目次

Editorials

再現性:ヒトの脳には自分の望むものを見てしまうという認知バイアスがあり、これを避ける方法を確立すれば、科学研究の再現性は高まるだろう。

Let’s think about cognitive bias p.163

The human brain's abit of finding what it wants to find is a key problem for research. Establishing robust methods to avoid such bias will make results more reproducible.

doi: 10.1038/526163a

Full Text

医薬品の製造、使用、廃棄による環境汚染と対策の必要性を各国が公式に認めたことは、事態を変える役に立つだろう。

Time to get clean p.164

Formal recognition of drug pollution will help to protect humans and ecosystems.

doi: 10.1038/526164a

Full Text

トルコが、困難な時期にあっても科学研究センターに投資することは、称賛に値する。

Optimistic outlook p.164

In difficult times, Turkey is investing in a clutch of new scientific research centres.

doi: 10.1038/526164b

Full Text

News

政治的混乱の中にあるトルコが、ヨーロッパからアジアにかけてのハブとなることを目指した新しい生物医学センターを。

Turkish biomed hub spurs hope amid political strife p.171

Centre in Izmir swims against the tide to produce world-class fundamental science.

doi: 10.1038/526171a

Full Text

CERNが、超小型のプラズマ航跡場加速器の開発に力を。

CERN prepares to test revolutionary mini-accelerator p.173

Machines that ‘surf’ particles on electric fields could reach high energies at a lower price.

doi: 10.1038/526173a

Full Text

2015年ノーベル医学生理学賞は、寄生虫薬とマラリア薬の開発で日本の大村氏、米国のCampbell氏と中国(自然科学では初)の屠氏に。

Anti-parasite drugs sweep Nobel prize in medicine 2015 p.174

Chinese pharmacologist Youyou Tu developed key antimalarial drug artemisinin.

doi: 10.1038/nature.2015.18507

Full Text

2015年ノーベル物理学賞は、ニュートリノに質量があることを示した日本の梶田氏とカナダのMcDonald氏に。

Morphing neutrinos win physics Nobel p.175

Demonstration by Takaaki Kajita and Arthur McDonald that neutrinos oscillate between identities showed that the particles have mass.

doi: 10.1038/nature.2015.18513

Full Text

金星と小惑星が、NASAの惑星探査の最終候補に。

NASA narrows its list of planetary targets p.176

Venus and asteroids take the spotlight as the agency chops list of Discovery-class candidates from 27 to 5.

doi: 10.1038/nature.2015.18482

Full Text

インドが、炭素強度の大幅削減とクリーンエネルギーの促進へ。

India unveils climate-change pledge ahead of global talks p.176

Country seeks big cuts in carbon intensity and greater reliance on clean energy.

doi: 10.1038/nature.2015.18489

Full Text

News Features

再現性:孤高の証明

The biggest mystery in mathematics: Shinichi Mochizuki and the impenetrable proof p.178

京都大学の数学者望月新一氏は、数学の最も重要な問題の1つ、abc予想を証明したと3年前に発表したが、彼が正しいかどうかを誰も証明できないことが問題となっている。

doi: 10.1038/526178a

Full Text

再現性:自分を欺く

How scientists fool themselves – and how they can stop p.182

人間は誰しも自己欺瞞に陥りやすいものであり、ここでは科学研究における自己欺瞞の例とそれに対する対応策を紹介する。

doi: 10.1038/526182a

Full Text

News & Views

マラリア:撲滅活動の15年間

Malaria: Fifteen years of interventions p.198

サハラ以南のアフリカでのマラリア罹患率は2000~2015年に大幅に低下した。マラリア制圧に向けたさまざまな対策のこうした成果への相対的な寄与度が、包括的なモデル化研究によって明らかにされた。

doi: 10.1038/526198a

Full Text

分子生物学:転写に加えてRNA搬出も仲介する

Molecular biology: Mediating transcription and RNA export p.199

メディエータータンパク質複合体が酵母でメッセンジャーRNAの核からの搬出に関わっていることが明らかになり、この複合体が転写過程調節に果たす役割がまた1つ増えることになった。

doi: 10.1038/526199a

Full Text

神経生物学:ショウジョウバエにも個性がある

Neurobiology: Individuality sniffed out in flies p.200

一部のニューロンのにおいに対する応答はショウジョウバエの個体ごとに異なるが、個々のハエの脳内では半球全体で一貫していることが分かった。これは、感覚処理が個体の経験に依存していることを示している。

doi: 10.1038/nature15636

Full Text

HIV:抗ウイルス作用に反撃するNef

HIV: Antiviral action countered by Nef p.202

HIVのタンパク質であるNefは多数の機能を果たしていて、いわばウイルスの「スイスアーミーナイフ」のような存在である。新たな研究で、宿主細胞が持つ抗ウイルスタンパク質のうちのSERINC3とSERINC5の2つの働きをNefが阻害して感染力を増強する仕組みが明らかになった。

doi: 10.1038/nature15637

Full Text

物性物理学:量子ドットと近藤効果

Condensed-matter physics: Quantum dots and the Kondo effect p.203

ナノテクノロジー関連研究で、強く相互作用している電子系の極端な性質が、コンダクタンスの測定によって調べられ、また絶対零度近傍での量子相転移が探られた。

doi: 10.1038/526203a

Full Text

宇宙物理学:塵円盤の中に見られるすごく速い動き

Astrophysics: Surprisingly fast motions in a dust disk p.204

最近運用が開始された惑星探査装置を使って、けんびきょう座AU星の周囲の若い太陽系の観測が行われ、星の周辺の塵円盤中に高速で移動する構造があることが分かった。

doi: 10.1038/526204a

Full Text

Articles

疫学:アフリカの熱帯熱マラリア原虫に対する2000~2015年のマラリア制圧活動の効果

The effect of malaria control on Plasmodium falciparum in Africa between 2000 and 2015 p.207

In this study, the authors present an analysis of the malaria burden in sub-Saharan Africa between 2000 and 2015, and quantify the effects of the interventions that have been implemented to combat the disease; they find that the prevalence of Plasmodium falciparum infection has been reduced by 50% since 2000 and the incidence of clinical disease by 40%, and that interventions have averted approximately 663 million clinical cases since 2000, with insecticide-treated bed nets being the largest contributor.

doi: 10.1038/nature15535

日本語要約 | Full Text | PDF

ウイルス学:HIV-1 NefはSERINC5がウイルス粒子に取り込まれないようにすることで感染を促進する

HIV-1 Nef promotes infection by excluding SERINC5 from virion incorporation p.212

The transmembrane protein SERINC5 is identified as a potent inhibitor of HIV-1 particle infectivity that is counteracted by Nef; Nef redirects SERINC5 from the plasma membrane to a Rab7-positive endosomal compartment, thus excluding it from HIV-1 particles, emphasizing the potential of SERINC5 as a potent anti-retroviral factor.

doi: 10.1038/nature15399

日本語要約 | Full Text | PDF

ウイルス学:SERINC3とSERINC5はHIV-1の感染力を抑制し、Nefによる妨害を受ける

SERINC3 and SERINC5 restrict HIV-1 infectivity and are counteracted by Nef p.218

The transmembrane proteins SERINC3 and SERINC5 are identified as new restriction factors for HIV-1 replication; this restriction is counteracted by Nef and glycoGag, which prevent SERINC3 and SERINC5 from becoming incorporated into HIV-1 virions and from profoundly blocking HIV-1 infectivity, suggesting a potential new therapeutic strategy for immunodeficiency viruses.

doi: 10.1038/nature15400

日本語要約 | Full Text | PDF

構造生物学:低温電子顕微鏡により明らかになったグリシン受容体の作動機序

Glycine receptor mechanism elucidated by electron cryo-microscopy p.224

A high-resolution electron cryo-microscopy structure of the zebrafish α1 glycine receptor bound to agonists or antagonists reveals the conformational changes that take place when the channel transitions from closed to open state.

doi: 10.1038/nature14853

日本語要約 | Full Text | PDF

Letters

惑星科学:けんびきょう座AU星周辺のデブリ円盤における高速で移動する構造

Fast-moving features in the debris disk around AU Microscopii p.230

High-contrast imaging of the nearby, young, active late-type star AU Microscopii reveals five mysterious large-scale features in the southeast side of its debris disk, moving away from the star.

doi: 10.1038/nature15705

日本語要約 | Full Text | PDF

量子物理学:巨視的な量子電荷状態による2チャネル近藤効果と繰り込みフロー

Two-channel Kondo effect and renormalization flow with macroscopic quantum charge states p.233

Zero-temperature quantum phase transitions and their associated quantum critical points are believed to underpin the exotic finite-temperature behaviours of many strongly correlated electronic systems, but identifying the microscopic origins of these transitions can be challenging and controversial; Iftikhar et al. (see also the related paper by Keller et al.) show how such behaviours can be engineered into nanoelectronic quantum dots, which permit both precise experimental control of the quantum critical behaviour and its exact theoretical characterization.

doi: 10.1038/nature15384

日本語要約 | Full Text | PDF

量子物理学:メソスコピック系における普遍的なフェルミ液体クロスオーバーと量子臨界性

Universal Fermi liquid crossover and quantum criticality in a mesoscopic system p.237

Zero-temperature quantum phase transitions and their associated quantum critical points are believed to underpin the exotic finite-temperature behaviours of many strongly correlated electronic systems, but identifying the microscopic origins of these transitions can be challenging and controversial; Keller et al. (see also the related paper by Iftikhar et al.) show how such behaviours can be engineered into nanoelectronic quantum dots, which permit both precise experimental control of the quantum critical behaviour and its exact theoretical characterization.

doi: 10.1038/nature15261

日本語要約 | Full Text | PDF

分析化学:イオン移動度質量分析法を用いる糖アノマーの同定

Identification of carbohydrate anomers using ion mobility–mass spectrometry p.241

The branched structure and stereoisomerism of carbohydrates make them difficult to analyse; here, ion mobility–mass spectrometry is used to distinguish unambiguously between synthetic trisaccharides that differ in connectivity or configuration.

doi: 10.1038/nature15388

日本語要約 | Full Text | PDF

固体地球科学:古地球磁場強度の変動が示す中原生代の内核形成

Palaeomagnetic field intensity variations suggest Mesoproterozoic inner-core nucleation p.245

Analysis of a database of Precambrian palaeomagnetic intensity measurements reveals a clear transition in the Earth’s magnetic field that is probably the signature of the inner core first forming, suggesting a modest value of core thermal conductivity and supporting a simple thermal evolution model for the Earth.

doi: 10.1038/nature15523

日本語要約 | Full Text | PDF

進化論:性特異的個体群統計学とトリヴァーズ–ウィラードの理論の一般化

Sex‐specific demography and generalization of the Trivers–Willard theory p.249

The Trivers–Willard theory proposes that the sex ratio of offspring should vary with maternal condition when it has sex‐specific influences on offspring fitness. In particular, mothers in good condition in polygynous and dimorphic species are predicted to produce an excess of sons, whereas mothers in poor condition should do the opposite. Despite the elegance of the theory, support for it has been limited. Here we extend and generalize the Trivers–Willard theory to explain the disparity between predictions and observations of offspring sex ratio. In polygynous species, males typically have higher mortality rates, different age‐specific reproductive schedules and more risk‐prone life history tactics than females; however, these differences are not currently incorporated into the Trivers–Willard theory. Using two‐sex models parameterized with data from free‐living mammal populations with contrasting levels of sex differences in demography, we demonstrate how sex differences in life history traits over the entire lifespan can lead to a wide range of sex allocation tactics, and show that correlations between maternal condition and offspring sex ratio alone are insufficient to conclude that mothers adaptively adjust offspring sex ratio.

doi: 10.1038/nature14968

日本語要約 | Full Text | PDF

寄生虫学:古くから平衡選択を受けているゲノム領域で見つかった新規の重症マラリア抵抗性座位

A novel locus of resistance to severe malaria in a region of ancient balancing selection p.253

A multi-centre genome-wide association study of severe malaria in African children uncovers a new resistance locus close to a cluster of genes encoding glycophorins, which are receptors used by the malaria-causing parasite to invade red blood cells.

doi: 10.1038/nature15390

日本語要約 | Full Text | PDF

神経科学:キノコ体出力ニューロンでの可塑性による嗅覚符号化の個別化

Plasticity-driven individualization of olfactory coding in mushroom body output neurons p.258

Neuronal representations of sensory stimuli tend to become sparse and decorrelated, with different odours giving rise to fewer neuronal spikes in rare neurons, as signal processing moves up to higher brain layers; here comprehensive recording from the Drosophila olfactory processing centre finds instead some highly correlated tuning curves that vary flexibly from animal to animal.

doi: 10.1038/nature15396

日本語要約 | Full Text | PDF

がん:大腸がんにおけるEGFR阻害に応答したゲノムの全体像

The genomic landscape of response to EGFR blockade in colorectal cancer p.263

The effect of somatic genetic changes in colorectal cancer on sensitivity to anti-EGFR antibody therapy is analysed.

doi: 10.1038/nature14969

日本語要約 | Full Text | PDF

システム生物学:細胞周期抑制因子Whi5の希釈は出芽酵母の細胞サイズを制御する

Dilution of the cell cycle inhibitor Whi5 controls budding-yeast cell size p.268

Saccharomyces cerevisiae controls its cell size through the differential size-dependency of the synthesis of the cell cycle activator Cln3 relative to the cell cycle inhibitor Whi5.

doi: 10.1038/nature14908

日本語要約 | Full Text | PDF

がん:メディエーターキナーゼ抑制はAMLでスーパーエンハンサー関連遺伝子をさらに活性化する

Mediator kinase inhibition further activates super-enhancer-associated genes in AML p.273

A small-molecule inhibitor of the Mediator-associated kinases CDK8 and CDK19 inhibits growth of acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) cells and induces upregulation of super-enhancer-associated genes with tumour suppressor and lineage-controlling functions; Mediator kinase inhibition therefore represents a promising therapeutic approach for AML.

doi: 10.1038/nature14904

日本語要約 | Full Text | PDF

構造生物学:アンタゴニストであるストリキニーネと結合したヒトグリシン受容体α3の結晶構造

Crystal structure of human glycine receptor-α3 bound to antagonist strychnine p.277

Neurotransmitter-gated ion channels of the Cys-loop receptor family are essential mediators of fast neurotransmission throughout the nervous system and are implicated in many neurological disorders. Available X-ray structures of prokaryotic and eukaryotic Cys-loop receptors provide tremendous insights into the binding of agonists, the subsequent opening of the ion channel, and the mechanism of channel activation. Yet the mechanism of inactivation by antagonists remains unknown. Here we present a 3.0 Å X-ray structure of the human glycine receptor-α3 homopentamer in complex with a high affinity, high-specificity antagonist, strychnine. Our structure allows us to explore in detail the molecular recognition of antagonists. Comparisons with previous structures reveal a mechanism for antagonist-induced inactivation of Cys-loop receptors, involving an expansion of the orthosteric binding site in the extracellular domain that is coupled to closure of the ion pore in the transmembrane domain.

doi: 10.1038/nature14972

日本語要約 | Full Text | PDF

「Journal home」に戻る

プライバシーマーク制度