Volume 496 Number 7445



Look after the pennies p.269

Government decisions about where to spend and where to cut should be based on evidence, not ideology.

doi: 10.1038/496269a


Smoke and mirrors p.269

Italy’s parliament must listen to expert advice before deregulating stem-cell therapies.

doi: 10.1038/496269b


Due credit p.270

Nature’s podcast charts 12 landmark discoveries in the history of science.

doi: 10.1038/496270a



A back seat for basic science p.277

Translational research wins in Obama’s budget, but its economic value remains uncertain.

doi: 10.1038/496277a


Synthetic biologists and conservationists open talks p.281

But worries persist about unintended consequences of tinkering with nature.

doi: 10.1038/496281a


Photons test quantum paradox p.282

Contextuality theorem could improve secure communication.

doi: 10.1038/496282a


‘Living fossil’ genome unlocked p.283

The genes of an ancient fish, the coelacanth, have much to reveal about our distant past.

doi: 10.1038/496283a


Climate models fail to ‘predict’ US droughts p.284

Simulations identify past megadroughts, but at wrong times.

doi: 10.1038/496284a

News Features


Forest ecology: Splinters of the Amazon p.286

ブラジルの熱帯雨林を分割して調査研究するThomas Lovejoyの方法論が、世界各地に引き継がれている。

doi: 10.1038/496286a


Public health: Polio’s moving target p.290


doi: 10.1038/496290a

News & Views


Archaeology: A potted history of Japan p.302


doi: 10.1038/nature12093


Astronomy: A cosmic growth spurt in an infant galaxy p.303


doi: 10.1038/496303a


Sensory biology: A whiff of genome p.304


doi: 10.1038/496304a


Physical chemistry: Molecular motion watched p.306


doi: 10.1038/496306a


Biogeochemistry: Nitrogen deposition and forest carbon p.307


doi: 10.1038/496307a


Complex systems: Spatial signatures of resilience p.308


doi: 10.1038/nature12092



The African coelacanth genome provides insights into tetrapod evolution OPEN p.311

Genome sequencing and phylogenomic analysis show that the lungfish, not the coelacanth, is the closest living relative of tetrapods, that coelacanth protein-coding genes are more slowly evolving than those of tetrapods and lungfish, and that the genes and regulatory elements that underwent changes during the vertebrate transition to land reflect adaptation to a new environment.

doi: 10.1038/nature12027


Gating of the TrkH ion channel by its associated RCK protein TrkA p.317

Here it is shown that ion flux through the TrkH–TrkA complex is upregulated by ATP and downregulated by ADP; solving the X-ray crystal structures of the tetrameric TrkA ring in the absence and presence of TrkH suggests a mechanism by which ATP-induced conformational changes in TrkA augment the activity of TrkH.

doi: 10.1038/nature12056


The structure of the KtrAB potassium transporter p.323

This study reports the X-ray crystal structure of a Ktr K+ transporter; the structure of this KtrAB complex reveals how the dimeric membrane protein KtrB interacts with the cytosolic octameric KtrA regulatory protein.

doi: 10.1038/nature12055



A dust-obscured massive maximum-starburst galaxy at a redshift of 6.34 p.329

A massive starburst galaxy with 100 billion solar masses of gas is identified at a redshift of 6.34; a ‘maximum starburst’ converts the gas into stars at a rate more than 2,000 times that of the Milky Way.

doi: 10.1038/nature12050


High-fidelity readout and control of a nuclear spin qubit in silicon p.334

Electrical detection and coherent manipulation of a single 31P nuclear spin qubit is reported; the high fidelities are promising for fault-tolerant nuclear-spin-based quantum computing using silicon.

doi: 10.1038/nature12011


Unexpected strain-stiffening in crystalline solids p.339

Quantum mechanical calculations reveal a surprising strain-stiffening phenomenon in two crystalline solids, one of which is cementite, a precipitate found in carbon steels.

doi: 10.1038/nature12008


Mapping molecular motions leading to charge delocalization with ultrabright electrons p.343

An ultrabright femtosecond electron source is used to monitor the molecular motions in the organic salt (EDO-TTF)2PF6 as it undergoes its photo-induced insulator-to-metal phase transition.

doi: 10.1038/nature12044


Terrestrial water fluxes dominated by transpiration p.347

An analysis of the relative effects of transpiration and evaporation, which can be distinguished by how they affect isotope ratios in water, shows that transpiration is by far the largest water flux from Earth’s continents, representing 80 to 90 per cent of terrestrial evapotranspiration and using half of all solar energy absorbed by land surfaces.

doi: 10.1038/nature11983


Earliest evidence for the use of pottery p.351

Chemical analysis of food residues associated with Japanese Jōmon pottery, which dates from the Late Pleistocene epoch and is the oldest pottery so far investigated, shows that most deposits were derived from high-trophic-level aquatic food.

doi: 10.1038/nature12109


Slower recovery in space before collapse of connected populations p.355

Early warning signals of systems collapse include increased recovery time after perturbations, and here spatially extended, connected yeast populations are used to identify a new warning indicator: recovery length after spatial disturbances.

doi: 10.1038/nature12071


Rescuing cocaine-induced prefrontal cortex hypoactivity prevents compulsive cocaine seeking p.359

A study of compulsive drug-seeking behaviour in rats reveals that prolonged cocaine self-administration decreases prelimbic cortex activity resulting in increased compulsive drug-seeking actions; conversely, increasing activity in the prelimbic cortex decreases drug-seeking behaviour, a finding relevant to addiction treatment.

doi: 10.1038/nature12024


Visualization of an endogenous retinoic acid gradient across embryonic development p.363

Genetically encoded probes for the non-peptidic morphogen retinoic acid allow the quantitative measurement of physiological RA concentration in vivo; the results support the source–sink diffusion model of morphogen dynamics proposed by Francis Crick in 1970.

doi: 10.1038/nature12037


A pathogenic picornavirus acquires an envelope by hijacking cellular membranes p.367

Hepatitis A virus particles released from cells can hijack and become wrapped in host-derived membranes by using proteins that facilitate the budding of many enveloped viruses, calling into question the traditional distinction between enveloped and non-enveloped viruses.

doi: 10.1038/nature12029


Landscape of the PARKIN-dependent ubiquitylome in response to mitochondrial depolarization p.372

PARKIN, a protein involved in mitochondria clearance by autophagy, is often mutated in early-onset familial Parkinson’s disease; here the cellular repertoire of PARKIN targets is identified by quantitative proteomics.

doi: 10.1038/nature12043


A conformational switch in HP1 releases auto-inhibition to drive heterochromatin assembly p.377

The Schizosaccharomyces pombe HP1 protein, Swi6, is shown to exist in an auto-inhibited state when unbound to chromatin, switching to a spreading-competent state upon binding to the HK9 methyl mark; disrupting this switch affects heterochromatin assembly and gene silencing.

doi: 10.1038/nature12032

構造生物学:キヌレニン 3-モノオキシゲナーゼ阻害の構造基盤

Structural basis of kynurenine 3-monooxygenase inhibition p.382

Inhibition of kynurenine 3-monooxygenase (KMO) leads to amelioration of Huntington’s-disease-relevant phenotypes in yeast, fruitfly and mouse models; here the crystal structures of free and inhibitor-bound yeast KMO are presented, which could aid the development of targeted therapies for human neurodegenerative diseases.

doi: 10.1038/nature12039

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