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Editorials

トルコ政府は「非常事態」を早く終わらせ、政治的混乱の渦中にある科学界が、安心感を取り戻せるようにすべきだ。

Restore justice in Turkey p.145

Hundreds of academics and scientists are caught up in political crackdowns in the wake of petitions for peace.

doi: 10.1038/d41586-018-01677-z

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AIの飛躍的な進歩を受け、Semiconductor Research Corporationが拡大して非従来型の新たなハードウエアの開発に取り組み始めたのは素晴らしい。

Big data needs a hardware revolution p.145

Artificial intelligence is driving the next wave of innovations in the semiconductor industry.

doi: 10.1038/d41586-018-01683-1

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10年ごとに改訂される数学主題分類(Mathematics Subject Classification)は、じっくり時間をかけて行う価値がある。

Maths classification is getting a revision p.146

New categories of mathematics will be added to the 2020 update of the standard mathematical taxonomy.

doi: 10.1038/d41586-018-01690-2

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News

地球最古の花の形態を統計的に推測した研究結果が、議論の種に。

Debate blooms over anatomy of the world’s first flower p.153

Some researchers say that statistical prediction of the ancestral blossom yielded an unlikely structure.

doi: 10.1038/d41586-018-01539-8

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韓国で、大学入試に有利になるように、論文の著者が自分や親戚の子どもを共著者として加える事例が多数発覚し、教育省が調査を。

Kid co-authors in South Korea spur government probe p.154

Researchers sought to boost their children’s chances in university admissions.

doi: 10.1038/d41586-018-01512-5

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国連が、健康被害や温暖化の原因となる、船舶からの黒色炭素排出削減に向けてその測定技術の合意を。

UN agency targets black-carbon pollution from ships p.155

Governments are slowly advancing efforts to reduce climate and health impacts of soot.

doi: 10.1038/d41586-018-01556-7

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ブルガリアの科学振興方針に、予算削減の打撃が。

Bulgaria in the cold as European Union freezes its innovation funding p.156

The trading bloc has withheld two-fifths of its expected grants.

doi: 10.1038/d41586-018-01374-x

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マダガスカルで爆発的に繁殖し問題となっている侵入種のザリガニが、ゲノム塩基解読の結果、遠縁の2種の遺伝的雑種であることが明らかに。

Geneticists unravel secrets of super-invasive crayfish p.157

DNA analysis suggests the self-cloning species is a genetic hybrid that emerged in an aquarium in the 1990s.

doi: 10.1038/d41586-018-01624-y

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News Features

南アフリカ:未来に向き合う南アフリカの科学

How decolonization could reshape South African science p.159

揺れ動く政治情勢の中で、アパルトヘイト時代を知る黒人の研究者たちが、南アフリカの科学を変えていこうとしている。

doi: 10.1038/d41586-018-01696-w

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News & Views

材料科学:密度と強度がより高くなった木材

Materials science: Wood made denser and stronger p.172

今回、木材を圧縮する方法が改善され、木材の強度と剛性をかなり高くできるようになったため、天然木では弱過ぎるとされてきた工学的用途に木材を利用できる可能性が開かれた。

doi: 10.1038/d41586-018-01371-0

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がん研究:単一バスケット試験で多数の変異を調べる

Cancer research: Many mutations in one clinical-trial basket p.173

ある遺伝子の異常ががんと関連していて、ある薬剤がその遺伝子にコードされるタンパク質を標的としている場合に、その遺伝子の変異がさまざまながんで異なっているとすれば、薬剤に反応する患者をどうしたら特定できるのだろうか。

doi: 10.1038/d41586-018-01312-x

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気候科学:化石燃料補助金の評価

Climate science: Fossil-fuel subsidies assessed p.175

多くの政府が、化石燃料の生産や消費に補助金を出している。予想に反して、こうした補助金を廃止しても全球の二酸化炭素排出量はあまり減らないことが、今回分かった。

doi: 10.1038/d41586-018-01495-3

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生体力学:捕食者と被食者の間の進化的軍拡競争

Biomechanics: Evolutionary race as predators hunt prey p.176

今回、ライオンなどの野生動物のリモートセンシングデータから、捕食者と被食者は、狩りの際に速度ではなく敏捷性を最適化していることが分かった。

doi: 10.1038/d41586-018-01278-w

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天体物理学:さえずり、とどろき、ささやき

Astrophysics: A chirp, a roar and a whisper p.178

2017年に、中性子星と呼ばれる星の残骸が2つ合体して生じた重力波と電磁波が検出された。今回、その観測結果を解析して、こうした放射が合体によって放出される仕組みが明らかになった。

doi: 10.1038/d41586-018-01570-9

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光物理学:ソリトンの分割統治

Optical physics: Solitons divide and conquer p.179

今回、ある実験手法によって、ソリトンと呼ばれる光の束が、物質中を伝わる際にその形状を3つの次元全てで維持できるようになった。こうした波束は、光情報処理に利用できる可能性がある。

doi: 10.1038/d41586-018-01470-y

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分子生物学:まれな変異機構の動かぬ証拠

Molecular biology: Smoking gun for a rare mutation mechanism p.180

1953年に、ジェームズ・ワトソンとフランシス・クリックは、まれに形成されるDNA塩基の異性体が、DNAの複製時に生じる自然変異の原因になると提案した。その65年後、彼らが正しかったと思われる証拠が示された。

doi: 10.1038/d41586-018-00418-6

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Articles

進化学:ライオンとシマウマ、チーターとインパラにおける捕食者–被食者間の軍拡競走の生体力学

Biomechanics of predator–prey arms race in lion, zebra, cheetah and impala p.183

Analysis and modelling of locomotor characteristics of two pursuit predator–prey pairs show that hunts at lower speeds enable prey to use their maximum manoeuvring capacity and favour prey survival.

doi: 10.1038/nature25479

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がん:HER2変異型がんとHER3変異型がんの患者におけるHERキナーゼ阻害

HER kinase inhibition in patients with HER2- and HER3-mutant cancers p.189

In a basket trial design, the efficacy of the pan-HER kinase inhibitor neratinib is tested in patients with 21 different tumour types, and responses are determined by mutation and tissue type, and are restricted to HER2-mutant cancers.

doi: 10.1038/nature25475

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生化学:互変異性化とイオン化を介したdG•dT誤取り込みの動的基盤

Dynamic basis for dG•dT misincorporation via tautomerization and ionization p.195

A kinetic model is proposed to predict the probability of dG•dT misincorporation across different polymerases, and provides mechanisms for sequence-dependent misincorporation.

doi: 10.1038/nature25487

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構造生物学:クライオ電子顕微鏡により明らかになった、ダイナクチンがより速い動きのために2分子のダイニンを調達する仕組み

Cryo-EM shows how dynactin recruits two dyneins for faster movement p.202

Cryo-electron microscopy and single-molecule studies reveal that the adaptors BICDR1 and HOOK3 recruit two dynein molecules to dynactin and thereby increase the force and speed of the dynein–dynactin microtubule motor.

doi: 10.1038/nature25462

日本語要約 | Full Text | PDF

Letters

天文学:中性子星の合体事象GW170817におけるやや相対論的な広角アウトフロー

A mildly relativistic wide-angle outflow in the neutron-star merger event GW170817 p.207

The observed electromagnetic emission from GW170817 suggests that a ‘cocoon’ of mildly relativistic material was released as a jet transferred its energy to the neutron-rich dynamical ejecta from the merger.

doi: 10.1038/nature25452

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太陽物理学:太陽面爆発のカギとなる磁気ケージと磁気ロープ

Magnetic cage and rope as the key for solar eruptions p.211

Measurements and modelling of a large confined eruption on the Sun show that its evolution is controlled by a multilayer magnetic cage containing a twisted flux rope, which can sometimes be ejective.

doi: 10.1038/nature24671

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核物理学:電子捕獲による核励起の実験的証拠としての異性体枯渇

Isomer depletion as experimental evidence of nuclear excitation by electron capture p.216

Experimental evidence is presented for isomer depletion through nuclear excitation by electron capture in molybdenum-93 nuclei.

doi: 10.1038/nature25483

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物性物理学:ベーテ・ストリングの実験的観測

Experimental observation of Bethe strings p.219

Many-body two- and three-string states are realized experimentally in the antiferromagnetic Heisenberg–Ising chain SrCo2V2O8 in strong longitudinal magnetic fields.

doi: 10.1038/nature25466

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材料科学:バルク天然木材の処理による高性能構造材料の作製

Processing bulk natural wood into a high-performance structural material p.224

A process is described for the transformation of bulk wood into a low-cost, strong, tough, lightweight structural material, by the partial removal of lignin and hemicellulose followed by hot-pressing to densify the natural wood.

doi: 10.1038/nature25476

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気候科学:エネルギー輸出地域以外の地域における燃料の補助金の廃止による限定的な排出量削減

Limited emission reductions from fuel subsidy removal except in energy-exporting regions p.229

Contrary to the hopes of policymakers, fossil fuel subsidy removal would have only a small impact on global energy demand and carbon dioxide emissions and would not increase renewable energy use by 2030.

doi: 10.1038/nature25467

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植物生態学:中国の被子植物相の進化史

Evolutionary history of the angiosperm flora of China p.234

A dated phylogeny and spatial distribution data for Chinese angiosperms show that eastern China has tended to act as a refugium for older taxa whereas western China has acted as a centre for their evolutionary diversification.

doi: 10.1038/nature25485

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遺伝学:哺乳類の発生ではエンハンサーの冗長性が表現型のロバスト性をもたらす

Enhancer redundancy provides phenotypic robustness in mammalian development p.239

Gene enhancer knockout phenotypes and analysis of enhancer activity patterns show that developmental genes are regulated by multiple redundant enhancers in mouse embryos.

doi: 10.1038/nature25461

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神経科学:運動開始前のドーパミンニューロン活動は次の運動のゲーティングと促進に関わる

Dopamine neuron activity before action initiation gates and invigorates future movements p.244

The activity of dopamine neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta before movement initiation affects the probability and vigour of future movements.

doi: 10.1038/nature25457

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アルツハイマー病:アルツハイマー病の高精度アミロイドβ血漿バイオマーカー

High performance plasma amyloid-β biomarkers for Alzheimer’s disease p.249

To facilitate clinical trials of disease-modifying therapies for Alzheimer’s disease, which are expected to be most efficacious at the earliest and mildest stages of the disease, supportive biomarker information is necessary. The only validated methods for identifying amyloid-β deposition in the brain—the earliest pathological signature of Alzheimer’s disease—are amyloid-β positron-emission tomography (PET) imaging or measurement of amyloid-β in cerebrospinal fluid. Therefore, a minimally invasive, cost-effective blood-based biomarker is desirable. Despite much effort, to our knowledge, no study has validated the clinical utility of blood-based amyloid-β markers. Here we demonstrate the measurement of high-performance plasma amyloid-β biomarkers by immunoprecipitation coupled with mass spectrometry. The ability of amyloid-β precursor protein (APP)669–711/amyloid-β (Aβ)1–42 and Aβ1–40/Aβ1–42 ratios, and their composites, to predict individual brain amyloid-β-positive or -negative status was determined by amyloid-β-PET imaging and tested using two independent data sets: a discovery data set (Japan, n = 121) and a validation data set (Australia, n = 252 including 111 individuals diagnosed using 11C-labelled Pittsburgh compound-B (PIB)-PET and 141 using other ligands). Both data sets included cognitively normal individuals, individuals with mild cognitive impairment and individuals with Alzheimer’s disease. All test biomarkers showed high performance when predicting brain amyloid-β burden. In particular, the composite biomarker showed very high areas under the receiver operating characteristic curves (AUCs) in both data sets (discovery, 96.7%, n = 121 and validation, 94.1%, n = 111) with an accuracy approximately equal to 90% when using PIB-PET as a standard of truth. Furthermore, test biomarkers were correlated with amyloid-β-PET burden and levels of Aβ1–42 in cerebrospinal fluid. These results demonstrate the potential clinical utility of plasma biomarkers in predicting brain amyloid-β burden at an individual level. These plasma biomarkers also have cost–benefit and scalability advantages over current techniques, potentially enabling broader clinical access and efficient population screening.

doi: 10.1038/nature25456

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免疫学:自然免疫および適応免疫に関わるリンパ球は順次働いて腸内微生物相や脂質代謝を形作る

Innate and adaptive lymphocytes sequentially shape the gut microbiota and lipid metabolism p.255

Distinct populations of lymphocytes act sequentially during development to direct maturation of the mammalian gut microbiota.

doi: 10.1038/nature25437

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生物物理学:トランスSNARE複合体の動態と数が新しく生じた融合細孔の特性を決定する

Dynamics and number of trans-SNARE complexes determine nascent fusion pore properties p.260

Analysis at high temporal and spatial resolution shows that the number and dynamics of SNARE proteins available during exocytosis determines the size and stability of fusion pores.

doi: 10.1038/nature25481

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