Research press release


Nature Communications

Cancer: T-cell based strategy could improve cancer immunotherapy



今回、Alexei Kirkinたちの研究グループは、可能な限り広範ながん特異的抗原のレパートリーを標的にするため、「患者特有の」複数の抗原に対して特異性を有する患者由来のTリンパ球の養子移入を用いた方法を開発した。Kirkinたちは、患者由来の細胞を5-アザ-2′-デオキシシチジンという特別な薬物で処理して、培養下でTリンパ球の産生を誘導した。また、Kirkinたちは、多形神経膠芽腫を再発した25人の患者が参加した第I相臨床試験(現在進行中)の予備的結果の一部として、これらのTリンパ球の注射によって3人の患者において腫瘍の退縮が起こり、副作用が見られなかったことを報告している。


A novel approach for the generation in culture of T lymphocytes (a type of white blood cell) that recognise a range of markers on tumour cells could potentially be suitable for the treatment of glioblastoma multiforme, according to preliminary clinical results published in Nature Communications.

Adoptive transfer of immune cells (the transfer of white blood cells to a patient), including T lymphocytes, has shown positive therapeutic effects in clinical trials of advanced cancers. A critical determinant of tumour eradication by this process is the recognition of a cancer-specific antigen by T lymphocytes. However, many studies report great variation in the expression of individual antigens across tumour types and stages, as well as within tumours.

To target the widest possible repertoire of cancer-specific antigens, Alexei Kirkin and colleagues developed a method based on the adoptive transfer of patient-derived T lymphocytes with specificity for multiple 'personalized' antigens. The authors induced the production of T lymphocytes in culture by treating cells derived from patients with a specific drug called 5-aza-2’-deoxycytidine. They also report some preliminary results from a phase I trial (still ongoing) of 25 patients with recurrent glioblastoma multiforme where the injection of these T cells led to tumour regression in three patients, with no side effects.

Based on these results the authors suggest that this strategy could be considered for treating other cancers. However, the clinical trial is at an early stage and its completion is needed to fully appreciate the potential of such an approach.

doi: 10.1038/s41467-018-03217-9

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