Volume 519 Number 7542



All in good time p.129

Stratigraphers have yet to decide whether the Anthropocene is a new unit of geological time.

doi: 10.1038/519129b


An array of problems p.129

Political interference in the selection process for the headquarters of the Square Kilometre Array should not go unchallenged.

doi: 10.1038/519129a

世界で最初の科学雑誌Philosophical Transactionsの350周年を、学術研究について深く考える機会にしたい。

In the beginning p.130

As the first true science journal marks 350 years, we must defend scholarly pursuits.

doi: 10.1038/519130a



Flu genomes trace H7N9 evolution p.137

But surveillance of avian influenza viruses is patchy and slow.

doi: 10.1038/519137a


Mistrust and meddling unsettles US science agency p.138

National Science Foundation under pressure from lawmakers to revise its agenda.

doi: 10.1038/519138a


DNA mutation clock proves tough to set p.139

Geneticists meet to work out why the rate of change in the genome is so hard to pin down.

doi: 10.1038/519139a


World’s whaling slaughter tallied p.140

Commercial hunting wiped out almost three million animals last century.

doi: 10.1038/519140a

LHC 2.0 — 再稼働間近のCERNの大型ハドロン衝突型加速器の新たな可能性。

LHC 2.0: A new view of the Universe p.142

As the Large Hadron Collider switches on again, a graphical guide to what it might find.

doi: 10.1038/519142a

News Features


Anthropocene: The human age p.144


doi: 10.1038/519144a


Conflict resolution: Wars without end p.148


doi: 10.1038/19148a

News & Views


Planetary science: Enceladus' hot springs p.162


doi: 10.1038/519162a


Cell signalling: Disarming Wnt p.163


doi: 10.1038/nature14208


Evolution: Fitness tracking for adapting populations p.164


doi: 10.1038/nature14207


Microbiology: How bacteria get spacers from invaders p.166


doi: 10.1038/nature14204


Climate change: Black carbon and atmospheric feedbacks p.167


doi: 10.1038/519167a


Evolutionary biology: The origin of terrestrial hearing p.168


doi: 10.1038/519168a



Defining the Anthropocene p.171

Formal criteria must be met to define a new human-driven epoch; the geological evidence appears to do so, with 1610 and 1964 both likely to satisfy the requirements for the start of the Anthropocene.

doi: 10.1038/nature14258



Quantitative evolutionary dynamics using high-resolution lineage tracking p.181

Random DNA barcodes were used to simultaneously track hundreds of thousands of lineages in large cell populations, revealing deterministic dynamics early in their evolution.

doi: 10.1038/nature14279


Notum deacylates Wnt proteins to suppress signalling activity p.187

The biochemical activity of Notum as a carboxylesterase that removes an essential lipid moiety from Wnt proteins is uncovered; the interaction of Notum with glypicans is required to ensure localization at the cell surface, and Notum may provide a new target for therapeutic development in diseases with defective Wnt signalling.

doi: 10.1038/nature14259


Integrase-mediated spacer acquisition during CRISPR–Cas adaptive immunity p.193

The bacterial CRISPR/Cas system acquires short phage sequences known as spacers that integrate between CRISPR repeats and constitute a record of phage infection; this study shows that the Cas1–Cas2 complex is the minimal machinery required for spacer acquisition and the complex integrates oligonucleotide DNA substrates into acceptor DNA in a manner similar to retroviral integrases and DNA transposases with Cas 1 as the catalytic subunit and Cas2 acting to increase integration activity.

doi: 10.1038/nature14237


Cas9 specifies functional viral targets during CRISPR–Cas adaptation p.199

Bacterial CRISPR–Cas loci acquire short phage sequences called spacers that integrate between DNA repeats and how these viral sequences are chosen was unknown; in these studies of the type II CRISPR–Cas system of Streptococcus pyogenes, the Cas9 nuclease known to inactivate invading viral DNA was found to be required for the selection of functional spacers during CRISPR immunity.

doi: 10.1038/nature14245



Regulation of star formation in giant galaxies by precipitation, feedback and conduction p.203

Observations confirm models of galaxy cooling in which cold clouds precipitate out of hot gas via thermal instability, and the precipitation threshold is incorporated into a theoretical framework that explains how precipitation and thermal conduction regulate star formation.

doi: 10.1038/nature14167


Ongoing hydrothermal activities within Enceladus p.207

Analysis of silicon-rich, nanometre-sized dust particles near Saturn shows them to consist of silica, which was initially embedded in icy grains emitted from Enceladus’ subsurface waters and released by sputter erosion in Saturn’s E ring; their properties indicate their ongoing formation and transport by high-temperature hydrothermal reactions from the ocean floor and up into the plume of Enceladus.

doi: 10.1038/nature14262


Observation of antiferromagnetic correlations in the Hubbard model with ultracold atoms p.211

Ultracold atomic gases in optical lattices potentially offer simulations of condensed-matter phenomena beyond what theory and computations can access; compensated optical lattice techniques applied to the Hubbard model now enable unprecedented low temperatures to be reached for fermions — only 1.4 times that of the antiferromagnetic phase transition, approaching the limits of present modelling techniques.

doi: 10.1038/nature14223


Decrease in CO2 efflux from northern hardwater lakes with increasing atmospheric warming p.215

Atmospheric warming may reduce CO2 emissions from hardwater lakes by reducing the duration of ice cover, increasing lake water pH and favouring CO2 sequestration.

doi: 10.1038/nature14172


Spatiotemporal transcriptomics reveals the evolutionary history of the endoderm germ layer p.219

Studies of gene-expression levels in embryos of Caenorhabditis elegant and of other phyla reveal the timing and location of expression of all genes and support a model in which the endoderm program dates back to the origin of multicellularity while the ectoderm originated as a secondary germ layer freed from ancestral feeding functions.

doi: 10.1038/nature13996


Large-scale discovery of novel genetic causes of developmental disorders p.223

Up to half of children with severe developmental disorders of probable genetic origin remain without a genetic diagnosis; here, in a systematic and nationwide study of 1,133 children with severe, undiagnosed developmental disorders, and their parents, exome sequencing and array-based detection of chromosomal rearrangements reveals novel genes causing developmental disorders, increasing the proportion of children that can now be diagnosed to 31%.

doi: 10.1038/nature14135


Orientation columns in the mouse superior colliculus p.229

Population recordings reveal that neurons in the mouse superior colliculus are grouped according to their preferred orientations or movement axes for visual line stimuli, similar to the columnar arrangement in visual cortex of higher mammals; this functional architecture suggests that the superior colliculus samples the visual world unevenly for stimulus orientations.

doi: 10.1038/nature14103


Mechanosensory interactions drive collective behaviour in Drosophila p.233

Collective behaviour in animal groups can improve individual perception and decision-making, but the neural mechanisms involved have been hard to access in classic models for these phenomena; here it is shown that Drosophila’s olfactory responses are enhanced in groups of flies, through mechanosensory neuron-dependent touch interactions.

doi: 10.1038/nature14024


Identification of a mast-cell-specific receptor crucial for pseudo-allergic drug reactions p.237

Cationic substances, including some drugs, can activate mast cells in an IgE-independent manner, leading to histamine release, inflammation and airway contraction; here, the G-protein-coupled receptor MrgprB2, the orthologue of human MRGPRX2, is shown to be the sole mast cell receptor for these substances in mice.

doi: 10.1038/nature14022


Group 2 innate lymphoid cells promote beiging of white adipose tissue and limit obesity p.242

Group 2 innate lymphoid cells are shown to have a critical role in energy homeostasis by producing methionine-enkephalin peptides in response to interleukin 33, thus promoting the beiging of white adipose tissue; increased numbers of beige (also known as brown-like or brite) fat cells in white adipose tissue leads to increased energy expenditure and decreased adiposity.

doi: 10.1038/nature14115


Crystal structure of the human OX2 orexin receptor bound to the insomnia drug suvorexant p.247

The orexin system regulates sleep and arousal in humans, with orexin receptor antagonists becoming promising therapeutics for insomnia; now, the X-ray crystal structure of the human OX2 receptor in the presence of the insomnia drug suvorexant is solved.

doi: 10.1038/nature14035

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