Research press release


Nature Communications

Microbiology: Modest effects of a low-gluten diet on gut microbiota



今回、Oluf Pedersenたちの研究グループは、既知の疾患にかかっていない中年のデンマーク人60人を対象として、無作為化クロスオーバー比較試験を実施した。この試験は、低グルテン食(グルテン含有量が1日当たり2グラム)と高グルテン食(グルテン含有量が1日当たり18グラム)を比較する8週間(2ターム;2つに分けたグループが低グルテン食と高グルテン食をそれぞれ1タームずつ経験する)と、その間の6週間以上の中断期間からなる。こうして低グルテン食と高グルテン食の影響を比較したところ、低グルテン食は高グルテン食と比べて、腸内マイクロバイオームに生じる変化[ビフィズス菌(Bifidobacterium)種の数が減ったことなど]と特定の尿中代謝物に生じる変化がそれほど大きくなく、腹部膨満感(自己申告による)が改善した。


A low-gluten diet induces moderate changes in the gut microbiota and physiology of 60 healthy people, reports an article published in Nature Communications. The authors suggest that most of these effects may be driven by qualitative changes in dietary fibres upon reduction of gluten-rich food items.

Gluten is a major component in wheat, rye and barley, and consists of proteins that are partially resistant to digestion. It can be harmful to people suffering from certain disorders such as coeliac disease. However, the effects of reducing gluten intake on healthy people have remained unclear.

Oluf Pedersen and colleagues undertook a randomised, controlled, cross-over trial involving 60 middle-aged Danish adults without known disorders. The trial consisted of two eight-week interventions comparing a low-gluten diet (2 g gluten per day) and a high-gluten diet (18 g gluten per day), separated by a period of at least six weeks with habitual diet (12 g gluten per day). The authors found that, in comparison with the high-gluten diet, the low-gluten diet induced moderate changes in the intestinal microbiome (including reduced abundance of Bifidobacterium species) and certain urine metabolites, and led to improvements in self-reported bloating.

The two diets differed not only in gluten content but also in the composition of dietary fibres. Therefore, the observed effects might result from the changes in dietary fibres upon reduction of gluten-rich food items, rather than by the reduction of gluten intake itself. Furthermore, how these results might generalize to other populations of different age, ethnic background or lifestyles is yet to be determined, the authors conclude.

doi: 10.1038/s41467-018-07019-x

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