Volume 509 Number 7502



A three-step plan for antibiotics p.533

If the threat of antibiotic resistance is to be managed, existing drugs must be marshalled more effectively and new medicines must get to market fast.

doi: 10.1038/509533a


Clean break p.533

Improved biomass stoves are not popular, people everywhere deserve modern cooking methods.

doi: 10.1038/509533b

ネイチャー・パブリッシング・グループは、科学にとって重要な研究データを掲載するオンライン限定ジャーナルScientific Dataを創刊。

Welcome, Scientific Data! p.534

doi: 10.1038/509534a



Old cancer drug gets fresh look p.541

Refinements to disfavoured immune therapy offer safer, more effective treatment.

doi: 10.1038/509541a


US Arctic research ship ready to cast off p.542

Long-awaited vessel Sikuliaq joins an ageing fleet.

doi: 10.1038/509542a


Cloud computing beckons scientists p.543

Price and flexibility appeal as data sets grow.

doi: 10.1038/509543a


Biomedical institute opens its doors to physicists p.544

The development is part of a growing trend to tap physics expertise.

doi: 10.1038/509544a


Chicken project gets off the ground p.546

Effort aims to unravel the history of bird’s domestication.

doi: 10.1038/509546a

News Features


Global health: Deadly dinners p.548


doi: 10.1038/509548a


Theoretical physics: Complexity on the horizon p.552


doi: 10.1038/509552a

News & Views


Climate science: A sink down under p.566


doi: 10.1038/nature13341


Microbiology: Barriers to the spread of resistance p.567


doi: 10.1038/nature13342


Materials science: Energy storage wrapped up p.568


doi: 10.1038/509568a


Developmental genetics: Female silkworms have the sex factor p.570

カイコガ(Bombyx mori)の性は、ある小分子RNAが存在するかどうかによって決まることが分かった。これは、タンパク質以外の分子が性決定を仲介することを示す初めての例だと考えられる。

doi: 10.1038/nature13336


Precision measurement: The magnetic proton p.571


doi: 10.1038/509571a


Cardiovascular biology: Switched at birth p.572


doi: 10.1038/509572a


Immunology: To affinity and beyond p.573


doi: 10.1038/509573a



A draft map of the human proteome p.575

A draft map of the human proteome is presented here, accounting for over 80% of the annotated protein-coding genes in humans; some novel protein-coding regions, including translated pseudogenes, non-coding RNAs and upstream open reading frames, are identified.

doi: 10.1038/nature13302


Mass-spectrometry-based draft of the human proteome p.582

A mass-spectrometry-based draft of the human proteome and a public database for analysis of proteome data are presented; assembled information is used to estimate the size of the protein-coding genome, to identify organ-specific proteins, proteins predicting drug resistance or sensitivity, and many translated long intergenic non-coding RNAs, and to reveal conserved control of protein abundance.

doi: 10.1038/nature13319


Structural basis of the non-coding RNA RsmZ acting as a protein sponge p.588

A novel combined NMR and EPR spectroscopy approach reveals the structure and assembly mechanism of a 70-kDa bacterial ribonucleoprotein complex acting as a protein sponge in translational regulation.

doi: 10.1038/nature13271



Three regimes of extrasolar planet radius inferred from host star metallicities p.593

Analysis of the metallicities of more than 400 stars hosting 600 candidate extrasolar planets shows that the planets can be categorized by size into three populations — terrestrial-like planets, gas dwarf planets with rocky cores and hydrogen–helium envelopes, and ice or gas giant planets — on the basis of host star metallicity.

doi: 10.1038/nature13254


Direct high-precision measurement of the magnetic moment of the proton p.596

The magnetic moment of the proton is directly measured with unprecedented precision using a double Penning trap.

doi: 10.1038/nature13388


Contribution of semi-arid ecosystems to interannual variability of the global carbon cycle p.600

The unusually large land carbon sink reported in 2011 can mostly be attributed to semi-arid vegetation growth in the Southern Hemisphere following increased rainfall and long-term greening trends.

doi: 10.1038/nature13376


Storm-induced sea-ice breakup and the implications for ice extent p.604

Concurrent observations at multiple locations indicate that storm-generated ocean waves propagating through Antarctic sea ice can transport enough energy to break first-year sea ice hundreds of kilometres from the ice edge, which is much farther than would be predicted by the commonly assumed exponential wave decay.

doi: 10.1038/nature13262


A Palaeozoic shark with osteichthyan-like branchial arches p.608

A description of the gill skeleton of a very early fossil shark-like fish shows that it bears more resemblance to gill skeletons from bony fishes rather than to those from modern cartilaginous fishes, suggesting that modern sharks are not anatomically primitive, as previously thought.

doi: 10.1038/nature13195


Bacterial phylogeny structures soil resistomes across habitats p.612

Functional metagenomic selections for resistance to 18 antibiotics in 18 different soils reveal that bacterial community composition is the primary determinant of soil antibiotic resistance gene content.

doi: 10.1038/nature13377


Epidermal Merkel cells are mechanosensory cells that tune mammalian touch receptors p.617

The cellular basis of touch has long been debated, in particular the relationship between sensory neurons and non-neuronal cells; a mouse study uses optogenetics to identify their distinct and collaborative roles, with skin-derived Merkel cells both transducing touch and actively tuning responses of touch-sensitive neurons.

doi: 10.1038/nature13250


Piezo2 is required for Merkel-cell mechanotransduction p.622

A mouse study shows that non-neuronal epidermal Merkel cells aid fine-touch perception in the skin through their expression of the Piezo2 mechanosensitive cation channel which then actively tunes the response to touch in adjacent somatosensory neurons.

doi: 10.1038/nature13251


Scalable control of mounting and attack by Esr1+ neurons in the ventromedial hypothalamus p.627

Activation of Esr1+ neurons of the mouse ventromedial hypothalamus initiates graded social behavioural responses–weak activation triggers close investigation (sniffing) during a social encounter that often leads, with continued stimulation, to mounting behaviours by males towards either gender; mounting behaviour transitions to aggressive attacks with greater stimulation intensity.

doi: 10.1038/nature13169


A single female-specific piRNA is the primary determiner of sex in the silkworm p.633

It is known that in the silkworm (Bombyx mori), males have two Z sex chromosomes whereas females have Z and W and the W chromosome has a dominant role in female determination; here a single female-specific W-chromosome-derived PIWI-interacting RNA is shown to be the feminizing factor in B. mori.

doi: 10.1038/nature13315


Clonal selection in the germinal centre by regulated proliferation and hypermutation p.637

Clonal expansion and hypermutation of B cells in the germinal centre are regulated by the amount of antigen that the B cells present to follicular helper T cells.

doi: 10.1038/nature13300


Dichloroacetate prevents restenosis in preclinical animal models of vessel injury p.641

During development of myointimal hyperplasia in human arteries, smooth muscle cells have hyperpolarized mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm), high proliferation and apoptosis resistance; PDK2 is a key regulatory protein whose activation is necessary for myointima formation, and its blockade with dichloroacetate prevents Δψm hyperpolarization, facilitates apoptosis and reduces myointima formation in injured arteries, without preventing vessel re-endothelialization, possibly representing a novel strategy to prevent proliferative vascular diseases.

doi: 10.1038/nature13232

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