Volume 509 Number 7501



Not on the label p.399

A US push to flag foods as genetically engineered is hard to swallow.

doi: 10.1038/509399b


Still much to learn about mice p.399

A project that aims to mutate every gene in the mouse genome to improve our knowledge of mouse biology should help to avoid irreproducible results and costly failures in drug development.

doi: 10.1038/509399a


Out with a bang p.400

The discovery of a Wolf-Rayet supernova rebuts the idea that the biggest stars go quietly.

doi: 10.1038/509400a



Pluto-bound probe faces crisis p.407

NASA scientists scramble to find an object in the outer Solar System’s Kuiper belt in time for a close-up visit.

doi: 10.1038/509407a


Submersible loss hits research p.408

But scientists remain positive about the future of deep-sea exploration despite disintegration of unique US Nereus craft.

doi: 10.1038/509408a


Text-mining offers clues to success p.410

US intelligence programme analyses language in patents and papers to identify next big technologies.

doi: 10.1038/509410a


Jelly genome mystery p.411

Publication of the draft genetic sequence of a comb jelly reveals a nervous system like no other.

doi: 10.1038/509411a


Activists sound alarm on tiered drug prices p.412

Plan could increase health costs in middle-income nations.

doi: 10.1038/509412a

News Features


Reproductive medicine: The power of three p.414


doi: 10.1038/509414a


Deforestation: Carving up the Amazon p.418


doi: 10.1038/509418a

News & Views


Epigenetics: Keeping one's sex p.430

原生生物であるヨツヒメゾウリムシ(Paramecium tetraurelia)の子孫では、親の接合型が常に維持されている。この遺伝は、RNA誘導型のDNA削除経路が働いて、外来DNA塩基配列が入り込まないようにゲノムを守っている結果であることが明らかになった。

doi: 10.1038/nature13333


Astrophysics: Windy stars that go with a bang p.431


doi: 10.1038/509431a


Physiology: Double function at the blood–brain barrier p.432


doi: 10.1038/nature13339


Materials chemistry: Selectivity from flexibility p.434


doi: 10.1038/509434a


Cancer: Darwinian tumour suppression p.435


doi: 10.1038/nature13337


Earth science: Fertile fields for seismicity p.436


doi: 10.1038/nature13338



The role of senescent cells in ageing p.439

Cellular senescence has recently been shown to have roles in complex biological processes other than protection against cancer, and to represent a series of progressive and diverse cellular states after initial growth arrest; better understanding of mechanisms underlying its progression and of acute and chronic senescent cells may lead to new therapeutic strategies for age-related pathologies.

doi: 10.1038/nature13193



Genome-defence small RNAs exapted for epigenetic mating-type inheritance p.447

The molecular basis for mating-type determination in the ciliate Paramecium has been elucidated, revealing a novel function for a class of small RNAs — these scnRNAs are typically involved in reprogramming the Paramecium genome during sexual reproduction by recognizing and excising transposable elements, but they are now found to be co-opted to switch off expression of the newly identified mating-type gene mtA by excising its promoter, and to mediate epigenetic inheritance of mating types across sexual generations.

doi: 10.1038/nature13318


Amygdala interneuron subtypes control fear learning through disinhibition p.453

Plasticity within neuronal microcircuits is believed to be the substrate of learning, and this study identifies two distinct disinhibitory mechanisms involving interactions between PV+ and SOM+ interneurons that dynamically regulate principal neuron activity in the amygdala and thereby control auditory fear learning.

doi: 10.1038/nature13258


Contrasting forms of cocaine-evoked plasticity control components of relapse p.459

Information integration in the nucleus accumbens is commandeered by cocaine at discrete synapses to allow relapse.

doi: 10.1038/nature13257


Cell competition is a tumour suppressor mechanism in the thymus p.465

T cells develop from thymic precursor cells that are constantly replaced with newly arriving bone marrow progenitor cells, and the ‘old’ and ‘new’ cells are shown here to compete; in the absence of cell competition, when the influx of new bone marrow progenitor cells is blocked, the old cells acquire the ability to self-renew and eventually become transformed, leading to the development of a form of leukaemia.

doi: 10.1038/nature13317


宇宙:星風のスペクトル観測から得られたSN 2013cuのウォルフ・ライエ星類似前駆天体

A Wolf–Rayet-like progenitor of SN 2013cu from spectral observations of a stellar wind p.471

The detection of strong emission lines in an early-time spectrum of type IIb supernova SN 2013cu reveals Wolf–Rayet-like wind signatures, suggesting that the supernova’s progenitor may have been a Wolf–Rayet star with a wind dominated by helium and nitrogen, with traces of hydrogen.

doi: 10.1038/nature13304


Practical quantum key distribution protocol without monitoring signal disturbance p.475

Conventional quantum cryptography relies on monitoring signal disturbance to make sure that information leakage is negligible; here a new quantum method of achieving security is described, in which little information is leaked to the eavesdropper regardless of the signal disturbance.

doi: 10.1038/nature13303


Future increases in Arctic precipitation linked to local evaporation and sea-ice retreat p.479

Precipitation is expected to increase far more over the twenty-first century in the Arctic than the global average; climate models show that this is driven mainly by increased local evaporation and sea-ice retreat, rather than by increased moisture transport from lower latitudes.

doi: 10.1038/nature13259


Uplift and seismicity driven by groundwater depletion in central California p.483

Human-caused groundwater depletion in California’s San Joaquin Valley contributes to uplift of the surrounding mountains and may affect the stability of the San Andreas Fault.

doi: 10.1038/nature13275


High-throughput screening of a CRISPR/Cas9 library for functional genomics in human cells p.487

This study describes the construction of a focused CRISPR/Cas-based lentiviral library in human cells and a method of gene identification based on functional screening and high-throughput sequencing analysis.

doi: 10.1038/nature13166


Copper is required for oncogenic BRAF signalling and tumorigenesis p.492

Tumorigenesis driven by the oncogene BRAFV600E is shown both to depend on the BRAF substrates MEK1/2 associating with copper, and to be sensitive to copper-chelating drugs, suggesting merit in testing such drugs for the treatment of BRAF mutation-positive cancers.

doi: 10.1038/nature13180


Protective mucosal immunity mediated by epithelial CD1d and IL-10 p.497

Here, the presentation of lipid antigens by CD1d is shown to induce retrograde anti-inflammatory signalling in intestinal epithelial cells, resulting in the production of IL-10.

doi: 10.1038/nature13150


Mfsd2a is a transporter for the essential omega-3 fatty acid docosahexaenoic acid p.503

Mfsd2a is the major transporter of the omega-3 fatty acid docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) into brain, with Mfsd2a-knockout mice showing reduced DHA in brain, neuronal cell loss in hippocampus and cerebellum, behavioural disorders and reduced brain size; DHA is transported in a sodium-dependent manner, in the form of lysophosphatidylcholines (LPCs) carrying long-chain fatty acids.

doi: 10.1038/nature13241


Mfsd2a is critical for the formation and function of the blood–brain barrier p.507

Mfsd2a is a key regulator of blood–brain barrier (BBB) formation and function in mice: Mfsd2a is selectively expressed in BBB-containing blood vessels in the CNS; Mfsd2a−/− mice have a leaky BBB and increased vesicular transcytosis in CNS endothelial cells; and Mfsd2a endothelial expression is regulated by pericytes to facilitate BBB integrity.

doi: 10.1038/nature13324


Structure of the AcrAB–TolC multidrug efflux pump p.512

Many bacteria are able to survive in the presence of antibiotics in part because they possess pumps that can remove a broad range of small molecules; here, the structure of one such pump, AcrAB–TolC, is determined using X-ray crystallography and cryo-electron microscopy.

doi: 10.1038/nature13205


Structural basis of Sec-independent membrane protein insertion by YidC p.516

The crystal structure of the bacterial protein YidC is reported, together with a structure-based functional analysis, providing insight into the role of YidC in inserting single-spanning membrane proteins into the membrane.

doi: 10.1038/nature13167

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