目次

Editorials

新たな種類のスキルミオンが観測されたことで、スピントロニクスコンピューターへの応用がより現実味を帯びてきた。

Magnetic antiparticle expands strange field of swirling science p.371

Antiskyrmion offers promise for superfast spintronic computers.

doi: 10.1038/548371b

スポーツでの頭部外傷の深刻さがようやく認識されるようになってきており、さまざまな課題の解決に向けて今こそ科学が役割を果たすべきだ。

Head injuries in sport must be taken more seriously p.371

Sports organizations are only starting to understand the harm that can be inflicted by high-contact activities. Science must play its part in highlighting the problem and in aiding diagnosis.

doi: 10.1038/548371a

News

気候関連データが近年膨大になってきており、そうした解析に機械学習技術が威力を。

How machine learning could help to improve climate forecasts p.379

Mixing artificial intelligence with climate science helps researchers to identify previously unknown atmospheric processes and rank climate models.

doi: 10.1038/548379a

超新星爆発の起こる過程が2種類あることを示す証拠が見つかり、標準光源としての有効性に疑いが。

Supernova’s messy birth casts doubt on reliability of astronomical yardstick p.380

Brightness of exploding stars may vary more than researchers realized.

doi: 10.1038/nature.2017.22066

オーストラリアでの生態系監視ネットワークへの予算打ち切りに、生態学者が異議を。

Ecologists protest Australia’s plans to cut funding for environment-monitoring network p.381

Scientists say the move will reduce the country’s capacity to predict future ecosystem changes.

doi: 10.1038/nature.2017.22453

流体の乱流によるエネルギーの移動と散逸の仕組みが明らかに。

Mysteries of turbulence unravelled p.382

Simulations follow how swirls in a fluid transfer and dissipate energy.

doi: 10.1038/nature.2017.22474

盗難のリスクが露呈したことで、考古学的遺物の発掘地近くでの保管・展示が進まない恐れが。

Theft of South African relics riles researchers p.383

Efforts to relocate artefacts to sites of origin could stall after gold robbery at national park.

doi: 10.1038/nature.2017.22479

News Features

地球科学:忍び寄る大災害

Creeping earth could hold secret to deadly landslides p.384

甚大な被害をもたらすゆっくりとした地すべりは、技術の進歩により詳細な研究が行われるようになってきている。

doi: 10.1038/548384a

News & Views

神経生物学:極めて多様なアストロサイト

Neurobiology: Diversity reaches the stars p.396

アストロサイトと呼ばれる細胞は、神経機能を促進・維持している。今回、アストロサイトの遺伝子発現、タンパク質レベル、細胞の構造と機能がさまざまであることが見いだされ、異なる複数の回路を支えるよう特殊化していることが示唆された。

doi: 10.1038/548396a

重力波:スピンから明らかになったブラックホールの履歴

Gravitational waves: History of black holes revealed by their spin p.397

2つのブラックホールの合体に伴う重力波をほぼ確実に検出したことが、これまでに4回報告されている。重力波信号の解析によって、そうしたブラックホール系に関する理論の検証が可能になった。

doi: 10.1038/548397a

生物工学:ヒト胚における遺伝子編集の核心

Biotechnology: At the heart of gene edits in human embryos p.398

今回、遺伝子編集技術CRISPR–Casをin vitroで育てられたヒト胚に用いて、疾患関連変異が修正された。編集した構成要素を受精時に導入すると、修復効率が向上した。

doi: 10.1038/nature23533

材料科学:競争に復帰した磁性分子

Materials science: Magnetic molecules back in the race p.400

単分子磁石には、データ記憶に応用できる可能性があるが、これまでに実証されている温度よりずっと高い温度で機能する必要がある。今回、2つの論文によって、近い将来この目標を達成できる可能性が示唆された。

doi: 10.1038/548400a

遺伝学:ハエの翅の進化における変異の役割

Genetics: Role of mutation in fly-wing evolution p.401

ハエの翅について種内および種間での多様性を解析したところ、その進化速度が予想外に遅いことが明らかになった。変異による多様性と種間の相違は同程度であり、おそらく複雑な遺伝的相互作用の結果であると思われる。

doi: 10.1038/nature23536

大気科学:太古の氷と全球のメタン循環

Atmospheric science: Ancient ice and the global methane cycle p.403

1万2000年前の南極の氷の分析によって、大気へのメタンの自然放出に関する理解が修正され、急激な温暖化事象に対する天然のメタン源の感度の見積もりが絞り込まれた。

doi: 10.1038/548403a

グローバルヘルス:プロバイオティクスが新生児の感染症を防ぐ

Global health: Probiotic prevents infections in newborns p.404

乳児の死亡と疾病の主な原因は、致死的な感染症を防ぐ免疫系の発達不全である。今回、そうした感染症を防ぐのにプロバイオティクスの使用が役立ち得るという臨床試験の結果が報告された。

doi: 10.1038/nature23540

Articles

微生物学:インド農村部における乳児の敗血症予防のための無作為化シンバイオティクス試験

A randomized synbiotic trial to prevent sepsis among infants in rural India p.407

A synbiotic preparation of Lactobacillus plantarum and fructooligosaccharide was found to significantly reduce sepsis and infections of the lower respiratory tract in a trial involving newborns from rural India.

doi: 10.1038/nature23480

発生学:ヒト胚における病原性遺伝子変異の修正

Correction of a pathogenic gene mutation in human embryos p.413

CRISPR–Cas9 genome editing is used to induce a DNA repair response and correct a disease-causing heterozygous mutation in human embryos with reduced mosaicism and preferential repair using the wild-type copy of the gene.

doi: 10.1038/nature23305

構造生物学:ニューロンのエキソサイトーシスに備えてプライミングされたSNARE–コンプレキシン–シナプトタグミン複合体

The primed SNARE–complexin–synaptotagmin complex for neuronal exocytosis p.420

An atomic model of the primed pre-fusion SNARE–complexin–synaptotagmin-1 complex in neuronal exocytosis accounting for vesicle priming and cooperation in synchronizing and activating evoked release on the sub-millisecond timescale.

doi: 10.1038/nature23484

Letters

天文学:スピンが整列したブラックホール集団と等方的なブラックホール集団の、重力波を用いた識別

Distinguishing spin-aligned and isotropic black hole populations with gravitational waves p.426

The spins of the black holes involved in each of the four mergers that have been detected in gravitational waves so far were either small or not aligned with the binary orbit.

doi: 10.1038/nature23453

天文学:高赤方偏移スターバースト銀河の周りにある冷たい分子ガスの巨大な乱流リザーバー

Large turbulent reservoirs of cold molecular gas around high-redshift starburst galaxies p.430

Starburst galaxies at the peak of cosmic star formation are among the most extreme star-forming engines in the Universe, producing stars over about 100 million years (ref. 2). The star-formation rates of these galaxies, which exceed 100 solar masses per year, require large reservoirs of cold molecular gas to be delivered to their cores, despite strong feedback from stars or active galactic nuclei. Consequently, starburst galaxies are ideal for studying the interplay between this feedback and the growth of a galaxy. The methylidyne cation, CH+, is a most useful molecule for such studies because it cannot form in cold gas without suprathermal energy input, so its presence indicates dissipation of mechanical energy or strong ultraviolet irradiation. Here we report the detection of CH+ (J = 1–0) emission and absorption lines in the spectra of six lensed starburst galaxies at redshifts near 2.5. This line has such a high critical density for excitation that it is emitted only in very dense gas, and is absorbed in low-density gas. We find that the CH+ emission lines, which are broader than 1,000 kilometres per second, originate in dense shock waves powered by hot galactic winds. The CH+ absorption lines reveal highly turbulent reservoirs of cool (about 100 kelvin), low-density gas, extending far (more than 10 kiloparsecs) outside the starburst galaxies (which have radii of less than 1 kiloparsec). We show that the galactic winds sustain turbulence in the 10-kiloparsec-scale environments of the galaxies, processing these environments into multiphase, gravitationally bound reservoirs. However, the mass outflow rates are found to be insufficient to balance the star-formation rates. Another mass input is therefore required for these reservoirs, which could be provided by ongoing mergers or cold-stream accretion. Our results suggest that galactic feedback, coupled jointly to turbulence and gravity, extends the starburst phase of a galaxy instead of quenching it.

doi: 10.1038/nature23298

ナノスケール材料:先進ナノワイヤー量子デバイスのエピタキシー

Epitaxy of advanced nanowire quantum devices p.434

A finely tuned growth strategy to generate nanowire networks that fulfil all the prerequisites for braiding may lead to a demonstration of Majorana braiding.

doi: 10.1038/nature23468

化学:ジスプロソセニウムにおける60 Kでの分子の磁気ヒステリシス

Molecular magnetic hysteresis at 60 kelvin in dysprosocenium p.439

Magnetic hysteresis is observed in a dysprosocenium complex at temperatures of up to 60 kelvin, the origin of which is the localized metal–ligand vibrational modes unique to dysprosocenium.

doi: 10.1038/nature23447

大気科学:ヤンガードライアス期からプレボレアル期の急激な温暖化事象における地質学的なメタンの最小放出量

Minimal geological methane emissions during the Younger Dryas–Preboreal abrupt warming event p.443

Methane (CH4) is a powerful greenhouse gas and plays a key part in global atmospheric chemistry. Natural geological emissions (fossil methane vented naturally from marine and terrestrial seeps and mud volcanoes) are thought to contribute around 52 teragrams of methane per year to the global methane source, about 10 per cent of the total, but both bottom-up methods (measuring emissions) and top-down approaches (measuring atmospheric mole fractions and isotopes) for constraining these geological emissions have been associated with large uncertainties. Here we use ice core measurements to quantify the absolute amount of radiocarbon-containing methane (14CH4) in the past atmosphere and show that geological methane emissions were no higher than 15.4 teragrams per year (95 per cent confidence), averaged over the abrupt warming event that occurred between the Younger Dryas and Preboreal intervals, approximately 11,600 years ago. Assuming that past geological methane emissions were no lower than today, our results indicate that current estimates of today’s natural geological methane emissions (about 52 teragrams per year) are too high and, by extension, that current estimates of anthropogenic fossil methane emissions are too low. Our results also improve on and confirm earlier findings that the rapid increase of about 50 per cent in mole fraction of atmospheric methane at the Younger Dryas–Preboreal event was driven by contemporaneous methane from sources such as wetlands; our findings constrain the contribution from old carbon reservoirs (marine methane hydrates, permafrost and methane trapped under ice) to 19 per cent or less (95 per cent confidence). To the extent that the characteristics of the most recent deglaciation and the Younger Dryas–Preboreal warming are comparable to those of the current anthropogenic warming, our measurements suggest that large future atmospheric releases of methane from old carbon sources are unlikely to occur.

doi: 10.1038/nature23316

遺伝学:変異から予測されるハエの翅の4000万年にわたる進化

Mutation predicts 40 million years of fly wing evolution p.447

A detailed analysis of fly wing phenotypes reveals a strong positive relationship between variation produced by mutation, standing genetic variation, and evolutionary rate over the past 40 million years.

doi: 10.1038/nature23473

幹細胞:間質のR-spondinは胃の上皮幹細胞と腺恒常性を統御する

Stromal R-spondin orchestrates gastric epithelial stem cells and gland homeostasis p.451

Myofibroblast-derived R-spondin 3 orchestrates regeneration of antral stomach epithelium via Wnt signalling in Axin2+ stem cells.

doi: 10.1038/nature23642

幹細胞:Polyloxバーコーディングによってin vivoで明らかになった造血幹細胞の運命

Polylox barcoding reveals haematopoietic stem cell fates realized in vivo p.456

Developmental deconvolution of complex organs and tissues at the level of individual cells remains challenging. Non-invasive genetic fate mapping1 has been widely used, but the low number of distinct fluorescent marker proteins limits its resolution. Much higher numbers of cell markers have been generated using viral integration sites2, viral barcodes3, and strategies based on transposons4 and CRISPR–Cas9 genome editing5; however, temporal and tissuespecific induction of barcodes in situ has not been achieved. Here we report the development of an artificial DNA recombination locus (termed Polylox) that enables broadly applicable endogenous barcoding based on the Cre–loxP recombination system6,7. Polylox recombination in situ reaches a practical diversity of several hundred thousand barcodes, allowing tagging of single cells. We have used this experimental system, combined with fate mapping, to assess haematopoietic stem cell (HSC) fates in vivo. Classical models of haematopoietic lineage specification assume a tree with few major branches. More recently, driven in part by the development of more efficient single-cell assays and improved transplantation efficiencies, different models have been proposed, in which unilineage priming may occur in mice and humans at the level of HSCs8–10. We have introduced barcodes into HSC progenitors in embryonic mice, and found that the adult HSC compartment is a mosaic of embryoderived HSC clones, some of which are unexpectedly large. Most HSC clones gave rise to multilineage or oligolineage fates, arguing against unilineage priming, and suggesting coherent usage of the potential of cells in a clone. The spreading of barcodes, both after induction in embryos and in adult mice, revealed a basic split between common myeloid–erythroid development and common lymphocyte development, supporting the long-held but contested view of a tree-like haematopoietic structure.

doi: 10.1038/nature23653

細胞生物学:cGASによる微小核の監視がゲノム不安定性と自然免疫を結び付ける

cGAS surveillance of micronuclei links genome instability to innate immunity p.461

The cytoplasmic DNA sensor cGAS detects DNA in ruptured micronuclei and activates an innate immune response.

doi: 10.1038/nature23449

細胞生物学:DNA損傷後の有糸分裂進行は微小核内でのパターン認識を可能にする

Mitotic progression following DNA damage enables pattern recognition within micronuclei p.466

The authors report a link between mitosis, the formation of micronuclei and DNA-damage-induced cGAS-dependent inflammation.

doi: 10.1038/nature23470

がん:CDK4/6阻害は抗腫瘍免疫を誘導する

CDK4/6 inhibition triggers anti-tumour immunity p.471

Mouse models of breast carcinoma and other solid tumours show that selective cyclin-dependent kinase 4 and 6 (CDK4/6) inhibitors not only induce tumour cell cycle arrest but also promote anti-tumour immunity.

doi: 10.1038/nature23465

薬学:フェネチリン精神作用のワクチンによる薬力学的解析と軽減

Vaccine-driven pharmacodynamic dissection and mitigation of fenethylline psychoactivity p.476

A vaccine-driven approach shows that the prominent stimulant features of the psychoactive profile of fenethylline can be attributed to amphetamine, with synergistic support from theophylline, and no direct contributions from the parent drug molecule.

doi: 10.1038/nature23464

構造生物学:X線結晶構造から明らかになった、細胞に内在するアロステリックβ2ARアンタゴニストの作用機序

Mechanism of intracellular allosteric β2AR antagonist revealed by X-ray crystal structure p.480

G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) pose challenges for drug discovery efforts because of the high degree of structural homology in the orthosteric pocket, particularly for GPCRs within a single subfamily, such as the nine adrenergic receptors. Allosteric ligands may bind to less-conserved regions of these receptors and therefore are more likely to be selective. Unlike orthosteric ligands, which tonically activate or inhibit signalling, allosteric ligands modulate physiologic responses to hormones and neurotransmitters, and may therefore have fewer adverse effects. The majority of GPCR crystal structures published to date were obtained with receptors bound to orthosteric antagonists, and only a few structures bound to allosteric ligands have been reported. Compound 15 (Cmpd-15) is an allosteric modulator of the β2 adrenergic receptor (β2AR) that was recently isolated from a DNA-encoded small-molecule library. Orthosteric β-adrenergic receptor antagonists, known as beta-blockers, are amongst the most prescribed drugs in the world and Cmpd-15 is the first allosteric beta-blocker. Cmpd-15 exhibits negative cooperativity with agonists and positive cooperativity with inverse agonists. Here we present the structure of the β2AR bound to a polyethylene glycol-carboxylic acid derivative (Cmpd-15PA) of this modulator. Cmpd-15PA binds to a pocket formed primarily by the cytoplasmic ends of transmembrane segments 1, 2, 6 and 7 as well as intracellular loop 1 and helix 8. A comparison of this structure with inactive- and active-state structures of the β2AR reveals the mechanism by which Cmpd-15 modulates agonist binding affinity and signalling.

doi: 10.1038/nature23652

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