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Editorials

米国トランプ政権は地球温暖化に疑念を抱くなら、科学者を白黒に分けて議論させるより、ブッシュ政権にならって全米科学アカデミーに委ねるべきだ。

Seek climate advice through established routes p.5

If the Trump administration has questions on global warming, it should direct them to the national academy rather than setting up a spurious ‘red team–blue team’ debate.

doi: 10.1038/548005a

反水素を精査することで、宇宙を支える理論についてのさらに深い洞察が得られるだろう。

Why antimatter might be the answer to life, the Universe and everything p.5

Experiments that reveal the behaviour of antihydrogen could tell physicists more about the rules that hold the Universe together.

doi: 10.1038/548005b

News

CRISPR–Cas9系を使ったゲノム編集によって、生きたヒト胚での疾患原因遺伝子の修正に成功。

CRISPR fixes disease gene in viable human embryos p.13

Gene-editing experiment pushes scientific and ethical boundaries.

doi: 10.1038/nature.2017.22382

石油資源を持たないヨルダンが、科学技術に国の未来を。

Jordan stakes its future on science p.14

The country wants to use a focus on research to solve its problems and build diplomatic ties in the Middle East.

doi: 10.1038/548014a

米国政府の気候変動に関する報告書が完成間近だが、トランプ政権による最終承認が高い壁に。

Fears rise for US climate report as Trump officials take reins p.15

Officials at the US Environmental Protection Agency are consulting global-warming sceptics as they weigh up a technical review.

doi: 10.1038/548015a

統計学の専門家たちが、社会科学系や生物医学系の研究での統計の有意水準をより厳しくすべきとの声を。

Big names in statistics want to shake up much-maligned P value p.16

One of scientists’ favourite statistics — the P value — should face tougher standards, say leading researchers.

doi: 10.1038/nature.2017.22375

タヒチで成功したボルバキア属(Wolbachia)細菌を持つ蚊を利用した蚊駆除が、今度は南太平洋諸島で。

Bacteria could be key to freeing South Pacific of mosquitoes p.17

Islands in the region could be rid of the biting insects within a decade.

doi: 10.1038/548017a

News Features

物理学:反物質を目指す競争

The race to reveal antimatter’s secrets p.20

反物質の謎を解き明かそうと、欧州原子核共同研究機関(CERN)を舞台に、いくつもの実験が行われている。

doi: 10.1038/548020a

News & Views

核物理学:最も速く回転する流体

Nuclear physics: The fastest-rotating fluid p.34

クォーク・グルーオン・プラズマと呼ばれる物質状態は、重イオンの高エネルギー衝突で生成される。今回、このプラズマの回転が初めて測定され、強い核力の物理に関する知見が得られた。

doi: 10.1038/548034a

認知:ニューロンが協力して意思決定する

Cognition: Neurons couple up to make decisions p.35

最先端の技術を用いて、音刺激を含むナビゲーション課題を行っているときのニューロン活動がマウスで調べられ、ニューロン集団がどのようにして複雑な行動を生じさせるかに関する理解が広がった。

doi: 10.1038/nature23100

代謝:糖二リン酸を通したエネルギー感知

Metabolism: Energy sensing through a sugar diphosphate p.36

今回、グルコースの代謝時に生成されるフルクトース 1,6-ビスリン酸分子が、予想外の機構を通して、細胞がグルコース欠乏を感知するのを媒介していることが示された。

doi: 10.1038/nature23099

生態学:炭疽の危険にさらされているチンパンジー

Ecology: Chimps at risk from anthrax p.38

アフリカの熱帯雨林の哺乳類の主な死亡原因が、炭疽であることが分かった。モデル解析によって、炭疽が熱帯雨林のチンパンジーの個体数減少の原因である可能性が明らかになったのである。

doi: 10.1038/548038a

天文学:系外惑星の大気のオゾン層に似た層

Astronomy: Ozone-like layer in an exoplanet atmosphere p.38

系外惑星の大気の性質は、盛んに議論されている。今回、ホットジュピターと呼ばれる系外惑星の熱スペクトルから、組成は不明だが、地球のオゾン層に似た層の存在が明らかになった。

doi: 10.1038/548038b

がん:腫瘍の個別化治療法

Cancer: A precision approach to tumour treatment p.40

個別化治療法の使用の進歩により、in vitroin vivo療法の腫瘍モデルが作られた。このモデルは、がんの薬物療法の決定を助けるために、また、腫瘍がどのように治療に反応するかについての我々の理解を深めるために用いることができる可能性がある。

doi: 10.1038/nature23101

Perspective

微生物学:宿主マイクロバイオームの束縛された生態系としての進化

The evolution of the host microbiome as an ecosystem on a leash p.43

Within the human microbiome there is tension between microbes evolving to compete within the host ecosystem, and hosts trying to keep them under control.

doi: 10.1038/nature23292

Article

幹細胞:視床下部幹細胞は部分的にエキソソームmiRNAを介して老化速度を制御する

Hypothalamic stem cells control ageing speed partly through exosomal miRNAs p.52

Ablation of hypothalamic stem/progenitor cells in mice leads to ageing-related decreases in physiological parameters and lifespan, and the speed of ageing is partially controlled by these cells through the release of exosomal miRNAs.

doi: 10.1038/nature23282

Letters

天文学:成層圏を伴う超高温の系外巨大ガス惑星

An ultrahot gas-giant exoplanet with a stratosphere p.58

Observations of the gas-giant exoplanet WASP-121b reveal near-infrared emission lines of water, suggesting that the planet has a stratosphere—a layer in the upper atmosphere where temperature increases with altitude.

doi: 10.1038/nature23266

核物理学:原子核衝突にみる大域的なΛハイペロン偏極

Global Λ hyperon polarization in nuclear collisions p.62

The extreme energy densities generated by ultra-relativistic collisions between heavy atomic nuclei produce a state of matter that behaves surprisingly like a fluid, with exceptionally high temperature and low viscosity. Non-central collisions have angular momenta of the order of 1,000ћ, and the resulting fluid may have a strong vortical structure that must be understood to describe the fluid properly. The vortical structure is also of particular interest because the restoration of fundamental symmetries of quantum chromodynamics is expected to produce novel physical effects in the presence of strong vorticity. However, no experimental indications of fluid vorticity in heavy ion collisions have yet been found. Since vorticity represents a local rotational structure of the fluid, spin–orbit coupling can lead to preferential orientation of particle spins along the direction of rotation. Here we present measurements of an alignment between the global angular momentum of a non-central collision and the spin of emitted particles (in this case the collision occurs between gold nuclei and produces Λ baryons), revealing that the fluid produced in heavy ion collisions is the most vortical system so far observed. (At high energies, this fluid is a quark–gluon plasma.) We find that Λ and hyperons show a positive polarization of the order of a few per cent, consistent with some hydrodynamic predictions. (A hyperon is a particle composed of three quarks, at least one of which is a strange quark; the remainder are up and down quarks, found in protons and neutrons.) A previous measurement that reported a null result, that is, zero polarization, at higher collision energies is seen to be consistent with the trend of our observations, though with larger statistical uncertainties. These data provide experimental access to the vortical structure of the nearly ideal liquid created in a heavy ion collision and should prove valuable in the development of hydrodynamic models that quantitatively connect observations to the theory of the strong force.

doi: 10.1038/nature23004

素粒子物理学:反水素の超微細スペクトルの観測

Observation of the hyperfine spectrum of antihydrogen OPEN p.66

The hyperfine splitting of antihydrogen has been measured and is consistent with expectations for atomic hydrogen.

doi: 10.1038/nature23446

量子物理学:半導体量子ドットアレイを用いたフェルミハバードモデルの量子シミュレーション

Quantum simulation of a Fermi–Hubbard model using a semiconductor quantum dot array p.70

A quantum simulation platform based on quantum dots is reported that can operate at relatively low temperatures, and its utility is shown by simulating a Fermi–Hubbard model.

doi: 10.1038/nature23022

化学:鉄分子触媒によるCO2からの可視光駆動メタン生成

Visible-light-driven methane formation from CO2 with a molecular iron catalyst p.74

An iron tetraphenylporphyrin complex is shown to catalyse the reduction of carbon dioxide to methane upon visible light irradiation at ambient temperature and pressure.

doi: 10.1038/nature23016

化学的生命の誕生:鉱物の包含物中に封入された原始生代の生命構成元素

Elements of Eoarchean life trapped in mineral inclusions p.78

In situ infrared spectroscopy maps the occurrences of chemical bonds within tiny inclusions in 3,700-million-year-old metasedimentary rocks from West Greenland, finding greater evidence for organic life at this early date.

doi: 10.1038/nature23261

感染症:持続性の炭疽は熱帯雨林において野生生物の大量死の主要な駆動要因となる

Persistent anthrax as a major driver of wildlife mortality in a tropical rainforest p.82

An anthrax-causing agent, Bacillus cereus biovar anthracis, is a persistent and widespread cause of death for a broad range of mammalian hosts in a tropical rainforest, with important implications for the conservation of mammals such as chimpanzees.

doi: 10.1038/nature23309

ゲノミクス:集団参照としての150人のデンマーク人ゲノムの塩基配列解読とde novoアセンブリ

Sequencing and de novo assembly of 150 genomes from Denmark as a population reference OPEN p.87

A report of high-depth, short-read sequencing and de novo assemblies for 150 individuals from 50 parent–offspring trios as part of establishing a population reference genome for the GenomeDenmark project.

doi: 10.1038/nature23264

神経科学:皮質領域間で異なる集団符号化の時間スケール

Distinct timescales of population coding across cortex p.92

Calcium imaging data from mice performing a virtual reality auditory decision-making task are used to analyse the population codes in primary auditory and posterior parietal cortex that support choice behaviour.

doi: 10.1038/nature23020

細胞生物学:in vivo FRET–FLIMが明らかにするシロイヌナズナの根における細胞型特異的なタンパク質間相互作用

In vivo FRET–FLIM reveals cell-type-specific protein interactions in Arabidopsis roots p.97

Imaging in living Arabidopsis roots reveals that protein complexes can change their conformation in a cell-type-dependent manner to regulate specific gene expression programs leading to precise specification and maintenance of particular cell fates within the root meristem.

doi: 10.1038/nature23317

神経科学:成体マウスにおけるミュラーグリアからの機能的な神経再生の促進

Stimulation of functional neuronal regeneration from Müller glia in adult mice p.103

Inhibition of histone deacetylation allows the transcription factor Ascl1 to bind to key gene loci in Müller glia and drive the functional generation of retinal neurons in adult mice.

doi: 10.1038/nature23283

微生物学:ウシでの免疫によりHIVに対する広域中和抗体を急速に誘導する

Rapid elicitation of broadly neutralizing antibodies to HIV by immunization in cows p.108

Immunization of cows with a recombinant HIV envelope protein leads to the rapid development of potent, broadly neutralizing antibodies against HIV.

doi: 10.1038/nature23301

代謝:フルクトース 1,6-ビスリン酸とアルドラーゼはAMPKによるグルコース感知に関わっている

Fructose-1,6-bisphosphate and aldolase mediate glucose sensing by AMPK p.112

Glucose starvation activates AMPK via an AMP/ADP-independent mechanism that involves fructose-1,6-bisphosphate and aldolase.

doi: 10.1038/nature23275

システム生物学:リボコンピューティングデバイスを使った細胞での複雑な論理計算

Complex cellular logic computation using ribocomputing devices p.117

De-novo-designed RNA molecules are used to construct cellular computing devices that can implement complex logic functions.

doi: 10.1038/nature23271

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