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Editorials

ロシアのプーチン大統領は、孤立主義では科学も政治も行き詰まることを理解し、国際協力を建設的に進めるべきだ。

Russian science at the crossroads p.5

Upheaval in the former superpower is bad for research and the wider world.

doi: 10.1038/539005a

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哺乳類の体表の模様に関わる遺伝子の解明が進んでいる。

Deciphering the genes that give mammals their stripes and patterns p.5

Researchers spot genes in an African mouse to identify the genetics of developmental patterning.

doi: 10.1038/539005b

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研究者は政治家に対し、科学的証拠の追求が現実とはかけ離れたものではないことを知らせる必要がある。

Twitterstorm shows why scientific evidence matters p.6

An MP’s dismissive tweet that scientists have ‘no experience of the real world’ highlights a chasm in mutual understanding.

doi: 10.1038/539006a

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News

画期的な外交努力によって、南極海域の世界最大の海洋保護区設定がついに合意へ。

World’s largest marine reserve hailed as diplomatic breakthrough p.13

Antarctic agreement follows years of failed discussions and represents the first major conservation effort in the high seas.

doi: 10.1038/nature.2016.20900

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多くの若手科学者が、バイオ企業の立ち上げという賭けに。

Young scientists ditch postdocs for biotech start-ups p.14

Many biologists are founding their own firms as venture capitalists show increased interest in science.

doi: 10.1038/539014a

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宇宙線が、NASAの宇宙環境観測衛星DSCOVRの障害の原因となっている恐れが。

Cosmic rays may threaten space-weather satellite p.15

DSCOVR’s computer may be suffering from radiation-induced glitches, months after it became the primary sentinel for incoming solar storms.

doi: 10.1038/nature.2016.20880

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作物の遺伝子改変にCRISPR–Cas9などの最新の手法を取り入れようと、研究者たちがさまざまな努力を。

Plant-genome hackers seek better ways to produce customized crops p.16

As gene editing opens doors, plant researchers are hamstrung by the need for better ways to slip their molecular tools into cells.

doi: 10.1038/539016a

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ブラジルとコロンビアの都市部で、ジカウイルスなどの媒介能を弱める細菌に感染させた蚊を利用した、大規模なウイルス対策の試みが。

Rio fights Zika with biggest release yet of bacteria-infected mosquitoes p.17

Wolbachia-infected mosquitoes will be widely deployed in two South American cities to combat viral infections.

doi: 10.1038/nature.2016.20878

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米国立精神衛生研究所(NIMH)の新所長Joshua Gordon氏に訊く。

US mental-health chief: psychiatry must get serious about mathematics p.18

Joshua Gordon says that his focus at the National Institute of Mental Health will be on quick wins, brain circuits and mathematical rigour.

doi: 10.1038/nature.2016.20893

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News Features

エネルギー:風と太陽がアフリカの未来を動かす?

Can wind and solar fuel Africa's future? p.20

再生可能エネルギーの価格が低下すれば、アフリカの多くの国が、化石燃料エネルギーの力を借りることなく、クリーンなエネルギーのみで未来を築ける可能性がある。

doi: 10.1038/539020a

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News & Views

行動生物学:波紋を生じかねない石

Behavioural biology: Stones that could cause ripples p.34

サルが石を打ち割る様子の観察から、石が割れる際に、鋭い縁を持つ、石器に似た形の石片が偶然できることが分かった。故意に石を割るというこの行動は、意図的な石の加工の進化について疑問を投げ掛けるものだ。

doi: 10.1038/nature19484

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DNA修復:テロメア伸長機構の解明

DNA repair: Telomere-lengthening mechanism revealed p.35

染色体の末端部分が短くなると細胞の寿命が制限されるようになる。がん細胞の一部は、テロメアの代替伸長と呼ばれる機構を介してこうした運命を回避している。この機構の分子的詳細が今回明らかにされた。

doi: 10.1038/nature19483

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流体力学:量子気体中の乱流

Fluid dynamics: Turbulence in a quantum gas p.36

極低温原子気体に多数の波長にわたる音波のカスケードが見つかったことは、量子力学の原理によって支配される流体中の乱流についての我々の理解を進展させると考えられる。

doi: 10.1038/539036a

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細胞生物学:アルギニンのリン酸化は「ゴミ」の印

Cell biology: Phosphate on, rubbish out p.38

細胞が分解すべきタンパク質に目印を付けるための、これまで知られていなかった方法が細菌で見つかった。アミノ酸のアルギニンがリン酸化されると、そのタンパク質はプロテアーゼによる分解の標的となるのである。

doi: 10.1038/539038a

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言語学:世界の言語に見られる発音音声と意味の関係

Linguistics: Sound and meaning in the world's languages p.39

ある特定の意味を表す語を発音したときの音は、言語によってさまざまであると一般に考えられている。だが、言語についての大規模な研究から、発音された音と意味の間にある程度の関連が広く見られることが明らかになった。

doi: 10.1038/nature20474

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素粒子物理学:アクシオンの質量の算出

Particle physics: Axions exposed p.40

アクシオンと呼ばれる素粒子は、基礎物理学の2つの大きな謎を解決する可能性があることから、探索が続けられている。アクシオンの予想質量が、野心的な研究によって今回計算された。この結果は実験による探索を様変わりさせることになるかもしれない。

doi: 10.1038/539040a

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Articles

構造生物学:X線レーザーを用いたde novo位相決定により明らかになった、蚊に効果のある殺幼虫物質BinABの構造

De novo phasing with X-ray laser reveals mosquito larvicide BinAB structure p.43

The structure of the bacterial toxin BinAB, which is used to combat mosquito-borne diseases, reveals pH-sensitive switches and carbohydrate-binding modules that may contribute to the larvicidal function of the toxin.

doi: 10.1038/nature19825

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細胞生物学:アルギニンのリン酸化は、Clpプロテアーゼによる分解のためにタンパク質を標識する

Arginine phosphorylation marks proteins for degradation by a Clp protease p.48

In Gram-positive bacteria, arginine phosphorylation by the McsB kinase functions as a general post-translational marker for Clp-mediated proteolysis.

doi: 10.1038/nature20122

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細胞生物学:切断により誘導されるテロメア合成が代替的テロメア維持の基礎となる

Break-induced telomere synthesis underlies alternative telomere maintenance p.54

Alternative lengthening of telomeres in cancer cells is initiated by a specialized replisome and noncanonical homologous recombination at damaged telomeres, culminating in the synthesis of long tracts of telomere DNA.

doi: 10.1038/nature20099

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生物工学:ゲノムリコーディングによる同義コドン圧縮スキームの定義

Defining synonymous codon compression schemes by genome recoding p.59

REXER, a new method that allows long sections of DNA to be inserted or replaced in the genome of the bacterium Escherichia coli, is used to investigate codon replacement schemes for the generation of synthetic genomes.

doi: 10.1038/nature20124

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Letters

惑星科学:季節的に冷却捕獲された揮発性物質から形成されたカロンの赤い極

The formation of Charon’s red poles from seasonally cold-trapped volatiles p.65

The unusual dark red coloration of Charon’s northern polar cap is shown to be produced from hydrocarbons that are cold-trapped from Pluto’s escaping atmosphere during winter.

doi: 10.1038/nature19340

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素粒子物理学:高温格子量子色力学に基づいたアクシオン質量の計算

Calculation of the axion mass based on high-temperature lattice quantum chromodynamics p.69

The mass of the axion, a particle that is central to many dark-matter theories, is calculated via the equation of state of the Universe and the temperature dependence of the so-called topological susceptibility of quantum chromodynamics.

doi: 10.1038/nature20115

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物性物理学:量子気体における乱流カスケードの出現

Emergence of a turbulent cascade in a quantum gas p.72

The gradual development of a turbulent cascade in a weakly interacting homogeneous Bose gas is observed on application of a periodic driving force.

doi: 10.1038/nature20114

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触媒:水素化反応の選択性調節剤としての金属有機構造体

Metal–organic frameworks as selectivity regulators for hydrogenation reactions p.76

The flavouring, perfume and pharmaceutical industries rely on the selective hydrogenation of α,β-unsaturated aldehydes to generate unsaturated alcohols; here, a new type of highly selective catalyst is described in which platinum nanoparticles are sandwiched between a core and a shell of a metal−organic framework.

doi: 10.1038/nature19763

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地球力学:ブリッジマナイトの結晶選択配向から推測されるマントル・ダイナミクス

Mantle dynamics inferred from the crystallographic preferred orientation of bridgmanite p.81

Deformation experiments on bridgmanite indicate that it may be the main contributor to the shear wave anisotropy observed around several subducting plates.

doi: 10.1038/nature19777

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考古学:野生のサルによる剥片石器の作製

Wild monkeys flake stone tools p.85

Wild capuchin monkeys in Brazil deliberately break stones, unintentionally producing flakes similar to the ancient sharp-edged flakes characterized as intentionally produced Pliocene–Pleistocene hominin tools, although why they do so remains unclear.

doi: 10.1038/nature20112

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進化発生生物学:五指性状態と関連付けられた、脊椎動物におけるHoxa11調節の進化

Evolution of Hoxa11 regulation in vertebrates is linked to the pentadactyl state p.89

The mutually exclusive expression of the Hoxa11 and Hoxa13 genes is required for pentadactyl (five-digit) limbs and is proposed to have contributed to the transition from several digits polydactyl (several-digit) limbs in the earliest tetrapods.

doi: 10.1038/nature19813

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分子進化学:嗅覚受容体の偽偽遺伝子

Olfactory receptor pseudo-pseudogenes p.93

Drosophila sechellia, a species closely related to the model species Drosophila melanogaster, bypasses a premature stop codon in neuronal cells to express a functional olfactory receptor protein from an assumed pseudogene template.

doi: 10.1038/nature19824

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ウイルス疫学:1970年代および「ペイシェント・ゼロ」のHIV-1ゲノムで明らかになった北米での初期HIV/AIDSの歴史

1970s and ‘Patient 0’ HIV-1 genomes illuminate early HIV/AIDS history in North America p.98

A study of the early genetic diversity and history of the HIV-1 epidemic in North America through sequencing of eight full-length viral genomes from the 1970s.

doi: 10.1038/nature19827

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免疫抑制:単一細胞RNA-seqにより明らかにされたPD-1hi ILC前駆細胞とその発生経路

Single-cell RNA-seq identifies a PD-1hi ILC progenitor and defines its development pathway p.102

Innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) functionally resemble T lymphocytes in cytotoxicity and cytokine production but lack antigen-specific receptors, and they are important regulators of immune responses and tissue homeostasis. ILCs are generated from common lymphoid progenitors, which are subsequently committed to innate lymphoid lineages in the α-lymphoid progenitor, early innate lymphoid progenitor, common helper innate lymphoid progenitor and innate lymphoid cell progenitor compartments. ILCs consist of conventional natural killer cells and helper-like cells (ILC1, ILC2 and ILC3). Despite recent advances, the cellular heterogeneity, developmental trajectory and signalling dependence of ILC progenitors are not fully understood. Here, using single-cell RNA-sequencing (scRNA-seq) of mouse bone marrow progenitors, we reveal ILC precursor subsets, delineate distinct ILC development stages and pathways, and report that high expression of programmed death 1 (PD-1hi) marked a committed ILC progenitor that was essentially identical to an innate lymphoid cell progenitor. Our data defined PD-1hiIL-25Rhi as an early checkpoint in ILC2 development, which was abolished by deficiency in the zinc-finger protein Bcl11b but restored by IL-25R overexpression. Similar to T lymphocytes, PD-1 was upregulated on activated ILCs. Administration of a PD-1 antibody depleted PD-1hi ILCs and reduced cytokine levels in an influenza infection model in mice, and blocked papain-induced acute lung inflammation. These results provide a perspective for exploring PD-1 and its ligand (PD-L1) in immunotherapy, and allow effective manipulation of the immune system for disease prevention and therapy.

doi: 10.1038/nature20105

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がん:腎臓がん前臨床モデルでのHIF-2αアンタゴニストの本来の標的に対する有効性

On-target efficacy of a HIF-2α antagonist in preclinical kidney cancer models p.107

Clear cell renal cell carcinoma, the most common form of kidney cancer, is usually linked to inactivation of the pVHL tumour suppressor protein and consequent accumulation of the HIF-2α transcription factor (also known as EPAS1). Here we show that a small molecule (PT2399) that directly inhibits HIF-2α causes tumour regression in preclinical mouse models of primary and metastatic pVHL-defective clear cell renal cell carcinoma in an on-target fashion. pVHL-defective clear cell renal cell carcinoma cell lines display unexpectedly variable sensitivity to PT2399, however, suggesting the need for predictive biomarkers to be developed to use this approach optimally in the clinic.

doi: 10.1038/nature19795

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がん:腎細胞がんを標的とするHIF-2アンタゴニスト

Targeting renal cell carcinoma with a HIF-2 antagonist p.112

The HIF-2 antagonist PT2399 is tested in mice bearing tumourgrafts derived from human renal cell cancers to demonstrate its efficacy, identify markers of sensitivity and characterize its effects.

doi: 10.1038/nature19796

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構造生物学:真核細胞V-ATPアーゼの膜に埋め込まれたVOモーターの原子モデル

Atomic model for the membrane-embedded VO motor of a eukaryotic V-ATPase p.118

The structure of the VO subcomplex of yeast V-ATPase, solved by electron cryomicroscopy, reveals a new subunit and suggests a mechanism for the translocation of protons across membranes.

doi: 10.1038/nature19828

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