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Editorials

遺伝的背景を明確にしたマウス変異体を全遺伝子についてそろえようという計画は、マウス実験の再現性を改善し、医薬品開発の無駄や失敗を防ぐのに役立つだろう。

Still much to learn about mice p.399

A project that aims to mutate every gene in the mouse genome to improve our knowledge of mouse biology should help to avoid irreproducible results and costly failures in drug development.

doi: 10.1038/509399a

米国で遺伝子組換え食品の表示の義務付けの動きが進んでいるが、科学者の助言を取り入れる必要がある。

Not on the label p.399

A US push to flag foods as genetically engineered is hard to swallow.

doi: 10.1038/509399b

ウォルフ・ライエ星を前駆天体とする超新星の発見は、巨星の最期が爆発だとする説の証拠の1つになる。

Out with a bang p.400

The discovery of a Wolf-Rayet supernova rebuts the idea that the biggest stars go quietly.

doi: 10.1038/509400a

News

NASAのカイパーベルト探査機の、観測目標決定の最終期限が目前に。

Pluto-bound probe faces crisis p.407

NASA scientists scramble to find an object in the outer Solar System’s Kuiper belt in time for a close-up visit.

doi: 10.1038/509407a

米国の無人潜水機Nereusが潜航中に壊れて行方不明になり、深海探査研究に打撃が。

Submersible loss hits research p.408

But scientists remain positive about the future of deep-sea exploration despite disintegration of unique US Nereus craft.

doi: 10.1038/509408a

米国が、特許や論文のテキスト分析を、次世代先端技術研究のヒントに。

Text-mining offers clues to success p.410

US intelligence programme analyses language in patents and papers to identify next big technologies.

doi: 10.1038/509410a

テマリクラゲのゲノム解読で、他に例のない神経系が明らかに。

Jelly genome mystery p.411

Publication of the draft genetic sequence of a comb jelly reveals a nervous system like no other.

doi: 10.1038/509411a

世界エイズ・結核・マラリア基金が提案する医薬品の段階的価格設定は、中所得国の医療コストを増大させると、NGOから批判が。

Activists sound alarm on tiered drug prices p.412

Plan could increase health costs in middle-income nations.

doi: 10.1038/509412a

News Features

生殖医療:3人の力

Reproductive medicine: The power of three p.414

病気のあるヒト卵子から健康な卵子へのDNA移植という、3人の生物学的親を持つ子孫をつくる技術が、臨床応用に近付いている。

doi: 10.1038/509414a

森林破壊:切り裂かれるアマゾン

Deforestation: Carving up the Amazon p.418

アマゾン熱帯雨林が、急激な道路建設で大きく姿を変えつつあり、世界的な影響が現れる恐れがある。

doi: 10.1038/509418a

News & Views

エピジェネティクス:親の性を維持し続ける

Epigenetics: Keeping one's sex p.430

原生生物であるヨツヒメゾウリムシ(Paramecium tetraurelia)の子孫では、親の接合型が常に維持されている。この遺伝は、RNA誘導型のDNA削除経路が働いて、外来DNA塩基配列が入り込まないようにゲノムを守っている結果であることが明らかになった。

doi: 10.1038/nature13333

宇宙物理学:風を吹き出す星の華々しい爆発

Astrophysics: Windy stars that go with a bang p.431

年老いた大質量星の星風の特徴と思われるものが、その星が超新星爆発を起こしたすぐ後に観測された。この知見は、星風が観測されるこのような星は、明るく、観測可能な死を迎える可能性があることを示している。

doi: 10.1038/509431a

生理学:血液脳関門が示す二重の機能

Physiology: Double function at the blood–brain barrier p.432

血液脳関門が持つ2つの機能、すなわち脂質の脳への輸送と、血管を裏打ちしている細胞を通過しての分子輸送という機能がMfsd2aという同一のタンパク質によって調節されていることが明らかになった。

doi: 10.1038/nature13339

材料化学:柔軟性から生じる選択性

Materials chemistry: Selectivity from flexibility p.434

金属有機構造体と呼ばれる多孔性材料には、分子の分別など、多くの応用が期待されている。こうした材料の1つで、標的分子に対する選択性を変形によって高めるものが見つかった。

doi: 10.1038/509434a

がん:腫瘍のダーウィン的抑制

Cancer: Darwinian tumour suppression p.435

生存に必要な因子を手に入れるための細胞競合によって、胸腺では骨髄から移動してくる細胞がすでにそこに定着している細胞に置き換わる理由が説明できることが分かった。この競合の低下は腫瘍形成の原因となる可能性がある。

doi: 10.1038/nature13337

地球科学:地震活動を促す環境

Earth science: Fertile fields for seismicity p.436

米国カリフォルニア州サンホアキン・バレー周辺の地殻隆起は地下水の取水が原因だが、この隆起の解析から、こうした地下水の取水によって、近傍のサンアンドレアス断層系の応力が季節的および長期的に減少することが明らかになった。

doi: 10.1038/nature13338

Review

細胞生物学:加齢における老化細胞の役割

The role of senescent cells in ageing p.439

Cellular senescence has recently been shown to have roles in complex biological processes other than protection against cancer, and to represent a series of progressive and diverse cellular states after initial growth arrest; better understanding of mechanisms underlying its progression and of acute and chronic senescent cells may lead to new therapeutic strategies for age-related pathologies.

doi: 10.1038/nature13193

Articles

遺伝:ゲノムを守る低分子RNAはエピジェネティックな接合型遺伝のためにイグザプテーションを遂げた

Genome-defence small RNAs exapted for epigenetic mating-type inheritance p.447

The molecular basis for mating-type determination in the ciliate Paramecium has been elucidated, revealing a novel function for a class of small RNAs — these scnRNAs are typically involved in reprogramming the Paramecium genome during sexual reproduction by recognizing and excising transposable elements, but they are now found to be co-opted to switch off expression of the newly identified mating-type gene mtA by excising its promoter, and to mediate epigenetic inheritance of mating types across sexual generations.

doi: 10.1038/nature13318

神経科学:複数のサブタイプの扁桃体介在ニューロンによる、脱抑制を介した恐怖学習制御

Amygdala interneuron subtypes control fear learning through disinhibition p.453

Plasticity within neuronal microcircuits is believed to be the substrate of learning, and this study identifies two distinct disinhibitory mechanisms involving interactions between PV+ and SOM+ interneurons that dynamically regulate principal neuron activity in the amygdala and thereby control auditory fear learning.

doi: 10.1038/nature13258

神経科学:対照的な型のコカイン誘発可塑性が薬物依存再発の要素を制御する

Contrasting forms of cocaine-evoked plasticity control components of relapse p.459

Information integration in the nucleus accumbens is commandeered by cocaine at discrete synapses to allow relapse.

doi: 10.1038/nature13257

がん:細胞競合は胸腺における腫瘍抑制機構である

Cell competition is a tumour suppressor mechanism in the thymus p.465

T cells develop from thymic precursor cells that are constantly replaced with newly arriving bone marrow progenitor cells, and the ‘old’ and ‘new’ cells are shown here to compete; in the absence of cell competition, when the influx of new bone marrow progenitor cells is blocked, the old cells acquire the ability to self-renew and eventually become transformed, leading to the development of a form of leukaemia.

doi: 10.1038/nature13317

Letters

宇宙:星風のスペクトル観測から得られたSN 2013cuのウォルフ・ライエ星類似前駆天体

A Wolf–Rayet-like progenitor of SN 2013cu from spectral observations of a stellar wind p.471

The explosive fate of massive Wolf–Rayet stars (WRSs) is a key open question in stellar physics. An appealing option is that hydrogen-deficient WRSs are the progenitors of some hydrogen-poor supernova explosions of types IIb, Ib and Ic (ref. 2). A blue object, having luminosity and colours consistent with those of some WRSs, has recently been identified in pre-explosion images at the location of a supernova of type Ib (ref. 3), but has not yet been conclusively determined to have been the progenitor. Similar work has so far only resulted in non-detections. Comparison of early photometric observations of type Ic supernovae with theoretical models suggests that the progenitor stars had radii of less than 1012 centimetres, as expected for some WRSs. The signature of WRSs, their emission line spectra, cannot be probed by such studies. Here we report the detection of strong emission lines in a spectrum of type IIb supernova 2013cu (iPTF13ast) obtained approximately 15.5 hours after explosion (by ‘flash spectroscopy’, which captures the effects of the supernova explosion shock breakout flash on material surrounding the progenitor star). We identify Wolf–Rayet-like wind signatures, suggesting a progenitor of the WN(h) subclass (those WRSs with winds dominated by helium and nitrogen, with traces of hydrogen). The extent of this dense wind may indicate increased mass loss from the progenitor shortly before its explosion, consistent with recent theoretical predictions.

doi: 10.1038/nature13304

量子物理学:信号の乱れを監視する必要がない実用的な量子鍵配送プロトコル

Practical quantum key distribution protocol without monitoring signal disturbance p.475

Conventional quantum cryptography relies on monitoring signal disturbance to make sure that information leakage is negligible; here a new quantum method of achieving security is described, in which little information is leaked to the eavesdropper regardless of the signal disturbance.

doi: 10.1038/nature13303

気候:局地的な蒸発と海氷の後退に関連した北極域の降水量の将来の増加

Future increases in Arctic precipitation linked to local evaporation and sea-ice retreat p.479

Precipitation is expected to increase far more over the twenty-first century in the Arctic than the global average; climate models show that this is driven mainly by increased local evaporation and sea-ice retreat, rather than by increased moisture transport from lower latitudes.

doi: 10.1038/nature13259

地球:カリフォルニア中部の地下水枯渇による隆起と地震活動

Uplift and seismicity driven by groundwater depletion in central California p.483

Human-caused groundwater depletion in California’s San Joaquin Valley contributes to uplift of the surrounding mountains and may affect the stability of the San Andreas Fault.

doi: 10.1038/nature13275

ゲノミクス:ヒト細胞での機能ゲノミクスのためのCRISPR/Cas9ライブラリーのハイスループットスクリーニング

High-throughput screening of a CRISPR/Cas9 library for functional genomics in human cells p.487

This study describes the construction of a focused CRISPR/Cas-based lentiviral library in human cells and a method of gene identification based on functional screening and high-throughput sequencing analysis.

doi: 10.1038/nature13166

がん:銅は発がん性BRAFシグナル伝達および腫瘍形成に必要である

Copper is required for oncogenic BRAF signalling and tumorigenesis p.492

Tumorigenesis driven by the oncogene BRAFV600E is shown both to depend on the BRAF substrates MEK1/2 associating with copper, and to be sensitive to copper-chelating drugs, suggesting merit in testing such drugs for the treatment of BRAF mutation-positive cancers.

doi: 10.1038/nature13180

免疫:上皮のCD1dとIL-10による粘膜感染防御免疫

Protective mucosal immunity mediated by epithelial CD1d and IL-10 p.497

Here, the presentation of lipid antigens by CD1d is shown to induce retrograde anti-inflammatory signalling in intestinal epithelial cells, resulting in the production of IL-10.

doi: 10.1038/nature13150

生化学:Mfsd2aは必須のオメガ3脂肪酸であるドコサヘキサエン酸の輸送体である

Mfsd2a is a transporter for the essential omega-3 fatty acid docosahexaenoic acid p.503

Mfsd2a is the major transporter of the omega-3 fatty acid docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) into brain, with Mfsd2a-knockout mice showing reduced DHA in brain, neuronal cell loss in hippocampus and cerebellum, behavioural disorders and reduced brain size; DHA is transported in a sodium-dependent manner, in the form of lysophosphatidylcholines (LPCs) carrying long-chain fatty acids.

doi: 10.1038/nature13241

生化学:Mfsd2aは血液脳関門の形成と機能に必須である

Mfsd2a is critical for the formation and function of the blood–brain barrier p.507

Mfsd2a is a key regulator of blood–brain barrier (BBB) formation and function in mice: Mfsd2a is selectively expressed in BBB-containing blood vessels in the CNS; Mfsd2a−/− mice have a leaky BBB and increased vesicular transcytosis in CNS endothelial cells; and Mfsd2a endothelial expression is regulated by pericytes to facilitate BBB integrity.

doi: 10.1038/nature13324

構造生物学:多剤排出ポンプAcrAB–TolCの構造

Structure of the AcrAB–TolC multidrug efflux pump p.512

Many bacteria are able to survive in the presence of antibiotics in part because they possess pumps that can remove a broad range of small molecules; here, the structure of one such pump, AcrAB–TolC, is determined using X-ray crystallography and cryo-electron microscopy.

doi: 10.1038/nature13205

構造生物学:YidCによるSec非依存的膜タンパク質組み込みの構造基盤

Structural basis of Sec-independent membrane protein insertion by YidC p.516

The crystal structure of the bacterial protein YidC is reported, together with a structure-based functional analysis, providing insight into the role of YidC in inserting single-spanning membrane proteins into the membrane.

doi: 10.1038/nature13167

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