Volume 511 Number 7508



Brain fog p.125

The criticism of Europe’s Human Brain Project by leading scientists reflects a messy management structure that is in urgent need of clear direction.

doi: 10.1038/511125a


Barriers to trust p.126

An outbreak of Ebola highlights the difficulties of implementing public-health measures.

doi: 10.1038/511126a


Be concerned p.126

A possible link between neonicotinoid pesticide use and a decline in bird numbers is worrying.

doi: 10.1038/511126b



Row hits flagship brain plan p.133

Changes in scope and focus of European project anger factions of neuroscience community.

doi: 10.1038/511133a


India races through environmental approvals p.134

But ecologists worry that fast turnaround will do nothing to improve quality of assessments.

doi: 10.1038/511134a


Survey probes volcano’s depths p.136

Seismic project aims to reveal plumbing of Mount St Helens.

doi: 10.1038/511136a


Biotech reels over patent ruling p.138

Firms fight for the right to patent natural products and processes.

doi: 10.1038/511138a

News Features


Research integrity: Cell-induced stress p.140


doi: 10.1038/511140a


Malaria control: The great mosquito hunt p.144


doi: 10.1038/511144a

News & Views


Animal health: How to control bovine tuberculosis p.158


doi: 10.1038/nature13514


Applied physics: A new view on displays p.159


doi: 10.1038/511159a


Stem cells: The quest for the perfect reprogrammed cell p.160


doi: 10.1038/nature13515


Neuroscience: A structure to remember p.162


doi: 10.1038/511162a


Climate science: City heat p.163


doi: 10.1038/511163a


Ocean chemistry: Fingerprints of a trace nutrient p.164


doi: 10.1038/nature13513


Behavioural economics: A caring majority secures the future p.165


doi: 10.1038/nature13510



Metabolism of stromal and immune cells in health and disease p.167

Cancer cells have been at the centre of cell metabolism research, but the metabolism of stromal and immune cells has received less attention. Nonetheless, these cells influence the progression of malignant, inflammatory and metabolic disorders. Here we discuss the metabolic adaptations of stromal and immune cells in health and disease, and highlight how metabolism determines their differentiation and function.

doi: 10.1038/nature13312



Abnormalities in human pluripotent cells due to reprogramming mechanisms p.177

Genome-wide analysis of matched human IVF embryonic stem cells (IVF ES cells), induced pluripotent stem cells (iPS cells) and nuclear transfer ES cells (NT ES cells) derived by somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) reveals that human somatic cells can be faithfully reprogrammed to pluripotency by SCNT; NT ES cells and iPS cells derived from the same somatic cells contain comparable numbers of de novo copy number variations, but whereas DNA methylation and transcriptome profiles of NT ES cells and IVF ES cells are similar, iPS cells have residual patterns typical of parental somatic cells.

doi: 10.1038/nature13551


Aryl hydrocarbon receptor control of a disease tolerance defence pathway p.184

Initial exposure to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induces endotoxin tolerance, which reduces immunological reactions to LPS; here it is shown that primary LPS challenge is controlled by AhR, TDO2 and IL-10, whereas sustained effects require AhR, IDO1 and TGF-β, allowing for disease tolerance with reduced immunopathology in infections.

doi: 10.1038/nature13323


NMDA receptor structures reveal subunit arrangement and pore architecture p.191

X-ray crystal structures are presented of the N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor, a calcium-permeable ion channel that opens upon binding of glutamate and glycine; glutamate is a key excitatory neurotransmitter and enhanced structural insight of this receptor may aid development of therapeutic small molecules.

doi: 10.1038/nature13548



Non-local propagation of correlations in quantum systems with long-range interactions p.198

Trapped ions are used to determine the speed of propagation of correlations and the causal region to which they are confined in quantum many-body systems with medium- and long-range spin interactions.

doi: 10.1038/nature13450


Quasiparticle engineering and entanglement propagation in a quantum many-body system p.202

The fine control afforded by trapped atomic ions is used to explore experimentally how the range of interactions between the ions influences the spreading of information in quantum many-body systems.

doi: 10.1038/nature13461


An optoelectronic framework enabled by low-dimensional phase-change films p.206

Here stable colour changes induced by solid-state electrical switching of ultrathin films of a germanium–antimony–telluride alloy are demonstrated, adding to its established uses in data storage; possible applications include flexible and transparent displays.

doi: 10.1038/nature13487


Quantification of dissolved iron sources to the North Atlantic Ocean p.212

A high-resolution oceanic section of dissolved iron stable isotope ratios reveals that the primary source of dissolved iron to the North Atlantic is atmospheric dust, while seafloor sediments and submarine volcanic vents also contribute significantly.

doi: 10.1038/nature13482


Strong contributions of local background climate to urban heat islands p.216

Climate modelling is used to show that for cities across North America, geographic variations in daytime urban heat islands—that is, the temperature differences between urban and adjacent rural areas—are largely explained by variations in the efficiency with which those areas convect heat to the lower atmosphere.

doi: 10.1038/nature13462


Cooperating with the future p.220

An intergenerational cooperation game has been developed to study decision-making regarding resource use: when decisions about resource extraction were made individually the resource was rapidly depleted by a minority of defectors; the resource was sustainably maintained across generations, however, when decisions were made democratically by voting.

doi: 10.1038/nature13530


Amphibians acquire resistance to live and dead fungus overcoming fungal immunosuppression p.224

The fungal pathogen Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis has been implicated in the decline of a large number of amphibian species; here it is shown that frogs can learn to avoid the pathogen, acquire resistance to it and be immunized against it using dead pathogen, findings that potentially offer a way in which resistant populations could be reintroduced into areas that have seen catastrophic declines.

doi: 10.1038/nature13491


A dynamic model of bovine tuberculosis spread and control in Great Britain p.228

Bovine tuberculosis is a major economic burden on the cattle industry, and attempts to control it have been politically controversial; here farm movement and bovine tuberculosis incidence data are used to construct a mechanistic model and tease apart the factors contributing to epidemic bovine tuberculosis spread.

doi: 10.1038/nature13529


Horizontal genome transfer as an asexual path to the formation of new species p.232

The formation of a new species can occur by an asexual mechanism by transfer of entire nuclear genomes between plant cells as shown by the creation of a new allopolyploid plant from parental herbaceous and woody plant species, this mechanism is a potential new tool for crop improvement.

doi: 10.1038/nature13291


Cntnap4 differentially contributes to GABAergic and dopaminergic synaptic transmission p.236

The molecular relationship between synaptic dysfunction and psychiatric disorders was investigated using a mouse model system; presynaptically localized Cntnap4 is required for the output of two disease-relevant neuronal subpopulations (cortical parvalbumin-positive GABAergic cells and midbrain dopaminergic neurons) and Cntnap4 mutants show behavioural abnormalities which can be pharmacologically reversed.

doi: 10.1038/nature13248


Novel somatic and germline mutations in intracranial germ cell tumours p.241

Intracranial germ cell tumours are rare tumours affecting mainly male adolescents, mainly in Asia; here the authors identify frequent mutations in the KIT/RAS and AKT/mTOR signalling pathways as well as rare germline variants in JMJD1C, suggesting potential therapeutic strategies focusing on the inhibition of KIT/RAS activation and the AKT1/mTOR pathway.

doi: 10.1038/nature13296


SOX2 controls tumour initiation and cancer stem-cell functions in squamous-cell carcinoma p.246

Here, in a mouse model of skin squamous cell carcinoma, a key role is demonstrated for the transcription factor SOX2 in the initiation and progression of skin tumours.

doi: 10.1038/nature13305

分子生物学:RNase H2およびSrs2–Exo1機構によるリボヌクレオチド誘発変異の回避

Avoidance of ribonucleotide-induced mutations by RNase H2 and Srs2-Exo1 mechanisms p.251

Srs2 helicase facilitates the removal of ribonucleoside monophosphates that are incorrectly incorporated into DNA during replication.

doi: 10.1038/nature13292

「Journal home」に戻る