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Editorials

研究グループのリーダーがよき指導者になれるよう、若手研究者の指導を支援する環境づくりが必要だ。

Great mentoring is key for the next generation of scientists p.5

The Nature Awards for Mentoring in Science show that it is crucial to support researchers in leading their groups well.

doi: 10.1038/d41586-017-07840-2

植物は、これまで考えられていた以上にさまざまな気候の下で生存できるらしい。

Grows well in sun and warmth — and shade and cold p.5

Trees and shrubs could be less fussy about the climate than scientists thought. That might be good news as the planet warms.

doi: 10.1038/d41586-017-07841-1

科学者は、遺伝子ドライブが環境に与え得る危険を指摘し続ける必要がある。

Gene-drive technology needs thorough scrutiny p.6

Scientists must continue to play their part in pointing out the potential environmental dangers.

doi: 10.1038/d41586-017-08214-4

News

米国トランプ政権がベアーズ・イヤーズ国定公園を大幅に縮小し、古代先住民族の数多くの遺跡が保護区域外に。

Archaeologists uneasy as Trump shrinks Bears Ears monument lands p.13

Thousands of ancient Native American sites to lose protections.

doi: 10.1038/d41586-017-07794-5

中国で大量に見つかった翼竜の卵の珍しい化石から、翼竜は生まれてすぐには飛べなかった可能性が。

Huge haul of rare pterosaur eggs excites palaeontologists p.14

Embryos found in some fossil eggs suggest that hatchlings struggled to fly.

doi: 10.1038/nature.2017.23049

大流行を引き起こしたSARS(重症急性呼吸器症候群)ウイルスの遺伝的起源が明らかに。

Bat cave solves mystery of deadly SARS virus — and suggests new outbreak could occur p.15

Chinese scientists find all the genetic building blocks of SARS in a single population of horseshoe bats.

doi: 10.1038/d41586-017-07766-9

月の軌道近くの有人宇宙基地「ディープ・スペース・ゲートウェイ」での科学実験計画を考える初めての会議が。

Scientists want in on humanity's next big space station p.16

Space agencies are planning a Deep Space Gateway to orbit the Moon.

doi: 10.1038/d41586-017-07869-3

価格やオープンアクセス推進を巡るドイツの大学と科学出版大手のエルゼビア社との紛争は、長期戦に。

Hundreds of German universities set to lose access to Elsevier journals p.17

Negotiations to reduce journal prices and promote open access are progressing slowly.

doi: 10.1038/d41586-017-07817-1

News Features

宇宙地質学:地球に似た惑星のレシピ

The labs that forge distant planets here on Earth p.20

実験地質学者たちが協力して、居住可能な惑星の形成に必要なものは何なのかという謎の解明に取り組んでいる。

doi: 10.1038/d41586-017-07844-y

News & Views

ナノテクノロジー:大規模になったDNAの自己集合

Nanotechnology: DNA self-assembly scaled up p.34

自己集合して目標形状になるようDNAを設計できるが、作製できる物体のサイズと量は限定されていた。今回、こうした問題を克服する方法が見いだされた。

doi: 10.1038/d41586-017-07690-y

古生物学:進化的変化の要因

Palaeontology: A tip of the hat to evolutionary change p.35

進化的変化を駆動する生物学的要因と環境要因の相対的な役割は、よく分かっていない。今回、化石分析によって、それらの影響は動物群が進化の道筋のどこに位置するかに依存することが示された。

doi: 10.1038/d41586-017-07440-0

惑星科学:火星の粘土を作ったのは蒸気という提案

Planetary science: A steamy proposal for Martian clays p.37

火星の粘土は難問で、その形成の説明に提案されたモデルは、コンピューターによる気候シミュレーションでは予測されない条件を必要とする。今回、実験によって別のシナリオが示された。

doi: 10.1038/d41586-017-07661-3

パーキンソン病:PINK1タンパク質の鮮やかな描像

Parkinson's disease: Vivid views of the PINK1 protein p.38

PINK1タンパク質の特異な酵素領域の構造から、ミトコンドリアと呼ばれる細胞小器官の機能をこのタンパク質が調節する仕組みと、PINK1の変異がパーキンソン病の一因となる仕組みに関する知見が得られた。

doi: 10.1038/d41586-017-07691-x

計算材料科学:二次元のテルル

Computational material science: Two-dimensional tellurium p.40

一層ないし数層の原子のみでできた物質には、さまざまな有用な用途があると思われる。今回、コンピューターシミュレーションによって、テルル元素が3種のそうした相を形成し、潜在的に有用な特性を示す可能性があることが示された。

doi: 10.1038/d41586-017-07159-y

がん免疫療法:PD-1受容体抑制の負の側面

Cancer immunotherapy: The dark side of PD-1 receptor inhibition p.41

PD-1タンパク質の抑制は、T細胞を活性化して腫瘍細胞に対する免疫応答を誘発できる。しかし、マウスでは、この免疫療法はT細胞自体を含むがんを悪化させることが、今回分かった。

doi: 10.1038/nature24759

回顧:量子テレポーテーション実験の20年

In retrospect: Quantum-teleportation experiments turn 20 p.42

1997年に、ある場所から遠く離れた場所へ量子状態をテレポートできることが実証された。この発見は、量子通信や量子計算の進歩に大きな影響を与えたのである。

doi: 10.1038/d41586-017-07689-5

Articles

気候変動:地球の近年のエネルギー収支から推測された将来における地球温暖化の強化

Greater future global warming inferred from Earth’s recent energy budget p.45

Models show that several aspects of Earth’s top-of-atmosphere energy budget and the magnitude of projected global warming are correlated, enabling us to infer that future warming has been underestimated.

doi: 10.1038/nature24672

パーキンソン病:基質のユビキチンと複合体を形成したPINK1の構造

Structure of PINK1 in complex with its substrate ubiquitin p.51

Stabilization of a transient protein kinase–substrate complex using a nanobody provides molecular details about how the Parkinson’s disease-linked protein kinase PINK1 phosphorylates ubiquitin, and suggests new pharmacological strategies.

doi: 10.1038/nature24645

分子生物学:転移RNA由来の低分子RNAがリボソームの生合成を調節する

A transfer-RNA-derived small RNA regulates ribosome biogenesis p.57

A 22-nucleotide fragment of a transfer RNA regulates translation by binding to the mRNA of a ribosomal protein and increasing its expression, and downregulation of the fragment in patient-derived liver tumour cells reduces tumour growth in mice.

doi: 10.1038/nature25005

Letters

天文学:電子と陽電子の宇宙線スペクトルにおけるテラ電子ボルトでの屈曲の直接検出

Direct detection of a break in the teraelectronvolt cosmic-ray spectrum of electrons and positrons p.63

A direct measurement of cosmic-ray electrons and positrons with unprecedentedly high energy resolution reveals a spectral break at about 0.9 teraelectronvolts, confirming the evidence found by previous indirect measurements.

doi: 10.1038/nature24475

ナノテクノロジー:任意のパターンのマイクロスケールDNA折り紙アレイのフラクタルアセンブリー

Fractal assembly of micrometre-scale DNA origami arrays with arbitrary patterns p.67

Simple assembly rules applied recursively in a multistage assembly process enable the creation of DNA origami arrays with sizes of up to 0.5 square micrometres and with arbitrary patterns.

doi: 10.1038/nature24655

ナノテクノロジー:1万個の特異な構成要素から三次元ナノ構造体へのプログラム可能な自己集合

Programmable self-assembly of three-dimensional nanostructures from 10,000 unique components p.72

DNA bricks with binding domains of 13 nucleotides instead of the typical 8 make it possible to self-assemble gigadalton-scale, three-dimensional nanostructures consisting of tens of thousands of unique components.

doi: 10.1038/nature24648

ナノテクノロジー:形状をプログラム可能なギガダルトンスケールのDNA集合体

Gigadalton-scale shape-programmable DNA assemblies p.78

By using DNA sequence information to encode the shapes of DNA origami building blocks, shape-programmable assemblies can be created, with sizes and complexities similar to those of viruses.

doi: 10.1038/nature24651

ナノテクノロジー:バイオテクノロジーによるDNA折り紙の大量生産

Biotechnological mass production of DNA origami p.84

All necessary strands for DNA origami can be created in a single scalable process by using bacteriophages to generate single-stranded precursor DNA containing the target sequences interleaved with self-excising DNA enzymes.

doi: 10.1038/nature24650

惑星科学:蒸気もしくは超臨界大気の下で生成された火星表面の始原的な粘土鉱物

Primordial clays on Mars formed beneath a steam or supercritical atmosphere p.88

Many Martian clays formed when Mars’ primary crust reacted with a water/carbon dioxide steam or supercritical atmosphere and subsequent impacts and volcanism caused the distribution of clay exposures seen today.

doi: 10.1038/nature24657

古生物学:タクソンの衰退と赤の女王仮説の折り合いをつける

Reconciling taxon senescence with the Red Queen’s hypothesis p.92

Focusing attention on the expansion of taxa, rather than their survival, resolves the apparent contradiction between seemingly deterministic patterns of waxing and waning of taxa over time and the randomness of extinction implied by the Red Queen’s hypothesis.

doi: 10.1038/nature24656

進化学:アフリカでマラリアを媒介するガンビエハマダラカの遺伝的多様性

Genetic diversity of the African malaria vector Anopheles gambiae p.96

Genome sequencing analyses from 765 specimens of Anopheles gambiae and Anopheles coluzzii from 15 locations across Africa characterize patterns of gene flow and variations in population size, and provide a resource for studying the evolution of natural malaria vector populations.

doi: 10.1038/nature24995

免疫学:RIFINによる抑制化受容体を介した熱帯熱マラリア原虫の免疫逃避

Immune evasion of Plasmodium falciparum by RIFIN via inhibitory receptors p.101

Proteins expressed on the surfaces of erythrocytes infected with Plasmodium falciparum help the parasite to evade the host immune system by acting as ligands for immune inhibitory receptors and thereby downregulating the immune response.

doi: 10.1038/nature24994

進化学:線虫では母親個体の日齢が表現型の多様性を生み出す

Maternal age generates phenotypic variation in Caenorhabditis elegans p.106

Maternal age is found to be a major source of phenotypic variation in isogenic C. elegans populations living in a controlled environment, with the progeny of young mothers impaired for multiple fitness traits.

doi: 10.1038/nature25012

細胞生物学:IL-11は心血管繊維症の重要な決定因子である

IL-11 is a crucial determinant of cardiovascular fibrosis p.110

Fibroblast-specific IL-11 expression causes heart and kidney fibrosis and organ failure, whereas IL-11 inhibition prevents fibroblast activation and organ fibrosis, indicating that IL-11 inhibition is a potential therapeutic strategy to treat fibrotic diseases.

doi: 10.1038/nature24676

がん:DNA修復の不活性化がネオアンチゲン生成の引き金となって腫瘍増殖を阻害する

Inactivation of DNA repair triggers neoantigen generation and impairs tumour growth p.116

The inactivation of DNA mismatch repair in cancer cells produces dynamic mutational profiles and generates neoantigens, which result in improved immune surveillance against these cells.

doi: 10.1038/nature24673

がん免疫療法:PD-1はT細胞リンパ腫発生のハプロ不全抑制因子である

PD-1 is a haploinsufficient suppressor of T cell lymphomagenesis p.121

Loss of the PD-1 receptor promotes the development of T cell non-Hodgkin lymphomas by modulating oncogenic signalling pathways, and blocking these pathways reduces tumourigenesis.

doi: 10.1038/nature24649

分子生物学:プロモーターに結合したMETTL3はm6Aに依存する翻訳制御により骨髄性白血病を維持する

Promoter-bound METTL3 maintains myeloid leukaemia by m6A-dependent translation control p.126

N6-methyladenosine (m6A) is an abundant internal RNA modification in both coding and non-coding RNAs that is catalysed by the METTL3–METTL14 methyltransferase complex. However, the specific role of these enzymes in cancer is still largely unknown. Here we define a pathway that is specific for METTL3 and is implicated in the maintenance of a leukaemic state. We identify METTL3 as an essential gene for growth of acute myeloid leukaemia cells in two distinct genetic screens. Downregulation of METTL3 results in cell cycle arrest, differentiation of leukaemic cells and failure to establish leukaemia in immunodeficient mice. We show that METTL3, independently of METTL14, associates with chromatin and localizes to the transcriptional start sites of active genes. The vast majority of these genes have the CAATT-box binding protein CEBPZ present at the transcriptional start site, and this is required for recruitment of METTL3 to chromatin. Promoter-bound METTL3 induces m6A modification within the coding region of the associated mRNA transcript, and enhances its translation by relieving ribosome stalling. We show that genes regulated by METTL3 in this way are necessary for acute myeloid leukaemia. Together, these data define METTL3 as a regulator of a chromatin-based pathway that is necessary for maintenance of the leukaemic state and identify this enzyme as a potential therapeutic target for acute myeloid leukaemia.

doi: 10.1038/nature24678

化学生物学:遺伝的にプログラムされたキラルオルガノボランの合成

Genetically programmed chiral organoborane synthesis p.132

A genetically encoded platform can produce chiral organoboranes in bacteria with high turnover, enantioselectivity and chemoselectivity, and can be tuned and configured through DNA manipulation.

doi: 10.1038/nature24996

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