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Editorials

免疫応答と神経回路形成との関連が、複数の研究で明らかになってきている。

Pregnant mice illuminate risk factors that could lead to autism p.131

Studies highlight link between immune response and unusual neural wiring.

doi: 10.1038/549131b

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エジプトの法廷は、アレクサンドリア図書館の創設者で元館長のイスマイル・セラゲルディン氏を擁護する多くのノーベル賞受賞者の声を聞くべきだ。

Support Ismail Serageldin p.131

Egypt’s courts must listen to dozens of Nobel prizewinners who have defended the founder of the Alexandria Library.

doi: 10.1038/549131a

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キリンの長い首は、高温で乾燥した環境での生存に適するよう進化してきた可能性がある。

Giraffes could have evolved long necks to keep cool p.132

Another explanation offered for one of animal kingdom’s most distinctive features.

doi: 10.1038/549132a

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News

容貌の特徴をゲノムDNAから予測できると主張する論文に、遺伝学者たちから大きな批判が。

Geneticists pan paper that claims to predict a person's face from their DNA p.139

Reviewers and a co-author of a paper by genomics entrepreneur Craig Venter claim that it misrepresents the risks of public access to genome data.

doi: 10.1038/nature.2017.22580

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英国のEU離脱計画では科学分野についても協議が進んでいるが、詳細が見えない状況に、研究者たちがいら立ちを。

Researchers riled by lack of detail in Brexit science plans p.140

UK government document fails to extinguish concerns over funding and migration.

doi: 10.1038/nature.2017.22566

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韓国の研究者たちが、ヒト胚を使った研究の規制緩和を求める動きを。

South Korean researchers lobby government to lift human-embryo restrictions p.141

Regulations are deterring research that could lead to disease treatments, say scientists.

doi: 10.1038/nature.2017.22585

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ヨルダンで、厳しさを増す水供給を改善しようと、古代の貯水施設を再利用する試みが。

Jordan seeks to become an oasis of water-saving technology p.142

As strains on the desert nation’s supply increase, scientists collaborate on projects to keep water flowing.

doi: 10.1038/549142a

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英国で2005年に始まった男女平等推進プログラムが、米国も含めて世界各地で導入を。

UK gender-equality scheme spreads across the world p.143

The United States is set to trial a version that will also cover race and disability, while other countries have already embraced the voluntary rating system.

doi: 10.1038/549143a

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News Features

ビジネス:トイレから生まれる経済

The new economy of excrement p.146

ヒトの排泄物を肥料や燃料、飼料などの有用な製品に変え、事業化する動きが進んでいる。

doi: 10.1038/549146a

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News & Views

微生物学:少ないアンモニアをめぐる戦い

Microbiology: A fight for scraps of ammonia p.162

アンモニアを酸化して亜硝酸を作り、さらに亜硝酸を酸化して硝酸を作ることができる細菌は、予想に反して、アンモニアを酸化して亜硝酸を作ることしかできない培養微生物の大半よりアンモニアに乏しい環境に適応しているようだ。

doi: 10.1038/549162a

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光物理学:宇宙論のレーザーモデル

Optical physics: A laser model for cosmology p.163

ビッグバンの直後を支配する法則が結合レーザーのふるまいにも当てはまることが、実験によって明らかになった。この知見を用いて、複雑な計算問題を解けるかもしれない。

doi: 10.1038/549163a

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がん:分裂の階層性から細胞の不均質性が生じる

Cancer: Division hierarchy leads to cell heterogeneity p.164

細胞の多様性は、がん治療を妨げることがある。今回、腫瘍の細胞分裂パターンの解析から、さまざまな細胞のモザイクをもたらす幹細胞分裂の階層的パターンによって、こうした不均質性が生じる仕組みが明らかになった。

doi: 10.1038/nature23546

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気候科学:アジアの氷河の行く末

Climate science: The future of Asia's glaciers p.166

アジアの高山地帯の氷河は重要な水源であるが、地球温暖化の危険に直面している。氷河がさらされている温暖化に直接比例して、氷河の質量が減ることが、モデリングによって今回示唆された。

doi: 10.1038/549166a

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古生物学:系統樹に見つかったたくさんの近縁種

Palaeontology: Plenty of fish in the tree p.167

ポリプテルス科の魚類は、初期に分岐した硬骨魚類の遠縁であると考えられている。今回、化石の分析によって、ポリプテルス類の進化の時期が根本的に変更され、条鰭類の中心に配置された。

doi: 10.1038/549167a

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材料科学:ナノ磁石が熱電出力を増強する

Materials science: Nanomagnets boost thermoelectric output p.169

一部の材料では、少数の磁性ナノ粒子を埋め込むことによって、熱電効果と呼ばれる可逆的過程である熱から電気への直接変換を大きく向上できる。

doi: 10.1038/549169a

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Perspective

遺伝学:4Dヌクレオームプロジェクト

The 4D nucleome project p.219

The 4D Nucleome Network aims to develop and apply approaches to map the structure and dynamics of the human and mouse genomes in space and time with the goal of gaining deeper mechanistic insights into how the nucleus is organized and functions. The project will develop and benchmark experimental and computational approaches for measuring genome conformation and nuclear organization, and investigate how these contribute to gene regulation and other genome functions. Validated experimental technologies will be combined with biophysical approaches to generate quantitative models of spatial genome organization in different biological states, both in cell populations and in single cells.

doi: 10.1038/nature23884

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Review

気候科学:成層圏オゾン層の回復の検出

Detecting recovery of the stratospheric ozone layer p.211

An overview of the nature and timescales of stratospheric ozone recovery and the extent to which it can currently be detected.

doi: 10.1038/nature23681

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Articles

がん:ヒト神経膠芽腫の運命地図作製から明らかになった幹細胞の不変の階層性

Fate mapping of human glioblastoma reveals an invariant stem cell hierarchy p.227

Using unique barcodes for tumour cells, the authors explore the dynamics of human glioblastoma subpopulations, and suggest that clonal heterogeneity emerges through stochastic fate decisions of a neutral proliferative hierarchy.

doi: 10.1038/nature23666

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構造生物学:MsbAが介在するリポ多糖輸送の構造基盤

Structural basis of MsbA-mediated lipopolysaccharide transport p.233

Cryo-electron microscopy snapshots of the E. coli flippase MsbA at discrete functional states reveal a ‘trap and flip’ mechanism for lipopolysaccharide flipping and the conformational transitions of MsbA during its substrate transport cycle.

doi: 10.1038/nature23649

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Letters

天文学:ホットジュピターの大気中の酸化チタンの検出

Detection of titanium oxide in the atmosphere of a hot Jupiter p.238

Titanium oxide, water, sodium and a strongly scattering haze have been detected in the atmosphere of the hot Jupiter exoplanet WASP-19b.

doi: 10.1038/nature23651

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量子物理学:小分子と量子磁性体の計算のためのハードウエア効率の高い変分量子固有値ソルバー

Hardware-efficient variational quantum eigensolver for small molecules and quantum magnets p.242

The ground-state energy of small molecules is determined efficiently using six qubits of a superconducting quantum processor.

doi: 10.1038/nature23879

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ナノスケール材料:超常磁性による熱電性能の強化

Superparamagnetic enhancement of thermoelectric performance p.247

By embedding superparamagnetic nanoparticles in a thermoelectric matrix, phonon and electron transport within the material can be controlled simultaneously at nanometre and mesoscopic length scales, thereby improving the thermoelectric performance of the material.

doi: 10.1038/nature23667

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物性物理学:単一スピン磁力計による非共線的反強磁性秩序の実空間画像化

Real-space imaging of non-collinear antiferromagnetic order with a single-spin magnetometer p.252

A non-invasive scanning magnetometer, based on a single nitrogen–vacancy defect in diamond, visualizes antiferromagnetic order at the nanometre scale in thin films of bismuth ferrite at room temperature.

doi: 10.1038/nature23656

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気候科学:全球気温の1.5°Cの上昇がアジアの氷河に及ぼす影響

Impact of a global temperature rise of 1.5 degrees Celsius on Asia’s glaciers p.257

Models show that even if global temperature rise can be limited to 1.5 degrees Celsius, only about 65 per cent of glacier mass will remain in the high mountains of Asia by the end of this century, and if temperatures rise by more than this the effects will be much more extreme.

doi: 10.1038/nature23878

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生態学:野生での生物多様性の影響は一般的で、生産力の主要な駆動要因と同等の強さを持つ

Biodiversity effects in the wild are common and as strong as key drivers of productivity p.261

A synthesis of 67 biodiversity studies shows that, after controlling for environmental covariates, the effects of biodiversity on biomass are stronger in nature than in experiments and are comparable to the effects of other drivers of productivity.

doi: 10.1038/nature23886

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進化学:現生の条鰭類魚類の起源がより新しいことを示す「生きた化石」系統の初期の構成種

Early members of ‘living fossil’ lineage imply later origin of modern ray-finned fishes p.265

High-resolution scans of fossilized fish skulls suggest that modern ray-finned fishes originated later than previously thought and necessitate reconsideration of the evolution of this major vertebrate group.

doi: 10.1038/nature23654

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微生物学:完全硝化菌の速度論的解析により、貧栄養状態の生活様式が判明

Kinetic analysis of a complete nitrifier reveals an oligotrophic lifestyle p.269

A pure culture of the complete nitrifier Nitrospira inopinata shows a high affinity for ammonia, low maximum rate of ammonia oxidation, high growth yield compared to canonical nitrifiers and genomic potential for alternative metabolisms, probably reflecting an important role in nitrification in oligotrophic environments.

doi: 10.1038/nature23679

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幹細胞:m6Aは造血幹・前駆細胞の運命指定を調節する

m6A modulates haematopoietic stem and progenitor cell specification p.273

N6-methyladenosine (m6A) has been identified as the most abundant modification on eukaryote messenger RNA (mRNA) 1. Although the rapid development of high-throughput sequencing technologies has enabled insight into the biological functions of m6A modification2–13, the function of m6A during vertebrate embryogenesis remains poorly understood. Here we show that m6A determines cell fate during the endothelial-to-haematopoietic transition (EHT) to specify the earliest haematopoietic stem/progenitor cells (HSPCs) during zebrafish embryogenesis. m6Aspecific methylated RNA immunoprecipitation combined with high-throughput sequencing (MeRIP–seq) and m6A individualnucleotide-resolution cross-linking and immunoprecipitation with sequencing (miCLIP–seq) analyses reveal conserved features on zebrafish m6A methylome and preferential distribution of m6A peaks near the stop codon with a consensus RRACH motif. In mettl3-deficient embryos, levels of m6A are significantly decreased and emergence of HSPCs is blocked. Mechanistically, we identify that the delayed YTHDF2-mediated mRNA decay of the arterial endothelial genes notch1a and rhoca contributes to this deleterious effect. The continuous activation of Notch signalling in arterial endothelial cells of mettl3-deficient embryos blocks EHT, thereby repressing the generation of the earliest HSPCs. Furthermore, knockdown of Mettl3 in mice confers a similar phenotype. Collectively, our findings demonstrate the critical function of m6A modification in the fate determination of HSPCs during vertebrate embryogenesis.

doi: 10.1038/nature23883

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免疫学:ニューロンによるニューロメジンUを介する2型自然リンパ球の調節

Neuronal regulation of type 2 innate lymphoid cells via neuromedin U p.277

Group 2 innate lymphoid cells express the neuromedin U receptor 1 (NMUR1) and respond to neuromedin U (NMU) released by adjacent enteric neurons, and this interaction results in an enhanced immediate early response to the nematode Nippostrongylus brasiliensis.

doi: 10.1038/nature23469

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免疫学:神経ペプチドであるニューロメジンUは自然リンパ球や2型炎症を刺激する

The neuropeptide neuromedin U stimulates innate lymphoid cells and type 2 inflammation p.282

Intestinal type 2 innate lymphoid cells express the neuropeptide receptor NMUR1, which makes them responsive to neuronal neuromedin U, thereby promoting a type 2 cytokine response and accelerated expulsion of the gastro-intestinal nematode Nippostrongylus brasiliensis.

doi: 10.1038/nature23676

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構造生物学:ポリコーム様タンパク質がPRC2複合体をCpGアイランドへ連結する

Polycomb-like proteins link the PRC2 complex to CpG islands p.287

Crystal structures of the Polycomb-like proteins PHF1 and MTF2 with bound DNA and histone peptides show that extended homologous regions of the two proteins form a winged-helix structure that has an unexpected mechanism of binding to unmethylated CpG-containing DNA motifs.

doi: 10.1038/nature23881

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