目次

Editorials

中央ヨーロッパの科学の再生が進んでいるが、さらなる支援があれば一層の発展が期待できる。

On the mend p.7

The scientific regeneration of central Europe is gathering pace, but needs further help to thrive.

doi: 10.1038/515007b

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科学論文発表の原則・ガイドラインについての会議で、出版社、研究助成機関と科学者の間で意見がまとまったことで、生物医学研究の質の改善や科学への信頼回復につながると望みたい。

Journals unite for reproducibility p.7

Consensus on reporting principles aims to improve biomedical research.

doi: 10.1038/515007a

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難しい課題ではあるが、国立公園や自然保護区を守るには、開発と保護を、バランスを取って早急に進める必要がある。

Protect the parks p.8

Balancing the needs of development and conservation is difficult — but urgent.

doi: 10.1038/515008a

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News

民間宇宙飛行船の事故が米国で相次いだが、民間各社はあくなき前進の姿勢を。

Fledgling space industry resolute after fatal crash p.15

Virgin Galactic accident should not be allowed to stifle innovation, warn analysts.

doi: 10.1038/515015a

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世界国立公園会議を前に、グレート・バリア・リーフの将来をめぐって論争が。

Future of Great Barrier Reef divides scientists p.16

Marine-park management comes under scrutiny as conservationists descend on Australia.

doi: 10.1038/515016a

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ドイツでは景気悪化が懸念されている中、科学に思いがけない予算の後押しが。

Basket of gifts for German science p.17

Politicians renew commitment to research and education progammes with €25 billion over six years.

doi: 10.1038/nature.2014.16264

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エボラ出血熱の感染拡大はモデルで予想されたよりも小さく、こうした数学モデルが大発生時の予測に有効かどうかに疑問が。

Models overestimate Ebola cases p.18

Rate of infection in Liberia seems to plateau, raising questions over the usefulness of models in an outbreak.

doi: 10.1038/515018a

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NIHの希少疾患研究への助成が、ロビー活動によって大きく左右されていることが明らかに。

Lobbying sways NIH grants p.19

Pressure on lawmakers from patient-advocacy groups has shaped agency spending on rare-disease research.

doi: 10.1038/515019a

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米国の創造論者が、信条のために大学を不当解雇されたと、訴訟を。

University sued by creationist p.20

Microscopist’s wrongful-dismissal case faces long odds.

doi: 10.1038/515020a

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News Features

ベルリンの壁崩壊の後:中央ヨーロッパ諸国の素顔

After the Berlin Wall: Central Europe up close p.22

共産主義の崩壊から25年の間に、中央・東ヨーロッパ諸国は科学分野でそれぞれ独自の歩みを見せてきた。

doi: 10.1038/515022a

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News & Views

加速器物理学:SLACのプラズマ航跡場加速器

Accelerator physics: Surf's up at SLAC p.40

たった30 cmの長さの「プラズマアフターバーナー」型加速器では、従来の巨大な加速器の数百倍の速さで電子が加速される。この結果は、粒子衝突型加速器のための低コスト技術への道を開くことになるかもしれない。

doi: 10.1038/515040a

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発生生物学:シグナルの捕捉により連携する細胞群

Developmental biology: Cells unite by trapping a signal p.41

繊維芽細胞増殖因子の濃度勾配は、細胞がそれぞれ異なる運命を選択するように誘導することが多い。ゼブラフィッシュ胚での実験によって、この因子が細胞の特異的配置によって小さなスペースに捕捉されると、また別の予想外の役割を果たすようになることが分かった。

doi: 10.1038/nature13933

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宇宙物理学:丸見えの所に隠れていたモンスター星

Astrophysics: Monster star found hiding in plain sight p.42

大質量星は珍しい。だが、現在の宇宙で見られる最も活動的な現象の一部は、こうした大質量星が引き起こしている。50年以上にわたって観測されてきた星形成領域で、今回大質量星候補が見つかった。

doi: 10.1038/515042a

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生態学:多様性は相補性を生む

Ecology: Diversity breeds complementarity p.44

進化過程と生態系過程は長い間、別物として扱われてきた。しかし、植物の種間の相互作用が迅速な進化的変化を引き起こし、これが生態系機能に影響することが見いだされた。この2つの分野を統一するべき時期が来たようだ。

doi: 10.1038/nature13929

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有機化学:反応中の形態を光によって制御する

Organic chemistry: Shape control in reactions with light p.45

有機化学反応の際に形成される分子の三次元形態、つまり立体化学的性質を支配する光活性化触媒が報告された。この結果から、可視光を使ってこうした反応を制御する新戦略が考えられる。

doi: 10.1038/515045a

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がん:抗マクロファージ療法後の転移リスク

Cancer: Metastasis risk after anti-macrophage therapy p.46

マクロファージ活性の阻害は、がんの広がりを遅らせる可能性がある。だが、マウスでの実験から得られた新たな知見によって、このような免疫細胞は治療をやめると腫瘍で速やかにリバウンドして、致死的な転移を加速することが明らかになった。

doi: 10.1038/nature13931

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Articles

進化生物学:生活環、適応度の分離、および多細胞体制の進化

Life cycles, fitness decoupling and the evolution of multicellularity p.75

Simple cooperating groups of bacteria reproduced either by embracing or purging cheating types; those that embraced cheats adopted a life cycle of alternating phenotypic states, underpinned by a developmental switch that allowed the fitness of collectives to decouple from the fitness of constituent cells.

doi: 10.1038/nature13884

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構造生物学:哺乳類呼吸複合体Iの構造

Architecture of mammalian respiratory complex I p.80

Complex I is the first enzyme of the mitochondrial electron transport chain and it is essential for oxidative phosphorylation in mammalian mitochondria; here the electron cryo-microscopy structure of complex I from bovine heart mitochondria is reported, advancing knowledge of its structure in mammals.

doi: 10.1038/nature13686

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Letters

宇宙物理学:X線で最も明るい銀河団内の乱流加熱

Turbulent heating in galaxy clusters brightest in X-rays p.85

Analysis of X-ray data of galaxy clusters shows that turbulent heating of the intracluster medium is sufficient to counteract the radiative energy losses from the medium.

doi: 10.1038/nature13830

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宇宙物理学:白色矮星の強い磁場による、冷却の抑制

Suppression of cooling by strong magnetic fields in white dwarf stars p.88

Cool white dwarf stars often have mysteriously strong magnetic fields (because their coolness suggests that they are old, and magnetic fields should decline in strength with age) and unexplained brightness variations; here the magnetic field is shown to suppress atmospheric convection, inhibiting cooling evolution and causing dark spots.

doi: 10.1038/nature13836

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加速器物理学:プラズマ航跡場加速器における電子ビームの高効率加速

High-efficiency acceleration of an electron beam in a plasma wakefield accelerator p.92

To develop plasma wakefield acceleration into a compact and affordable replacement for conventional accelerators, beams of charged particles must be accelerated at high efficiency in a high electric field; here this is demonstrated for a bunch of charged electrons ‘surfing’ on a previously excited plasma wave.

doi: 10.1038/nature13882

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オプトロニクス:溶液プロセスで作製した高性能の量子ドット系発光ダイオード

Solution-processed, high-performance light-emitting diodes based on quantum dots p.96

The insertion of an insulating layer into a multilayer light-emitting diode (LED) based on quantum dots and produced by depositing the layers from solution increases the performance of the LEDs to levels comparable to those of state-of-the-art organic LEDs produced by vacuum deposition, while retaining the advantages of solution processing.

doi: 10.1038/nature13829

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有機化学:可視光によって活性化される光酸化還元不斉遷移金属触媒反応

Asymmetric photoredox transition-metal catalysis activated by visible light p.100

A chiral iridium complex serves as a sensitizer for photoredox catalysis and at the same time provides very effective asymmetric induction for the enantioselective alkylation of 2-acyl imidazoles; the metal centre simultaneously serves as the exclusive source of chirality, the catalytically active Lewis acid centre, and the photoredox centre.

doi: 10.1038/nature13892

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気候科学:大気循環の変化に起因する近年の北半球成層圏における塩化水素の増加

Recent Northern Hemisphere stratospheric HCl increase due to atmospheric circulation changes p.104

Policies have been in place since 1987 to reduce the release of chlorine atoms in the stratosphere, where they deplete ozone; here observations show that since 2007 hydrogen chloride has been increasing in the lower stratosphere of the Northern Hemisphere, an increase that is attributed to a slowdown in atmospheric circulation.

doi: 10.1038/nature13857

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生態学:植物群落でニッチ分化に働く選択は生物多様性効果を高める

Selection for niche differentiation in plant communities increases biodiversity effects p.108

Here, new ecological communities are established using plants from mixed-species communities or monocultures; ecosystem functioning and morphological trait diversity are shown to be greater in plants from mixed-species communities, suggesting that biodiversity effects in natural communities strengthen over time.

doi: 10.1038/nature13869

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発生生物学:Nodalシグナル伝達はヒドラで二放射相称の非対称性を決定する

Nodal signalling determines biradial asymmetry in Hydra p.112

A Nodal-related gene is uncovered in Hydra and is involved in setting up the body axis, and a β-Catenin–Nodal–Pitx signalling cassette is shown to have existed before the divergence of cnidarians, including Hydra, and bilaterians.

doi: 10.1038/nature13666

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神経科学:in vivoで樹状突起のプラトー電位により駆動される感覚誘発LTP

Sensory-evoked LTP driven by dendritic plateau potentials in vivo p.116

Whole-cell recordings in mouse somatosensory cortex in vivo show that rhythmic sensory-whisker stimulation induces long-term synaptic potentiation (LTP) in layer 2/3 (L2/3) pyramidal cells, in the absence of somatic spikes, through long-lasting NMDAR-mediated depolarizations that are generated by synaptic networks originating from the posteromedial complex of the thalamus.

doi: 10.1038/nature13664

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発生生物学:管腔シグナル伝達は器官形成の際に細胞コミュニケーションと組織構造を結び付ける

Luminal signalling links cell communication to tissue architecture during organogenesis p.120

Groups of cells within a migrating collective assemble shared luminal cavities that trap and concentrate the signalling molecule fibroblast growth factor, providing a self-organising mechanism to focus and coordinate cell communication within tissues.

doi: 10.1038/nature13852

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植物科学:PLETHORA勾配の形成機構によって分かれるオーキシン応答

PLETHORA gradient formation mechanism separates auxin responses p.125

Through a combination of experimental and computational approaches, the interplay between the plant hormone auxin and the auxin-induced PLETHORA transcription factors is shown to control zonation and gravity-prompted growth movements in plants.

doi: 10.1038/nature13663

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がん:CCL2阻害の中断は血管新生を促進して乳がん転移を加速させる

Cessation of CCL2 inhibition accelerates breast cancer metastasis by promoting angiogenesis p.130

In mouse models of breast cancer, anti-CCL2 therapy—thought to be potentially useful in treating cancer—is shown to accelerate the growth of lung metastases on discontinuation due to a surge of recruitment of bone marrow monocytes and increased interleukin-6-dependent vascularization of the lung metastatic environment.

doi: 10.1038/nature13862

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がん:腫瘍に浸潤するGr-1+骨髄系細胞はがんにおける老化に拮抗する

Tumour-infiltrating Gr-1+ myeloid cells antagonize senescence in cancer p.134

Aberrant activation of oncogenes or loss of tumour suppressor genes opposes malignant transformation by triggering a stable arrest in cell growth, which is termed cellular senescence. This process is finely tuned by both cell-autonomous and non-cell-autonomous mechanisms that regulate the entry of tumour cells to senescence. Whether tumour-infiltrating immune cells can oppose senescence is unknown. Here we show that at the onset of senescence, PTEN null prostate tumours in mice are massively infiltrated by a population of CD11b+Gr-1+ myeloid cells that protect a fraction of proliferating tumour cells from senescence, thus sustaining tumour growth. Mechanistically, we found that Gr-1+ cells antagonize senescence in a paracrine manner by interfering with the senescence-associated secretory phenotype of the tumour through the secretion of interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1RA). Strikingly, Pten-loss-induced cellular senescence was enhanced in vivo when Il1ra knockout myeloid cells were adoptively transferred to PTEN null mice. Therapeutically, docetaxel-induced senescence and efficacy were higher in PTEN null tumours when the percentage of tumour-infiltrating CD11b+Gr-1+ myeloid cells was reduced using an antagonist of CXC chemokine receptor 2 (CXCR2). Taken together, our findings identify a novel non-cell-autonomous network, established by innate immunity, that controls senescence evasion and chemoresistance. Targeting this network provides novel opportunities for cancer therapy.

doi: 10.1038/nature13638

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免疫学:gp41–gp120の接触面に結合するヒト抗体が引き起こす広範囲にわたる強力なHIV-1中和

Broad and potent HIV-1 neutralization by a human antibody that binds the gp41–gp120 interface p.138

Molecular and structural characterization is reported for a new broad and potent monoclonal antibody against HIV that binds to an epitope bridging the gp41 and gp120 subunits — the antibody affects a step in virus entry after binding to CD4 and before engagement of CCR5.

doi: 10.1038/nature13601

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細胞生物学:プソイドウリジンのプロファイリングから明らかになった酵母およびヒト細胞での調節されたmRNAプソイドウリジン化

Pseudouridine profiling reveals regulated mRNA pseudouridylation in yeast and human cells p.143

The modification of uridine to pseudouridine is widespread in transfer and ribosomal RNAs but not observed so far in a coding RNA; here a new technique is used to detect this modification on a genome-wide scale, leading to the identification of pseudouridylation in messenger RNAs as well as almost 100 new sites in non-coding RNAs.

doi: 10.1038/nature13802

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構造生物学:大腸菌のRNA誘導性免疫監視Cascade複合体の結晶構造

Crystal structure of the RNA-guided immune surveillance Cascade complex in Escherichia coli p.147

The CRISPR/Cas system is an RNA-guided bacterial protection system against foreign nucleic acids of bacterial and archaeal origin; here a high-resolution crystal structure of the CRIPSR RNA–Cas complex shows that the CRIPSR RNA plays an essential role not only in target recognition but also in complex assembly.

doi: 10.1038/nature13733

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