Volume 547 Number 7662


米国疾病管理予防センター(CDC)の新所長Brenda Fitzgeraldは、科学研究経験はないが、女性や子どもの健康問題には熱心に取り組むだろう。

Proposed US public-health chief is a champion for women and children p.137

In sharp contrast to President Trump, Brenda Fitzgerald has put maternal and child health at the heart of her policies.

doi: 10.1038/547137b


Don’t pay prizes for published science p.137

China and other countries should look again at how they pay bonuses and allocate grants that are based on individual research papers.

doi: 10.1038/547137a


Let’s talk about sex robots p.138

Interactions between humans and robots may eventually include sex.

doi: 10.1038/547138a



White House’s dwindling science office leaves major research programmes in limbo p.145

Pared-back staff struggles to continue cybersecurity, climate-change and science-education efforts without direction from the Trump administration.

doi: 10.1038/547145a


Why planetary scientists want better fake space dirt p.146

Artificial soils that mimic the surfaces of the Moon, Mars and asteroids are hard to make — and often miss the mark.

doi: 10.1038/nature.2017.22228


Massive database of 182,000 leaves is helping predict plants' family trees p.147

The technique could be used on everything from flowers to cells to examine the factors that influence the shapes of plant parts.

doi: 10.1038/nature.2017.22230


Tricks to mute quantum noise aid hunt for gravitational waves p.148

Physicists find ways to make LIGO and other gravitational-wave detectors even more sensitive.

doi: 10.1038/547148a


Ancient-genome studies grapple with Africa’s past p.149

Clutch of DNA analyses show that ancient humans moved around on the continent far more than has been appreciated.

doi: 10.1038/nature.2017.22272

News Features


How poverty affects the brain p.150


doi: 10.1038/547150a

News & Views


Precision measurement: Sensing past the quantum limit p.164


doi: 10.1038/547164a


Cancer: Precision T-cell therapy targets tumours p.165


doi: 10.1038/nature23093


Biogeochemistry: Arctic plants take up mercury vapour p.167


doi: 10.1038/547167a


Molecular biology: A liquid reservoir for silent chromatin p.168


doi: 10.1038/nature23089


Neurodegeneration: Taming tangled tau p.170


doi: 10.1038/nature23094


Bioengineering: Bile ducts regenerated p.171

今回、胆管の内側を覆う細胞集団を分離し拡大するプロトコルが開発され、生物工学的な胆管をin vitroで発生させることが可能になった。そして、こうした胆管をマウスへ移植すると、天然の胆管を置き換えることができた。

doi: 10.1038/547171a



Fine-mapping inflammatory bowel disease loci to single-variant resolution p.173

Results of fine-mapping 94 inflammatory bowel disease loci using high-density genotyping in 67,852 individuals and several new fine-mapping methods.

doi: 10.1038/nature22969


The extracellular matrix protein agrin promotes heart regeneration in mice p.179

The extracellular matrix protein agrin promotes cardiac regeneration in adult mice after myocardial infarction; it modulates cardiac differentiation and proliferation by interacting with the dystrophin–glycoprotein complex, Yap and ERK-mediated signalling.

doi: 10.1038/nature22978


Cryo-EM structures of tau filaments from Alzheimer’s disease p.185

High-resolution structures of tau filaments shed light on the ultrastructure of neurofibrillary lesions in Alzheimer’s disease.

doi: 10.1038/nature23002



Quantum back-action-evading measurement of motion in a negative mass reference frame p.191

By coupling a mechanical object to an ensemble of atomic spins with negative effective mass, the object’s position can be measured without the usual quantum back-action perturbation of its momentum.

doi: 10.1038/nature22980


Catalytic allylic oxidation of internal alkenes to a multifunctional chiral building block p.196

Non-symmetric internal alkenes are selectively converted into allylic functionalized products with high stereoselectivity and regioselectivity.

doi: 10.1038/nature22805


Tundra uptake of atmospheric elemental mercury drives Arctic mercury pollution p.201

A two-year study of mercury deposition in the Arctic finds that the main source of mercury is gaseous elemental mercury, which is deposited throughout the year and leads to very high soil mercury levels.

doi: 10.1038/nature22997


The pyrite-type high-pressure form of FeOOH p.205

The pyrite-type high-pressure form of FeOOH is predicted from first principles, and found experimentally to be stable under the conditions at the base of the mantle, with implications for transport of water within Earth’s deep interior.

doi: 10.1038/nature22823


Pre-oral gut contributes to facial structures in non-teleost fishes p.209

In contrast to the prevailing belief that the gut begins with the mouth and continues backwards from there, this work shows that substantial areas of the faces of ray-finned fishes originate from the pre-oral gut or endoderm.

doi: 10.1038/nature23008


Nutrient sensing modulates malaria parasite virulence p.213

Malaria parasites use a sensing mechanism to moderate their growth in response to the nutrient content of their host.

doi: 10.1038/nature23009


An immunogenic personal neoantigen vaccine for patients with melanoma p.217

The results of a phase I trial assessing a personal neoantigen multi-peptide vaccine in patients with melanoma, showing feasibility, safety, and immunogenicity.

doi: 10.1038/nature22991


Personalized RNA mutanome vaccines mobilize poly-specific therapeutic immunity against cancer p.222

The authors report the first-in-human application of personalized neo-antigen RNA vaccines in patients with melanoma.

doi: 10.1038/nature23003


Dystrophin–glycoprotein complex sequesters Yap to inhibit cardiomyocyte proliferation p.227

After injury in the heart, postnatal mouse hearts deficient in the Hippo pathway show efficient repair, and in the hearts of Mdx mice (a model of Duchenne muscular dystrophy) Hippo deficiency protects against overload-induced heart failure.

doi: 10.1038/nature22979


Allelic reprogramming of 3D chromatin architecture during early mammalian development p.232

A low-input Hi-C method is used to show that chromatin organization is markedly relaxed in pre-implantation mouse embryos after fertilization and that the subsequent maturation of 3D chromatin architecture is surprisingly slow.

doi: 10.1038/nature23263


Liquid droplet formation by HP1α suggests a role for phase separation in heterochromatin p.236

Phosphorylation or DNA binding promotes the physical partitioning of HP1α out of a soluble aqueous phase into droplets, suggesting that the repressive action of heterochromatin may in part be mediated by the phase separation of HP1.

doi: 10.1038/nature22822


Phase separation drives heterochromatin domain formation p.241

HP1a can nucleate into foci that display liquid properties during the early stages of heterochromatin domain formation in Drosophila embryos, suggesting that the repressive action of heterochromatin may be mediated in part by emergent properties of phase separation.

doi: 10.1038/nature22989

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