Against discrimination p.259

Science cannot and should not be used to justify prejudice.

doi: 10.1038/548259b

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Budget cuts fuel frustration among Japan’s academics p.259

Funding trouble at flagship research centre reflects a broader malaise in the country’s scientific priorities that must be addressed.

doi: 10.1038/nature.2017.22444

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California’s scientists push to create massive climate-research programme p.267

Effort backed by the state’s flagship universities comes as US President Donald Trump shrugs off global warming.

doi: 10.1038/548267a

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China launches brain-imaging factory p.268

Hub aims to make industrial-scale high-resolution brain mapping a standard tool for neuroscience

doi: 10.1038/548268a

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Massive El Niño sent greenhouse-gas emissions soaring p.269

Disruptive weather pattern in 2014–2016 spurred tropical forests to pump out 3 billion tonnes of carbon.

doi: 10.1038/nature.2017.22440

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Thousands across India march in support of science p.270

Protesters demand respect for research — but some scientists were told to stay away.

doi: 10.1038/nature.2017.22439

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US biomedical-research facilities unprepared for attacks and natural disasters p.270

Science panel says institutions need to do more to prevent and mitigate damage to research equipment and animals.

doi: 10.1038/nature.2017.22446

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Why 14 ecology labs teamed up to watch grass grow p.271

Multi-lab efforts point the way to shoring up the reliability of field studies.

doi: 10.1038/548271a

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News Features


China’s embrace of embryo selection raises thorny questions p.272


doi: 10.1038/548272a

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News & Views


Climate science: Origins of Atlantic decadal swings p.284


doi: 10.1038/nature23538

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Neurobiology: A bitter–sweet symphony p.285


doi: 10.1038/nature23537

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Cancer genomics: Human metastases under scrutiny p.287


doi: 10.1038/nature23535

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Astronomy: A turbulent stellar atmosphere in full view p.288


doi: 10.1038/548288a

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Cell biology: Healthy skin rejects cancer p.289


doi: 10.1038/nature23534

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New gliding mammaliaforms from the Jurassic p.291

Maiopatagium, a haramiyid from the Jurassic Tiaojishan Formation (around 160 million years ago) of China was specialised for gliding with a patagium (wing membrane) and a fused wishbone, reminiscent of that of birds.

doi: 10.1038/nature23476

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Integrative clinical genomics of metastatic cancer p.297

Clinical exome and transcriptome sequencing of 500 adult patients with metastatic solid tumours of diverse lineage and biopsy site, as part of the Michigan Oncology Sequencing (MI-ONCOSEQ) Program.

doi: 10.1038/nature23306

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Ram-pressure feeding of supermassive black holes p.304

The majority of ‘jellyfish’ galaxies, characterized by long ‘tentacles’ of gas, also have active nuclei, indicating that gas is being fed to the central supermassive black hole by ram pressure.

doi: 10.1038/nature23462

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Vigorous atmospheric motion in the red supergiant star Antares p.310

Mapping the velocity of the gas at the surface and in the atmosphere of the nearby red supergiant star Antares reveals vigorous motion of several huge gas clumps in an extended atmosphere, which cannot be fully explained by convection.

doi: 10.1038/nature23445

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Electronic in-plane symmetry breaking at field-tuned quantum criticality in CeRhIn5 p.313

Electronic nematicity is observed in a heavy-fermion superconductor, CeRhIn5, suggesting a close link between unconventional superconductivity and the appearance of nematicity.

doi: 10.1038/nature23315

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Chaotic dynamics in nanoscale NbO2 Mott memristors for analogue computing p.318

A relaxation oscillator incorporating nanoscale niobium dioxide memristors that exhibit both a current- and a temperature-controlled negative differential resistance produces chaotic dynamics that aid biomimetic computing.

doi: 10.1038/nature23307

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An early modern human presence in Sumatra 73,000–63,000 years ago p.322

Morphological analysis of teeth found at Lida Ajer shows that these belong to Homo sapiens, indicating that modern humans were in Sumatra between 73,000 and 63,000 years ago.

doi: 10.1038/nature23452

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New evidence for mammaliaform ear evolution and feeding adaptation in a Jurassic ecosystem p.326

The fossil of a gliding mammal from the Tiaojishan Formation of China displays many unique features of its ears, teeth and tooth-replacement pattern, illustrating the great diversity of stem mammals living in the Jurassic period.

doi: 10.1038/nature23483

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Rewiring the taste system p.330

Taste-receptor cells use distinct semaphorins to guide wiring of the peripheral taste system; targeted ectopic expression of SEMA3A or SEMA7A leads to bitter neurons responding to sweet tastes or sweet neurons responding to bitter tastes.

doi: 10.1038/nature23299

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Correction of aberrant growth preserves tissue homeostasis p.334

Intravital imaging reveals unanticipated plasticity of adult skin epithelium in mice when faced with mutational or non-mutational insults, and elucidates the dynamic cellular behaviours used for its return to a homeostatic state.

doi: 10.1038/nature23304

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免疫学:m6A mRNAメチル化はIL-7/STAT5/SOCS経路を標的としてT細胞恒常性を制御する

m6A mRNA methylation controls T cell homeostasis by targeting the IL-7/STAT5/SOCS pathways p.338

N6-methyladenosine (m6A) is the most common and abundant messenger RNA modification, modulated by ‘writers’, ‘erasers’ and ‘readers’ of this mark. In vitro data have shown that m6A influences all fundamental aspects of mRNA metabolism, mainly mRNA stability, to determine stem cell fates. However, its in vivo physiological function in mammals and adult mammalian cells is still unknown. Here we show that the deletion of m6A ‘writer’ protein METTL3 in mouse T cells disrupts T cell homeostasis and differentiation. In a lymphopaenic mouse adoptive transfer model, naive Mettl3-deficient T cells failed to undergo homeostatic expansion and remained in the naive state for up to 12 weeks, thereby preventing colitis. Consistent with these observations, the mRNAs of SOCS family genes encoding the STAT signalling inhibitory proteins SOCS1, SOCS3 and CISH were marked by m6A, exhibited slower mRNA decay and showed increased mRNAs and levels of protein expression in Mettl3-deficient naive T cells. This increased SOCS family activity consequently inhibited IL-7-mediated STAT5 activation and T cell homeostatic proliferation and differentiation. We also found that m6A has important roles for inducible degradation of Socs mRNAs in response to IL-7 signalling in order to reprogram naive T cells for proliferation and differentiation. Our study elucidates for the first time, to our knowledge, the in vivo biological role of m6A modification in T-cell-mediated pathogenesis and reveals a novel mechanism of T cell homeostasis and signal-dependent induction of mRNA degradation.

doi: 10.1038/nature23450

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Genome-scale activation screen identifies a lncRNA locus regulating a gene neighbourhood p.343

Long noncoding RNAs are investigated using a CRISPR–Cas9 activation screen and shown to confer BRAF inhibitor resistance on melanoma cells through various local mechanisms.

doi: 10.1038/nature23451

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分子生物学:mRNA 3′ウリジル化とポリ(A)尾部の長さが哺乳類の母系トランスクリプトームを形作る

mRNA 3′ uridylation and poly(A) tail length sculpt the mammalian maternal transcriptome p.347

A fundamental principle in biology is that the program for early development is established during oogenesis in the form of the maternal transcriptome. How the maternal transcriptome acquires the appropriate content and dosage of transcripts is not fully understood. Here we show that 3′ terminal uridylation of mRNA mediated by TUT4 and TUT7 sculpts the mouse maternal transcriptome by eliminating transcripts during oocyte growth. Uridylation mediated by TUT4 and TUT7 is essential for both oocyte maturation and fertility. In comparison to somatic cells, the oocyte transcriptome has a shorter poly(A) tail and a higher relative proportion of terminal oligo-uridylation. Deletion of TUT4 and TUT7 leads to the accumulation of a cohort of transcripts with a high frequency of very short poly(A) tails, and a loss of 3′ oligo-uridylation. By contrast, deficiency of TUT4 and TUT7 does not alter gene expression in a variety of somatic cells. In summary, we show that poly(A) tail length and 3′ terminal uridylation have essential and specific functions in shaping a functional maternal transcriptome.

doi: 10.1038/nature23318

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Cryo-EM structure of the protein-conducting ERAD channel Hrd1 in complex with Hrd3 p.352

The structure of yeast Hrd1 in complex with Hrd3 shows that Hrd1 forms an aqueous cavity with a lateral seal within the endoplasmic reticulum membrane, shedding light on how misfolded proteins are transported out of the endoplasmic reticulum.

doi: 10.1038/nature23314

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Structural insights into ligand recognition by the lysophosphatidic acid receptor LPA6 p.356

Determination of the crystal structure of the zebrafish LPA6 receptor shows that the lipid ligand binds to an unusual ligand-binding pocket in the receptor that is laterally accessible through the membrane.

doi: 10.1038/nature23448

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