Research press release


Scientific Reports

Sports: Little evidence that host countries win more Olympic medals

社会経済的要因を制御して分析した結果、オリンピックの開催国になればメダル獲得数が増えるという傾向がほとんど認められなかったと報告する論文が、Scientific Reportsに掲載される。この知見は、いわゆる「開催国効果」(オリンピック開催国のメダル獲得数が増える)に異論を唱えるものだが、著者たちは、この知見の妥当性を確かめるには、もっと多くの過去のオリンピック大会を対象とした大規模な研究が必要だと注意を促している。


今回、Gergely CsurillaとImre Fertőは、1996年から2021年までに夏季オリンピック大会を開催した国々(米国、オーストラリア、ギリシャ、中国、英国、ブラジル、日本)に関して、開催国だった大会とそうでない大会でのメダル獲得数のデータを比較して、オリンピック大会を開催することで、どの程度メダル獲得数が増加するかを調べた。今回の研究では、各国のメダル獲得数の総数と男女別のメダル獲得数の分析が行われた。



Countries hosting the Olympic Games do not tend win more medals when socioeconomic factors are controlled for, reports a study published in Scientific Reports. The findings dispute the existence of the so-called ‘host effect’ – where hosting countries win more medals than usual – although the authors caution that larger studies involving more editions of the Olympics are needed to confirm these findings.

Countries bidding to host the Olympics often use the suggestion that this will increase their medal count as justification to their citizens for their application. It has previously been claimed that host countries typically win an additional 1.8 percent of medals at the Summer Olympics, although this boost varies across different sports.

Gergely Csurilla and Imre Fertő investigated the extent to which hosting the Olympics increases medals won by comparing medal count data for countries who hosted the Summer Olympic Games between 1996 and 2021 in the year they hosted versus when they did not host. The host countries for these games were: the USA, Australia, Greece, China, the UK, Brazil, and Japan. The researchers analysed total medal counts as well as medal counts for male and female athletes.

The authors report that, when adjusted for socioeconomic factors such as GDP per capita and population size, the host effect vanished for most countries. Only Australia (2000 host) and the UK (2012 host) retained a significantly increased total medal count. For male athletes, the UK and Brazil (2016 host) saw significantly greater medal numbers, while Australian female athletes also won significantly more medals than expected.

doi: 10.1038/s41598-022-27259-8


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