Volume 514 Number 7522



Dust to dust p.273

What lessons can be learned from the presentation of the gravitational-waves story?

doi: 10.1038/514273b


Universities challenged p.273

The face of higher education is changing at a rapid rate.

doi: 10.1038/514273a


Review rewards p.274

Welcome efforts are being made to recognize academics who give up their time to peer review.

doi: 10.1038/514274a



Stem-cell success aids diabetes fight p.281

Researchers must now work out how to protect cell transplants from the immune systems of people with type 1 diabetes.

doi: 10.1038/514281a


Giant gene banks take on disease p.282

Researchers bring together troves of DNA sequences in the hope of teasing out links between traits and genetic variants.

doi: 10.1038/514282a


African penguins put researchers in a flap p.283

Controlled fishing experiment raises controversy over cause of birds’ decline on Robben Island.

doi: 10.1038/514283a


Ebola by the numbers p.284

As the virus continues to rampage in West Africa, Nature’s graphic offers a guide to the figures that matter.

doi: 10.1038/514284a


Insider view of cells scoops Nobel p.286

Three scientists used fluorescent molecules to defy the limits of conventional optical microscopes.

doi: 10.1038/nature.2014.16097

News Features


Higher education: The university experiment p.287


doi: 10.1038/514287a


The university experiment: Campus as laboratory p.288


doi: 10.1038/514288a


Arizona's big bet: The research rethink p.292


doi: 10.1038/514292a

News & Views


Evolutionary biology: Survival of the fittest group p.308


doi: 10.1038/nature13755


Cancer: Staying together on the road to metastasis p.309


doi: 10.1038/514309a


Astrophysics: How tiny galaxies form stars p.310


doi: 10.1038/514310a


Cancer: The origin of human retinoblastoma p.312


doi: 10.1038/nature13748


Solid-state physics: A historic experiment redesigned p.313


doi: 10.1038/514313a


Genomics: Of monarchs and migration p.314


doi: 10.1038/nature13757



The genetics of monarch butterfly migration and warning colouration p.317

The monarch butterfly, well known for its spectacular annual migration across North America, is shown by genome sequencing of monarchs from around the world to have been ancestrally migratory and to have dispersed out of North America to occupy its current broad distribution; the authors also discovered signatures of selection associated with migration within loci implicated in flight muscle function, leading to greater flight efficiency.

doi: 10.1038/nature13812


Clonal dynamics of native haematopoiesis p.322

On the basis of transplantation experiments it is generally believed that a very small number of haematopoietic stem cells maintain multi-lineage haematopoiesis by stably producing a hierarchy of short-lived progenitor cells; here a new transposon-based labelling technique shows that this might not be the case during non-transplant haematopoiesis, but rather that a large number of long-lived progenitors are the main drivers of steady-state haematopoiesis during most of adulthood.

doi: 10.1038/nature13824


Structural mechanism of glutamate receptor activation and desensitization p.328

Cryo-electron microscopy is used to visualize the AMPA receptor GluA2 and the kainate receptor GluK2 in several functional states — having access to so many different structural states has enabled the authors to propose a molecular model for the gating cycle of glutamate receptors.

doi: 10.1038/nature13603



Inefficient star formation in extremely metal poor galaxies p.335

Spatially resolved infrared observations of two galaxies with oxygen abundances below 10 per cent of the solar value show that stars formed very inefficiently in seven star-forming clumps, suggesting that star formation may have been very inefficient in the early Universe.

doi: 10.1038/nature13820


Binary orbits as the driver of γ-ray emission and mass ejection in classical novae p.339

High-resolution radio imaging of the γ-ray-emitting nova V959 Mon, hosted by a white dwarf and its binary companion, shows that gaseous ejecta are expelled along the poles as a wind from the white dwarf, that denser material drifts out along the equatorial plane, propelled by orbital motion, and that γ-ray production occurs at the interface between these polar and equatorial regions.

doi: 10.1038/nature13773


Giant Rydberg excitons in the copper oxide Cu2O p.343

Rydberg excitons (condensed-matter analogues of hydrogen atoms) are shown to exist in single-crystal copper oxide with principal quantum numbers as large as n = 25 and giant wavefunctions with extensions of around two micrometres; this has implications for research in condensed-matter optics.

doi: 10.1038/nature13832


Lithium–antimony–lead liquid metal battery for grid-level energy storage p.348

All-liquid batteries comprising a lithium negative electrode and an antimony–lead positive electrode have a higher current density and a longer cycle life than conventional batteries, can be more easily used to make large-scale storage systems, and so potentially present a low-cost means of grid-level energy storage.

doi: 10.1038/nature13700


High winter ozone pollution from carbonyl photolysis in an oil and gas basin p.351

Data from the oil- and gas-producing basin of northeastern Utah and a box model are used to assess the photochemical reactions of nitrogen oxides and volatile organic compounds that lead to excessive atmospheric ozone pollution in winter.

doi: 10.1038/nature13767


Helium and lead isotopes reveal the geochemical geometry of the Samoan plume p.355

Analysis of the lead and helium isotopes in Samoan hotspot lavas reveals four low-3He/4He types of lava that do not mix much with each other but do mix with a high-3He/4He component.

doi: 10.1038/nature13794


Site-specific group selection drives locally adapted group compositions p.359

Here, colonies of social spiders are used to investigate the evolution of a group-level trait, the ratio of individuals with the ‘docile’ versus ‘aggressive’ phenotype in a colony; experimental colonies were generated with varying ratios and established in the wild, revealing group-level selection.

doi: 10.1038/nature13811


Hallucigenia’s onychophoran-like claws and the case for Tactopoda p.363

The claws of the Cambrian lobopodian Hallucigenia resemble the claws and jaws of extant onychophorans, establishing a close relationship between hallucigeniid lobopodians and onychophorans, resolving tardigrades as the closest extant relatives of true arthropods, and showing that the earliest ancestor of the arthropods and their kin would have looked like a lobopodian.

doi: 10.1038/nature13576


OSCA1 mediates osmotic-stress-evoked Ca2+ increases vital for osmosensing in Arabidopsis p.367

Osmotic stress is known to induce a transient increase in cytoplasmic Ca2+ concentration [Ca2+]i in plants, and now OSCA1 is identified as a long-sought Ca2+ channel that mediates [Ca2+]i increases—mutants lacking OSCA1 function have impaired osmotic Ca2+ signalling in guard cells and root cells, and reduced transpiration regulation and root growth under osmotic stress.

doi: 10.1038/nature13593


Antiviral immunity via RIG-I-mediated recognition of RNA bearing 5′-diphosphates p.372

The innate immune receptor RIG-I is shown to sense 5′-diphosphate RNAs as found in some viral genomes in addition to its well characterized activation by RNAs bearing 5′-triphosphate moieties.

doi: 10.1038/nature13590


Stochasticity of metabolism and growth at the single-cell level p.376

The inherent stochasticity in metabolic reactions is a potent source of phenotypic heterogeneity in cell populations, with potentially fundamental implications for cancer research.

doi: 10.1038/nature13582


CRISPR-mediated direct mutation of cancer genes in the mouse liver p.380

CRISPR plasmids targeting Pten and p53, alone and in combination, are delivered by hydrodynamic injection to the liver; the CRISPR-mediated mutations phenocopy the effects of deletions using Cre–LoxP technology, allowing the direct mutation of tumour suppressor genes and oncogenes in the liver using the CRISPR/Cas system, which presents a new approach for rapid development of liver cancer models and functional genomics.

doi: 10.1038/nature13589


Rb suppresses human cone-precursor-derived retinoblastoma tumours p.385

The nature of the retinal cell-type-specific circuitry that predisposes to retinoblastoma is demonstrated, in which a program that is unique to post-mitotic human cone precursors sensitizes to the oncogenic effects of retinoblastoma (Rb) protein depletion; hence, the loss of Rb collaborates with the molecular framework of cone precursors to initiate tumorigenesis.

doi: 10.1038/nature13813


Noncoding RNA transcription targets AID to divergently transcribed loci in B cells p.389

The 11-subunit RNA exosome is thought to regulate the mammalian noncoding transcriptome; here, a mouse model is generated in which the essential Exosc3 subunit of the RNA exosome in B cells is conditionally deleted, revealing a link between sites of genomic RNA exosome function and AID-mediated chromosomal translocations.

doi: 10.1038/nature13580

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