Research press release


Nature Communications

Social science: Are you a cooperator?



今回、David Randたちは、1,400人以上の被験者からゲームを行う際の意思決定(数千例)を収集して、協力性の表現型の存在を裏付ける大量の実験データを生成した。Randたちは、協力ゲーム、規範強制型懲罰ゲーム、競争ゲームを用いて、協力するという決定が、さまざまなシナリオにわたって相関するかどうかを調べた。また、今回の研究では、世界価値観調査を用いて、ゲームでの行動に、基本的な道徳的価値観が反映されているのかどうかを調べ、そして、ゲーム参加者に実験の終了を告げた上で、フィードバックの提供を通じて他の参加者を助けることを依頼して、ゲーム以外の場における現実の援助行動を調べた。



Evidence for a cooperative phenotype in humans is reported online this week in Nature Communications. Phenotypes are characteristics produced by the interaction of genes and the environment.

Cooperation is fundamental to the success of social species, yet cooperation requires individuals to make sacrifices to benefit others. Understanding how and when humans cooperate, as well as why evolution and strategic reasoning give rise to cooperation, is a major challenge for researchers across the natural and social sciences.

David Rand and colleagues generated a large body of experimental data supporting the existence of a cooperative phenotype by collecting thousands of game decisions from more than 1,400 individuals. They used cooperation games, norm-enforcing punishment games and competition games to investigate whether decisions to cooperate correlate across different scenarios. The authors also investigated whether game play reflects underlying moral values, using the World Values Survey, as well as investigating actual helping behaviour outside of games by informing participants that the experiment was over and then asking them to help experimenters by giving feedback.

They find that a person’s decisions in different cooperation games are correlated. They also find that game decisions are correlated with both self-report and real-effort measures of cooperation in non-game contexts. Equally strong correlations were shown to exist between cooperative decisions made an average of 124 days apart, indicating that cooperation is stable over time. Finally, they show that cooperation is not correlated with norm-enforcing punishment or non-competitiveness, showing little experimental evidence in support of a situation-dependent penchant for cooperation. Taken together, these experiments provide an extensive assessment of the generality of human social preferences, providing evidence for a ‘cooperative phenotype’.

doi: 10.1038/ncomms5939

「Nature 関連誌注目のハイライト」は、ネイチャー広報部門が報道関係者向けに作成したリリースを翻訳したものです。より正確かつ詳細な情報が必要な場合には、必ず原著論文をご覧ください。

メールマガジンリストの「Nature 関連誌今週のハイライト」にチェックをいれていただきますと、毎週最新のNature 関連誌のハイライトを皆様にお届けいたします。