西洋の気候の十年規模変動に対する海洋の影響

Ocean impact on decadal Atlantic climate variability revealed by sea-level observations p.508

The circulation of the North Atlantic Ocean, interpreted via the sea level gradient along the US coast, is found to respond to atmospheric drivers from the North Atlantic Oscillation, and in turn influences the oceanic temperature changes characterized by Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation; in this way, ocean circulation acts as the intermediary between atmospheric and ocean oscillations.

doi: 10.1038/nature14491

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神経科学:感覚野のニューロン集団へのニューロンの多様な共役

Diverse coupling of neurons to populations in sensory cortex p.511

Exploring the relationship between population coupling and neuronal activity reveals that neighbouring neurons can differ in their coupling to the overall firing rate of the population, the circuitry of which may potentially help to explain the complex activity patterns in cortical populations.

doi: 10.1038/nature14273

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微生物学:抗生物質の産生と分解という相反する作用が微生物群集を安定化する

Counteraction of antibiotic production and degradation stabilizes microbial communities p.516

Mathematical modelling and simulations reveal that including antibiotic degraders in ecological models of microbial species interaction allows the system to robustly move towards an intermixed stable state, more representative of real-world observations.

doi: 10.1038/nature14485

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遺伝学:マウスでの包括的な遺伝的解析により明らかになった、先天性心疾患に繊毛が果たす中心的役割

Global genetic analysis in mice unveils central role for cilia in congenital heart disease p.520

A forward genetic screen in fetal mice to identify genes involved in congenital heart disease (CHD) reveals that a large proportion of genes associated with CHD are related to cilia and cilia-transduced cell signalling, with potential implications for the human disease.

doi: 10.1038/nature14269

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細胞生物学:C. elegansの加齢過程で見られるマイトファジーとミトコンドリア生合成の協調

Coordination of mitophagy and mitochondrial biogenesis during ageing in C. elegans p.525

Mitophagy, a selective type of autophagy targeting mitochondria for degradation, interfaces with mitochondrial biogenesis to regulate mitochondrial content and longevity in Caenorhabditis elegans.

doi: 10.1038/nature14300

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細胞生物学:ゴルジ体でのCOPI双方向輸送のCDC42による協調的調節

Coordinated regulation of bidirectional COPI transport at the Golgi by CDC42 p.529

The COPI complex, which has a role in retrograde transport through the Golgi, is shown to also mediate anterograde tubular transport through the Golgi; in response to external stimuli, the small GTPase CDC42 acts as an essential modulator of bidirectional Golgi transport, and promotes the sorting of cargoes destined for anterograde transport into the tubules at the expense of those targeted for retrograde transport.

doi: 10.1038/nature14457

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分子生物学:ショウジョウバエのRNA干渉を行う酵素複合体の形成過程を解明

Defining fundamental steps in the assembly of the Drosophila RNAi enzyme complex p.533

The assembly of single Drosophila RNA-induced silencing complexes (RISCs) is reconstituted using seven purified proteins, revealing that chaperones help stabilize the interaction of the protein heterodimer Dicer-2–R2D2 bound to the short interfering RNA with Ago2.

doi: 10.1038/nature14254

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がん:MAD2L2は5′末端切除を阻害することでテロメアでのDNA修復とDNA切断を制御する

MAD2L2 controls DNA repair at telomeres and DNA breaks by inhibiting 5′ end resection p.537

Appropriate repair of DNA lesions and the inhibition of DNA repair activities at telomeres are crucial to prevent genomic instability. By fuelling the generation of genetic alterations and by compromising cell viability, genomic instability is a driving force in cancer and ageing. Here we identify MAD2L2 (also known as MAD2B or REV7) through functional genetic screening as a novel factor controlling DNA repair activities at mammalian telomeres. We show that MAD2L2 accumulates at uncapped telomeres and promotes non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ)-mediated fusion of deprotected chromosome ends and genomic instability. MAD2L2 depletion causes elongated 3′ telomeric overhangs, indicating that MAD2L2 inhibits 5′ end resection. End resection blocks NHEJ while committing to homology-directed repair, and is under the control of 53BP1, RIF1 and PTIP. Consistent with MAD2L2 promoting NHEJ-mediated telomere fusion by inhibiting 5′ end resection, knockdown of the nucleases CTIP or EXO1 partially restores telomere-driven genomic instability in MAD2L2-depleted cells. Control of DNA repair by MAD2L2 is not limited to telomeres. MAD2L2 also accumulates and inhibits end resection at irradiation-induced DNA double-strand breaks and promotes end-joining of DNA double-strand breaks in several settings, including during immunoglobulin class switch recombination. These activities of MAD2L2 depend on ATM kinase activity, RNF8, RNF168, 53BP1 and RIF1, but not on PTIP, REV1 and REV3, the latter two acting with MAD2L2 in translesion synthesis. Together, our data establish MAD2L2 as a crucial contributor to the control of DNA repair activity by 53BP1 that promotes NHEJ by inhibiting 5′ end resection downstream of RIF1.

doi: 10.1038/nature14216

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がん:REV7はDNA二本鎖切断切除を妨げてPARP阻害に作用する

REV7 counteracts DNA double-strand break resection and affects PARP inhibition p.541

Loss of REV7 is shown to regulate end resection of double-stranded DNA breaks in BRCA1-deficient cells, leading to PARP inhibitor resistance and restoration of homologous recombination; REV7 dictates pathway choice in BRCA1-deficient cells and during immunoglobulin class switching.

doi: 10.1038/nature14328

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構造生物学:炭疽菌防御抗原が形成する小孔の原子構造から明らかになる毒素輸送

Atomic structure of anthrax protective antigen pore elucidates toxin translocation p.545

Cryo-electron microscopy determination of anthrax toxin protective antigen pore structure at a resolution of 2.9 Å, revealing the catalytic Φ-clamp and the membrane-spanning translocation channel.

doi: 10.1038/nature14247

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