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Editorials

遺伝子組換え(GM)サケの認可が遅れているが、GM技術の評価は、密室での政治的影響を排し、開かれた議論によって行うべきだ。

Fishy business p.507

Delays in approving genetically engineered salmon may be a taste of worse to come.

doi: 10.1038/511507b

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バイオセーフティー強化のためには情報の共有が必要であり、致死的病原体が関係する事故であってもきちんと報告すべきだ。

Safety doesn’t happen by accident p.507

To create a strong biosafety culture, information on mishaps involving deadly pathogens must be reported and shared fully and transparently.

doi: 10.1038/511507a

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News

米国の生物テロ対策研究機関で事故が起こり、安全性確保の強化を求める声が。

Biosafety controls come under fire p.515

Experts call for a stronger safety culture at secure sites after incidents involving anthrax and flu in a US laboratory.

doi: 10.1038/511515a

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地震予知に役立てようと、活断層を掘削し、そこにセンサーを直接設置する計画が。

Project drills deep into coming quake p.516

Sensors in borehole at New Zealand seismic fault will peek under the surface of impending rupture.

doi: 10.1038/511516a

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マイコプラズマ汚染によって、培養細胞を使った研究成果が台無しになる恐れも。

Contamination hits cell work p.518

Mycoplasma infestations are widespread and costing laboratories millions of dollars in lost research.

doi: 10.1038/511518a

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FDAが、臨床試験の予備段階データ公開のメリットについて検討を。

FDA debates trial-data secrecy p.519

US drug regulator weighs up merits of disclosing preliminary results.

doi: 10.1038/511519a

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エボラ出血熱が大流行するアフリカで、予算、物流、倫理問題のため、治療薬やワクチンが届かない事態に。

Ebola treatments caught in limbo p.520

Logistics and lack of funds keep experimental drugs and vaccines from being used in Africa outbreak.

doi: 10.1038/511520a

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News Features

ダム撤去:息を吹き返した川

Dam removals: Rivers on the run p.521

古いダムの撤去によって自由な流れのよみがえった米国の川に、さまざまな生物種が戻ってきている。

doi: 10.1038/511521a

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がんのバイオマーカー:血液に書き込まれた情報

Cancer biomarkers: Written in blood p.524

血中のDNAを調べる血液生検が、がんの治療方針の手引きになるかもしれない。

doi: 10.1038/511524a

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News & Views

古気候科学:南極の氷の起源と影響

Palaeoclimate science: Causes and effects of Antarctic ice p.536

3400万年ほど前、南極では氷床が急速に発達した。モデル研究によって、この氷河発達の根本的原因は大気中の二酸化炭素濃度の低下であることが示された。

doi: 10.1038/511536a

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HIV:インターフェロンは両刃の剣

HIV: The mixed blessing of interferon p.537

サルを使った研究で、タンパク質であるインターフェロンの投与はサル免疫不全ウイルスへの感染を防止するが、投与を長期間続けると感染の慢性段階が悪化することが明らかになった。

doi: 10.1038/nature13517

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量子物理学:最もよく使われる道

Quantum physics: The path most travelled p.538

超伝導量子系が2つの選ばれた初期状態と終状態の間で発展する際のランダムなトラジェクトリーを継続的に追跡した実験により、この系の最も確率の高い経路が決定された。

doi: 10.1038/511538a

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エピジェネティクス:ヒト胚に見られる細胞記憶の消去

Epigenetics: Cellular memory erased in human embryos p.540

ヒトの卵、精子および初期胚についての2つの研究から、遺伝子転写に影響する分子レベルの修飾であるDNAメチル化が、受精後に大幅に消失することが明らかになった。

doi: 10.1038/nature13648

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マラリア:解明されたタンパク質搬出経路

Malaria: Protein-export pathway illuminated p.541

マラリア原虫のタンパク質を感染宿主細胞の細胞質内に運び出す際には、タンパク質複合体のPTEXが必要であることが2つの研究によって実証され、このようなタンパク質搬出がマラリア原虫の生存に不可欠であることが示された。

doi: 10.1038/nature13646

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Articles

がん:肺腺がんの包括的分子プロファイリング

Comprehensive molecular profiling of lung adenocarcinoma OPEN p.543

An integrated transcriptome, genome, methylome and proteome analysis of over 200 lung adenocarcinomas reveals high rates of somatic mutations, 18 statistically significantly mutated genes including RIT1 and MGA, splicing changes, and alterations in MAPK and PI(3)K pathway activity.

doi: 10.1038/nature13385

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構造生物学:トポイソメラーゼIIは減数分裂時の乗換え干渉に関与する

Topoisomerase II mediates meiotic crossover interference p.551

Topoisomerase II mediates meiotic crossover interference by adjusting the protein/DNA meshwork of chromosome axes.

doi: 10.1038/nature13442

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構造生物学:クラスC GPCRである代謝型グルタミン酸受容体5の膜貫通ドメインの構造

Structure of class C GPCR metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 transmembrane domain p.557

An X-ray structure is presented for metabotropic glutamate receptor 5, a class C G-protein-coupled glutamate receptor linked to fragile X syndrome and neurological disorders; this study provides insights into the protein’s mechanism of action.

doi: 10.1038/nature13396

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Letters

宇宙:低赤方偏移の宇宙において直径方向で対向する伴銀河の速度の反相関

Velocity anti-correlation of diametrically opposed galaxy satellites in the low-redshift Universe p.563

Measurements of the velocities of pairs of diametrically opposed satellite galaxies of host galaxies in the local Universe show that satellite pairs out to a distance of 150 kiloparsecs from their hosts are anti-correlated in their velocities and that galaxies in the larger-scale environment are strongly clumped along the axis joining the inner satellite pair.

doi: 10.1038/nature13481

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宇宙:若い連星系における整列していない原始惑星系円盤

Misaligned protoplanetary disks in a young binary star system p.567

Observations show that one or both of the protoplanetary disks in the young binary system HK Tauri are significantly inclined to the binary orbital plane, demonstrating that the necessary conditions exist for the misalignment-driven mechanisms thought to produce the unusual orbits of some extrasolar planets.

doi: 10.1038/nature13521

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量子物理学:2つの量子状態間の最適経路のマッピング

Mapping the optimal route between two quantum states p.570

Reconstruction of the quantum trajectories of a superconducting circuit that evolves under the competing influences of continuous weak measurement and Rabi drive makes it possible to deduce the most probable path through quantum state space.

doi: 10.1038/nature13559

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古気候:南極の氷河形成によって生じた始新世から漸新世への遷移期の海洋循環の変化

Antarctic glaciation caused ocean circulation changes at the Eocene–Oligocene transition p.574

A climate model is used to show that the growth of the Antarctic ice sheet at about 34 Myr ago drove changes in ocean circulation, but the opening of ocean gateways had relatively little impact.

doi: 10.1038/nature13597

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地球:小惑星の衝突による冥王代の地球地殻の広範な混合と埋設

Widespread mixing and burial of Earth’s Hadean crust by asteroid impacts p.578

A new bombardment model of the early Earth, calibrated with existing lunar and terrestrial data, shows that the Earth’s surface would have been widely reprocessed by impacts through mixing and burial by impact-generated melt; the model may also explain the age distribution of ancient zircons and the absence of early terrestrial rocks.

doi: 10.1038/nature13539

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生物地球化学:二酸化炭素濃度への草原バイオマスの応答を決定するのは年間降水量ではなく季節的降水量である

Seasonal not annual rainfall determines grassland biomass response to carbon dioxide p.583

Large annual variation in the stimulation of above-ground biomass by elevated carbon dioxide in a mixed C3/C4 temperate grassland can be predicted accurately using seasonal rainfall totals.

doi: 10.1038/nature13281

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医学:PTEXはマラリア原虫のタンパク質搬出に必須の集合体である

PTEX is an essential nexus for protein export in malaria parasites p.587

This paper demonstrates that a protein complex known as PTEX translocates all malaria parasite proteins destined for export into the cytosol of their host red blood cell.

doi: 10.1038/nature13555

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医学:PTEXの構成成分であるHSP101は多様なマラリアエフェクターの宿主赤血球への搬出を仲介する

PTEX component HSP101 mediates export of diverse malaria effectors into host erythrocytes p.592

Plasmodium parasites, the causative agent of malaria, infect and remodel red blood cells by exporting hundreds of proteins into the red blood cell cytosol, a topological conundrum given that the parasite resides in a compartment known as the parasitophorous vacuole; here a dihydrofolate-reductase-based destabilization domain approach is used to inactivate HSP101, part of the Plasmodium translocon of exported proteins, and to demonstrate that it is required for the secretion of all classes of exported Plasmodium proteins.

doi: 10.1038/nature13574

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神経科学:視覚野ニューロン全体での興奮–抑制比の均一化

Equalizing excitation–inhibition ratios across visual cortical neurons p.596

Different amounts of excitation received by different pyramidal cells of primary visual cortex are matched by proportional amounts of inhibition.

doi: 10.1038/nature13321

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医学:アカゲザルでのI型インターフェロン応答はSIV感染を防ぎ病気の進行を遅らせる

Type I interferon responses in rhesus macaques prevent SIV infection and slow disease progression p.601

The timing of type I interferon signalling determines the disease course of SIV infection.

doi: 10.1038/nature13554

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エピジェネティクス:ヒトの初期胚におけるDNAメチル化の全体像

The DNA methylation landscape of human early embryos p.606

Base-resolution maps of DNA methylation in human gametes and early embryos offer novel insights into human methylation dynamics and the functional relationship between DNA methylation and gene expression.

doi: 10.1038/nature13544

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エピジェネティクス:ヒト着床前胚のDNAメチル化動態

DNA methylation dynamics of the human preimplantation embryo p.611

Genome-scale DNA methylation maps over early human embryogenesis and embryonic stem cell derivation provide insights into shared and unique modes of regulation when compared to the mouse model, including relationships to gene expression, transposable element activity, and maternal-specific methylation.

doi: 10.1038/nature13581

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がん:共有結合性CDK7阻害剤でがんの転写制御を標的とする

Targeting transcription regulation in cancer with a covalent CDK7 inhibitor p.616

Here, a covalent inhibitor targeting cyclin-dependent kinase 7 (CDK7) demonstrates in vitro and in vivo efficacy against T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukaemia by downregulating oncogenic transcriptional programs.

doi: 10.1038/nature13393

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