Volume 515 Number 7525



On the mend p.7

The scientific regeneration of central Europe is gathering pace, but needs further help to thrive.

doi: 10.1038/515007b


Journals unite for reproducibility p.7

Consensus on reporting principles aims to improve biomedical research.

doi: 10.1038/515007a


Protect the parks p.8

Balancing the needs of development and conservation is difficult — but urgent.

doi: 10.1038/515008a



Fledgling space industry resolute after fatal crash p.15

Virgin Galactic accident should not be allowed to stifle innovation, warn analysts.

doi: 10.1038/515015a


Future of Great Barrier Reef divides scientists p.16

Marine-park management comes under scrutiny as conservationists descend on Australia.

doi: 10.1038/515016a


Basket of gifts for German science p.17

Politicians renew commitment to research and education progammes with €25 billion over six years.

doi: 10.1038/nature.2014.16264


Models overestimate Ebola cases p.18

Rate of infection in Liberia seems to plateau, raising questions over the usefulness of models in an outbreak.

doi: 10.1038/515018a


Lobbying sways NIH grants p.19

Pressure on lawmakers from patient-advocacy groups has shaped agency spending on rare-disease research.

doi: 10.1038/515019a


University sued by creationist p.20

Microscopist’s wrongful-dismissal case faces long odds.

doi: 10.1038/515020a

News Features


After the Berlin Wall: Central Europe up close p.22


doi: 10.1038/515022a

News & Views


Accelerator physics: Surf's up at SLAC p.40

たった30 cmの長さの「プラズマアフターバーナー」型加速器では、従来の巨大な加速器の数百倍の速さで電子が加速される。この結果は、粒子衝突型加速器のための低コスト技術への道を開くことになるかもしれない。

doi: 10.1038/515040a


Developmental biology: Cells unite by trapping a signal p.41


doi: 10.1038/nature13933


Astrophysics: Monster star found hiding in plain sight p.42


doi: 10.1038/515042a


Ecology: Diversity breeds complementarity p.44


doi: 10.1038/nature13929


Organic chemistry: Shape control in reactions with light p.45


doi: 10.1038/515045a


Cancer: Metastasis risk after anti-macrophage therapy p.46


doi: 10.1038/nature13931



Life cycles, fitness decoupling and the evolution of multicellularity p.75

Simple cooperating groups of bacteria reproduced either by embracing or purging cheating types; those that embraced cheats adopted a life cycle of alternating phenotypic states, underpinned by a developmental switch that allowed the fitness of collectives to decouple from the fitness of constituent cells.

doi: 10.1038/nature13884


Architecture of mammalian respiratory complex I p.80

Complex I is the first enzyme of the mitochondrial electron transport chain and it is essential for oxidative phosphorylation in mammalian mitochondria; here the electron cryo-microscopy structure of complex I from bovine heart mitochondria is reported, advancing knowledge of its structure in mammals.

doi: 10.1038/nature13686



Turbulent heating in galaxy clusters brightest in X-rays p.85

Analysis of X-ray data of galaxy clusters shows that turbulent heating of the intracluster medium is sufficient to counteract the radiative energy losses from the medium.

doi: 10.1038/nature13830


Suppression of cooling by strong magnetic fields in white dwarf stars p.88

Cool white dwarf stars often have mysteriously strong magnetic fields (because their coolness suggests that they are old, and magnetic fields should decline in strength with age) and unexplained brightness variations; here the magnetic field is shown to suppress atmospheric convection, inhibiting cooling evolution and causing dark spots.

doi: 10.1038/nature13836


High-efficiency acceleration of an electron beam in a plasma wakefield accelerator p.92

To develop plasma wakefield acceleration into a compact and affordable replacement for conventional accelerators, beams of charged particles must be accelerated at high efficiency in a high electric field; here this is demonstrated for a bunch of charged electrons ‘surfing’ on a previously excited plasma wave.

doi: 10.1038/nature13882


Solution-processed, high-performance light-emitting diodes based on quantum dots p.96

The insertion of an insulating layer into a multilayer light-emitting diode (LED) based on quantum dots and produced by depositing the layers from solution increases the performance of the LEDs to levels comparable to those of state-of-the-art organic LEDs produced by vacuum deposition, while retaining the advantages of solution processing.

doi: 10.1038/nature13829


Asymmetric photoredox transition-metal catalysis activated by visible light p.100

A chiral iridium complex serves as a sensitizer for photoredox catalysis and at the same time provides very effective asymmetric induction for the enantioselective alkylation of 2-acyl imidazoles; the metal centre simultaneously serves as the exclusive source of chirality, the catalytically active Lewis acid centre, and the photoredox centre.

doi: 10.1038/nature13892


Recent Northern Hemisphere stratospheric HCl increase due to atmospheric circulation changes p.104

Policies have been in place since 1987 to reduce the release of chlorine atoms in the stratosphere, where they deplete ozone; here observations show that since 2007 hydrogen chloride has been increasing in the lower stratosphere of the Northern Hemisphere, an increase that is attributed to a slowdown in atmospheric circulation.

doi: 10.1038/nature13857


Selection for niche differentiation in plant communities increases biodiversity effects p.108

Here, new ecological communities are established using plants from mixed-species communities or monocultures; ecosystem functioning and morphological trait diversity are shown to be greater in plants from mixed-species communities, suggesting that biodiversity effects in natural communities strengthen over time.

doi: 10.1038/nature13869


Nodal signalling determines biradial asymmetry in Hydra p.112

A Nodal-related gene is uncovered in Hydra and is involved in setting up the body axis, and a β-Catenin–Nodal–Pitx signalling cassette is shown to have existed before the divergence of cnidarians, including Hydra, and bilaterians.

doi: 10.1038/nature13666

神経科学:in vivoで樹状突起のプラトー電位により駆動される感覚誘発LTP

Sensory-evoked LTP driven by dendritic plateau potentials in vivo p.116

Whole-cell recordings in mouse somatosensory cortex in vivo show that rhythmic sensory-whisker stimulation induces long-term synaptic potentiation (LTP) in layer 2/3 (L2/3) pyramidal cells, in the absence of somatic spikes, through long-lasting NMDAR-mediated depolarizations that are generated by synaptic networks originating from the posteromedial complex of the thalamus.

doi: 10.1038/nature13664


Luminal signalling links cell communication to tissue architecture during organogenesis p.120

Groups of cells within a migrating collective assemble shared luminal cavities that trap and concentrate the signalling molecule fibroblast growth factor, providing a self-organising mechanism to focus and coordinate cell communication within tissues.

doi: 10.1038/nature13852


PLETHORA gradient formation mechanism separates auxin responses p.125

Through a combination of experimental and computational approaches, the interplay between the plant hormone auxin and the auxin-induced PLETHORA transcription factors is shown to control zonation and gravity-prompted growth movements in plants.

doi: 10.1038/nature13663


Cessation of CCL2 inhibition accelerates breast cancer metastasis by promoting angiogenesis p.130

In mouse models of breast cancer, anti-CCL2 therapy—thought to be potentially useful in treating cancer—is shown to accelerate the growth of lung metastases on discontinuation due to a surge of recruitment of bone marrow monocytes and increased interleukin-6-dependent vascularization of the lung metastatic environment.

doi: 10.1038/nature13862


Tumour-infiltrating Gr-1+ myeloid cells antagonize senescence in cancer p.134

Senescence in cancer can be antagonized by a subset of immune cells acting in a non-cell-autonomous manner.

doi: 10.1038/nature13638


Broad and potent HIV-1 neutralization by a human antibody that binds the gp41–gp120 interface p.138

Molecular and structural characterization is reported for a new broad and potent monoclonal antibody against HIV that binds to an epitope bridging the gp41 and gp120 subunits — the antibody affects a step in virus entry after binding to CD4 and before engagement of CCR5.

doi: 10.1038/nature13601


Pseudouridine profiling reveals regulated mRNA pseudouridylation in yeast and human cells p.143

The modification of uridine to pseudouridine is widespread in transfer and ribosomal RNAs but not observed so far in a coding RNA; here a new technique is used to detect this modification on a genome-wide scale, leading to the identification of pseudouridylation in messenger RNAs as well as almost 100 new sites in non-coding RNAs.

doi: 10.1038/nature13802


Crystal structure of the RNA-guided immune surveillance Cascade complex in Escherichia coli p.147

The CRISPR/Cas system is an RNA-guided bacterial protection system against foreign nucleic acids of bacterial and archaeal origin; here a high-resolution crystal structure of the CRIPSR RNA–Cas complex shows that the CRIPSR RNA plays an essential role not only in target recognition but also in complex assembly.

doi: 10.1038/nature13733

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