目次

Editorials

アフリカ以外でのエボラ出血熱の発生は、国際的な対応が後手に回っていることの現れだ。

Out of Africa p.139

The Ebola outbreak in West Africa must be shut down now, or the disease will continue to spread.

doi: 10.1038/514139a

Full Text

知識・情報の流動性がかつてなく高まっている中で、直接のコンタクトでしか伝わらない知識をどう扱うか、考える必要がある。

A little knowledge p.139

The significance of expertise passed on by direct contact— tacit knowledge — is moot.

doi: 10.1038/514139b

Full Text

北極海の氷の縮小が原因でセイウチが米国アラスカ州の海岸に大挙して押し寄せる現象は、気候変動によってこれから起こることの前触れである。

Holy cows p.140

A mass beaching of walruses in Alaska is a sign of things to come.

doi: 10.1038/514140a

Full Text

News

グリーンランドにある米国の観測基地の更新計画に、環境汚染を懸念する声が。

US plans upgrade for ageing Greenland research station p.147

But proposals spur concern that development will pollute the nearly pristine site.

doi: 10.1038/514147a

Full Text

オーストラリアの研究予算削減に、科学者たちが怒りを。

Australian cuts rile researchers p.148

Political scorn on top of shrinking funds creates hostility between scientists and Tony Abbott’s government.

doi: 10.1038/514148a

Full Text

計測学界が、力を合わせて、重力定数Gの高精度測定実験へ。

Rivals join forces to nail down Big G p.150

Metrologists meet to design the ultimate gravitational-constant experiment.

doi: 10.1038/514150a

Full Text

霊長類(マーモセット)を使って脳神経回路の全容解明を目指す、日本のBrain/MINDS計画の詳細が明らかに。

Marmosets are stars of Japan’s ambitious brain project p.151

Ten-year brain-mapping effort will use monkeys to study human neural and mental disorders.

doi: 10.1038/514151a

Full Text

2014年ノーベル物理学賞は、青色発光ダイオード開発で、日本の赤﨑、天野、中村氏が。

Blue LED wins physics Nobel p.152

Physics prize recognizes potential of invention with power to reduce global electricity consumption.

doi: 10.1038/514152a

Full Text

2014年ノーベル医学生理学賞は、脳の空間認識の研究で、ヨーロッパの3氏に。

Prize for place cells p.153

Discoverers of brain’s navigation system get physiology Nobel.

doi: 10.1038/514153a

Full Text

News Features

神経科学:ノルウェーの頭脳

Neuroscience: Brains of Norway p.154

2014年ノーベル医学生理学賞を受賞したノルウェーのMoser夫妻は、「自分が今どこにいるのか」を把握する脳細胞の研究を、30年間一緒に続けてきた。

doi: 10.1038/514154a

Full Text

素粒子物理学:ビッグ・リブート

Large Hadron Collider: The big reboot p.158

2年間停止していた大型ハドロン衝突型加速器(LHC)の再稼働が近付き、物理学者たちは、標準模型を超えた先を目指して、準備を整えている。

doi: 10.1038/514158a

Full Text

News & Views

考古学:旅する芸術

Archaeology: Art on the move p.170

インドネシアの洞窟で見つかった先史時代の手形と絵画についての研究で、これらの芸術作品の年代が少なくとも3万9900年前と推定された。これは、インドネシアから1万3000 km離れた西ヨーロッパで見つかった、これまでで最も古い洞窟壁画とほぼ同じ年代である。

doi: 10.1038/514170a

Full Text

超高輝度X線源:大きなインパクトを及ぼすちっちゃな場所

Ultraluminous X-ray sources: Small field with a large impact p.171

宇宙での超高輝度X線源はずっと不明だった。このようなまれな系の最新の観測結果から、重要な手掛かりがいくつか得られたが、理論的説明に至るものではない。

doi: 10.1038/514171a

Full Text

構造生物学:投げ縄から分かること

Structural biology: Lariat lessons p.173

スプライセオソームの酵素複合体はRNA転写物からイントロン配列を除去してメッセンジャーRNAを形成する。投げ縄のような形状のRNAの結晶構造から、このスプライシング過程がどのような仕組みで起こるのかが示唆された。

doi: 10.1038/nature13754

Full Text

素粒子物理学:トップクォークの質量

Particle physics: The mass of a top p.174

最も重いことが知られているが、寿命は1兆分の1秒の1兆分の1以下と極めて短い素粒子であるトップクォークの質量が測定された。これは我々の宇宙が最終的にどのような運命をたどるのかについて、曖昧さが残る説明とはいえ、手掛かりを与えてくれる。

doi: 10.1038/514174a

Full Text

健康:ノンカロリー甘味料の重い代償

Health: The weighty costs of non-caloric sweeteners p.176

マウスとヒトでの研究から、ノンカロリー人工甘味料は、腸内常在菌の機能を変化させることで肥満に関連する代謝変化を促す可能性があることが分かった。

doi: 10.1038/nature13752

Full Text

材料分析:いい感じの振動

Materials analysis: Good vibrations p.177

原子レベルの分解能を備えた透過型電子顕微鏡のために新たに作製された電子エネルギーモノクロメーターによって、空間的に高度に局在している化学結合の振動の分光学的特徴が解明された。

doi: 10.1038/514177a

Full Text

動物行動:野生チンパンジーでの伝承の始まり

Animal behaviour: Incipient tradition in wild chimpanzees p.178

チンパンジーの集団では、新しい形での道具使用の取り入れが社会的ネットワークを介して広がることが観察された。この知見は、野生のチンパンジーの文化の広がりに関する初めての直接的証拠である。

doi: 10.1038/nature13759

Full Text

Articles

微生物学:人工甘味料は腸内微生物相を変化させることで耐糖能異常を引き起こす

Artificial sweeteners induce glucose intolerance by altering the gut microbiota p.181

Non-caloric artificial sweeteners (NAS), widely used food additives considered to be safe and beneficial alternatives to sugars, are shown here to lead to the development of glucose intolerance through compositional and functional changes in the gut microbiota of mice, and the deleterious metabolic effects are transferred to germ-free mice by faecal transplant; NAS-induced dysbiosis and glucose intolerance are also demonstrated in healthy human subjects.

doi: 10.1038/nature13793

日本語要約 | Full Text | PDF

免疫:炎症性カスパーゼは自然免疫における細胞内LPS受容体である

Inflammatory caspases are innate immune receptors for intracellular LPS p.187

Caspase-4 and caspase-11 are shown to be the direct sensors for cytoplasmic lipopolysaccharide in humans and mice, respectively, mediating inflammatory cell death in intracellular bacterial infection.

doi: 10.1038/nature13683

日本語要約 | Full Text | PDF

構造生物学:真核生物のグループIIイントロンに含まれるラリアットの結晶構造

Crystal structure of a eukaryotic group II intron lariat p.193

This study determines the structure of a branched lariat RNA, providing insights into rearrangement of the intron between the two steps of RNA splicing.

doi: 10.1038/nature13790

日本語要約 | Full Text | PDF

Letters

宇宙:太陽質量の15倍未満と定まった超高輝度X線源のブラックホール

A mass of less than 15 solar masses for the black hole in an ultraluminous X-ray source p.198

Ground-based and satellite observations show that the black hole in the ultraluminous X-ray source P13 has a mass of less than 15 times that of the Sun and displays the properties that typically distinguish ultraluminous X-ray sources from other stellar-mass black holes.

doi: 10.1038/nature13730

日本語要約 | Full Text | PDF

宇宙:質量降着を伴う中性子星によって駆動される超高輝度X線源

An ultraluminous X-ray source powered by an accreting neutron star p.202

X-ray pulsations with an average period of 1.37 seconds have been detected from a known ultraluminous X-ray source hitherto thought to be a black hole; the pulsations instead unequivocally identify the source as an accreting magnetized neutron star ten times brighter than any previously known.

doi: 10.1038/nature13791

日本語要約 | Full Text | PDF

物性物理学:WTe2の大きな不飽和磁気抵抗

Large, non-saturating magnetoresistance in WTe2 p.205

The magnetoresistance effect in WTe2, a layered semimetal, is extremely large: the electrical resistance can be changed by more than 13 million per cent at very high magnetic fields and low temperatures.

doi: 10.1038/nature13763

日本語要約 | Full Text | PDF

顕微鏡学:電子顕微鏡における振動分光法

Vibrational spectroscopy in the electron microscope p.209

Recent advances in electron microscopy are shown to allow vibrational spectroscopy at high spatial resolution in a scanning transmission electron microscope, and also to enable the direct detection of hydrogen.

doi: 10.1038/nature13870

日本語要約 | Full Text | PDF

気候:陸域生態系における炭素の回転時間と気候の全球的な共変動

Global covariation of carbon turnover times with climate in terrestrial ecosystems p.213

A global, observation-based assessment of whole-ecosystem carbon turnover times shows that the overall mean global carbon turnover time is about 23 years and that locally its spatial variability depends on precipitation at least as strongly as on temperature.

doi: 10.1038/nature13731

日本語要約 | Full Text | PDF

大気化学:中国の煙霧事象における粒子状物質汚染への二次エアロゾルの高い寄与

High secondary aerosol contribution to particulate pollution during haze events in China p.218

Investigation of the chemical nature and sources of particulate matter at urban locations in four Chinese cities during a severe haze pollution event finds that the event was driven to a large extent by secondary aerosol formation.

doi: 10.1038/nature13774

日本語要約 | Full Text | PDF

考古学:インドネシア・スラウェシ島の更新世の洞窟壁画

Pleistocene cave art from Sulawesi, Indonesia p.223

Cave art from the island of Sulawesi in Indonesia, consisting of human hand stencils and animal paintings, is at least 40,000 years old, raising the question of why rock art traditions appeared at more or less the same time at opposite ends of the Late Pleistocene human world.

doi: 10.1038/nature13422

日本語要約 | Full Text | PDF

がん:発生の際の不適切なp53活性化がCHARGE症候群の特徴を誘導する

Inappropriate p53 activation during development induces features of CHARGE syndrome p.228

Inappropriate activation of the tumour-suppressor protein p53 during development can promote phenotypes similar to those of CHARGE syndrome, suggesting that p53 activation not only has a beneficial function in suppressing cancer but also a deleterious function in promoting developmental syndromes.

doi: 10.1038/nature13585

日本語要約 | Full Text | PDF

細胞:タンパク質の競合がCOP9の機能を自己複製から分化へと切り替える

Protein competition switches the function of COP9 from self-renewal to differentiation p.233

Using biochemical and genetic approaches, a protein-competition-based mechanism that controls the balance between stem cell self-renewal and differentiation of germline stem cells in the Drosophila melanogaster ovary has been uncovered.

doi: 10.1038/nature13562

日本語要約 | Full Text | PDF

免疫:インターロイキン22は糖尿病での代謝異常を軽減し、粘膜免疫を回復させる

Interleukin-22 alleviates metabolic disorders and restores mucosal immunity in diabetes p.237

In pre-clinical mouse models, the interleukin-22 pathway is identified as a novel target for therapeutic intervention in metabolic diseases.

doi: 10.1038/nature13564

日本語要約 | Full Text | PDF

医学:遊離αグロビンによるHSP70の隔離はβサラセミアでの無効造血を促進する

HSP70 sequestration by free α-globin promotes ineffective erythropoiesis in β-thalassaemia p.242

β-Thalassaemia major (β-TM) is an inherited haemoglobinopathy caused by a quantitative defect in the synthesis of β-globin chains of haemoglobin, leading to the accumulation of free α-globin chains that form toxic aggregates. Despite extensive knowledge of the molecular defects causing β-TM, little is known of the mechanisms responsible for the ineffective erythropoiesis observed in the condition, which is characterized by accelerated erythroid differentiation, maturation arrest and apoptosis at the polychromatophilic stage. We have previously demonstrated that normal human erythroid maturation requires a transient activation of caspase-3 at the later stages of maturation. Although erythroid transcription factor GATA-1, the master transcriptional factor of erythropoiesis, is a caspase-3 target, it is not cleaved during erythroid differentiation. We have shown that, in human erythroblasts, the chaperone heat shock protein70 (HSP70) is constitutively expressed and, at later stages of maturation, translocates into the nucleus and protects GATA-1 from caspase-3 cleavage. The primary role of this ubiquitous chaperone is to participate in the refolding of proteins denatured by cytoplasmic stress, thus preventing their aggregation. Here we show in vitro that during the maturation of human β-TM erythroblasts, HSP70 interacts directly with free α-globin chains. As a consequence, HSP70 is sequestrated in the cytoplasm and GATA-1 is no longer protected, resulting in end-stage maturation arrest and apoptosis. Transduction of a nuclear-targeted HSP70 mutant or a caspase-3-uncleavable GATA-1 mutant restores terminal maturation of β-TM erythroblasts, which may provide a rationale for new targeted therapies of β-TM.

doi: 10.1038/nature13614

日本語要約 | Full Text | PDF

がん:PRC2の欠失はRasによる転写を増幅してBRD4に基づく治療への感受性をもたらす

PRC2 loss amplifies Ras-driven transcription and confers sensitivity to BRD4-based therapies p.247

SUZ12, a component of the PRC2 complex, can also function as a tumour suppressor in certain tumours of the nervous system and melanomas.

doi: 10.1038/nature13561

日本語要約 | Full Text | PDF

構造生物学:Lin28–let-7経路におけるDis3l2の基質認識機構

Mechanism of Dis3l2 substrate recognition in the Lin28–let-7 pathway p.252

The structure of mouse Dis3l2 bound to an oligoU substrate shows a funnel-like substrate-binding site with the RNA being fed into the active site along a path that is distinct from that seen in the related catalytic subunit of the exosome — 12 uracils of the oligoU-tailed RNA are recognized in a complex network of interactions, suggesting the basis for target specificity.

doi: 10.1038/nature13553

日本語要約 | Full Text | PDF

分子生物学:ホメオドメイン転写プログラムに必要な、エンハンサー–matrin-3のネットワーク相互作用

Required enhancer–matrin-3 network interactions for a homeodomain transcription program p.257

The POU homeodomain transcription factor Pit1 is required for pituitary development; here Pit1-occupied enhancers are shown to interact with the nuclear architecture components matrin-3 and Satb1, and this association is required for activation of Pit1-regulated enhancers and coding target genes.

doi: 10.1038/nature13573

日本語要約 | Full Text | PDF

「Journal home」に戻る

プライバシーマーク制度