Volume 538 Number 7626



Early-career researchers need fewer burdens and more support p.427

Academia is more difficult than ever for young scientists. That’s bad for them, and bad for science

doi: 10.1038/538427a


Mars-probe loss is a chance for ESA to learn p.427

Failure of ExoMars lander will pave the way for the next mission.

doi: 10.1038/538427b

米国のエイズ流行の発端とされ「Patient Zero」と呼ばれた患者の潔白が、そのウイルスの遺伝的解析によって証明された。

How researchers cleared the name of HIV Patient Zero p.428

Genetic analysis of historical virus samples proves the epidemic arrived by another route.

doi: 10.1038/538428a



Computing glitch may have doomed Mars lander p.435

Researchers sift through clues after Schiaparelli crash in hopes of averting mistakes in 2020 mission.

doi: 10.1038/nature.2016.20861


Scientific challenges loom for Canada’s popular prime minister p.436

Justin Trudeau draws praise for boosting budgets and unmuzzling scientists, but tough challenges lie ahead.

doi: 10.1038/538436a


@ScientistTrump will make science great again p.437

Florida ecologist uses a parody Twitter account as a way of highlighting issues in science and academia.

doi: 10.1038/nature.2016.20830


Icy heart could be key to Pluto’s strange geology p.439

NASA’s New Horizons mission plumbs complex interplay between the dwarf planet's surface and its sky.

doi: 10.1038/nature.2016.20856


Europe’s drug regulator opens vaults of clinical-trials data p.440

EMA becomes first major drugs agency to publish clinical-study reports online.

doi: 10.1038/nature.2016.20855


Violence escalates at South African universities p.440

Protests over rising tuition fees have stopped classes, closed institutions and slowed research.

doi: 10.1038/538440a

News Features


The plight of young scientists p.443


doi: 10.1038/538443a


Young scientists under pressure: what the data show p.444


doi: 10.1038/538444a


Young, talented and fed-up: scientists tell their stories p.446


doi: 10.1038/538446a

News & Views


Synthetic biology: Precision timing in a cell p.462


doi: 10.1038/nature19478


In retrospect: Twenty-five years of low-cost solar cells p.463


doi: 10.1038/538463a


Social science: Female genital cutting under the spotlight p.465


doi: 10.1038/nature19482


Astrophysics: Birth of stellar siblings p.466


doi: 10.1038/538466a


Artificial intelligence: Deep neural reasoning p.467


doi: 10.1038/nature19477


Palaeontology: Ancient avian aria from Antarctica p.468


doi: 10.1038/nature19480



Hybrid computing using a neural network with dynamic external memory p.471

A ‘differentiable neural computer’ is introduced that combines the learning capabilities of a neural network with an external memory analogous to the random-access memory in a conventional computer.

doi: 10.1038/nature20101


The MCL1 inhibitor S63845 is tolerable and effective in diverse cancer models p.477

S63845 specifically inhibits MCL1 and induces tumour cell death in vitro and in vivo in diverse cancer-derived cell lines with an acceptable safety margin.

doi: 10.1038/nature19830



A triple protostar system formed via fragmentation of a gravitationally unstable disk p.483

Observations of the triple protostar system L1448 IRS3B support the hypothesis that companion stars can form because of gravitational instability in a protostellar disk.

doi: 10.1038/nature20094


Potassium isotopic evidence for a high-energy giant impact origin of the Moon p.487

The potassium isotope signature of lunar rocks supports the model of a high-energy giant impact as the origin of the Moon.

doi: 10.1038/nature19341


Quantum dynamics of simultaneously measured non-commuting observables p.491

Simultaneous measurement of two incompatible observables in a superconducting qubit placed in a cavity shows that the quantum dynamics of the system is governed by the uncertainty principle and that the wavefunction collapse is replaced by persistent diffusion.

doi: 10.1038/nature19762


Atom-at-a-time laser resonance ionization spectroscopy of nobelium p.495

Resonance ionization spectroscopy of nobelium (atomic number 102) reveals its ground-state transition and an upper limit for its ionization potential, paving the way to characterizing even heavier elements via optical spectroscopy.

doi: 10.1038/nature19345


Projected land photosynthesis constrained by changes in the seasonal cycle of atmospheric CO2 p.499

Analysis of observations and model projections provides large-scale emergent constraints on the extent of CO2 fertilization, with estimated increases in gross primary productivity for both high-latitude and extratropical ecosystems under elevated atmospheric CO2 concentrations.

doi: 10.1038/nature19772


Fossil evidence of the avian vocal organ from the Mesozoic p.502

Birds make sound in the syrinx, a unique vocal organ situated deep in the chest, but little is known about the evolution of this structure; a fossilized Cretaceous age syrinx from Antarctica is described from a species that might have been capable of making a goose-like honking sound.

doi: 10.1038/nature19852


Changing cultural attitudes towards female genital cutting p.506

Entertaining movies addressing both individual values and marriageability can provide a way to change cultural attitudes towards female genital cutting within certain cultures.

doi: 10.1038/nature20100


Genomic insights into the peopling of the Southwest Pacific p.510

Analysis of ancient DNA from four individuals who lived in Vanuatu and Tonga between 2,300 and 3,100 years ago suggests that the Papuan ancestry seen in present-day occupants of this region was introduced at a later date.

doi: 10.1038/nature19844


Synchronous long-term oscillations in a synthetic gene circuit p.514

The first synthetic genetic oscillator or ‘repressilator’ is simplified using insights from stochastic theory, thus achieving remarkably precise and robust oscillations and informing current debates about the next generation of synthetic circuits and their potential applications in cell-based therapies.

doi: 10.1038/nature19841


T-cell acute leukaemia exhibits dynamic interactions with bone marrow microenvironments p.518

Here, leukaemia cells are followed by intravital microscopy as they infiltrate mouse bone marrow and respond to chemotherapy, revealing that at all stages analysed they are highly motile and do not display any associations with particular bone marrow sub-compartments.

doi: 10.1038/nature19801


Chromosome conformation elucidates regulatory relationships in developing human brain p.523

High-resolution three-dimensional maps of chromatin contacts in the developing human brain help to identify enhancer–promoter contacts, many of which are associated with human cognitive function and disease.

doi: 10.1038/nature19847


TET-mediated DNA demethylation controls gastrulation by regulating Lefty–Nodal signalling p.528

Inactivation of three Tet genes in mice leads to gastrulation phenotypes similar to those in embryos with increased Nodal signalling, revealing a functional redundancy of Tet genes and showing balanced and dynamic DNA methylation and demethylation is crucial to regulate key signalling pathways in early body plan formation.

doi: 10.1038/nature20095


Mechanism for DNA transposons to generate introns on genomic scales p.533

The observations that introns are acquired in bursts and that exons are often nucleosome-sized can be explained by the generation of introns from DNA transposons, which insert between nucleosomes.

doi: 10.1038/nature20110


Pore architecture of TRIC channels and insights into their gating mechanism p.537

X-ray structures of C. elegans TRIC-B subtype channels reveal that the membrane proteins form a symmetrical homotrimeric complex, and a mechanistic model to explain the complex gating mechanism of TRIC channels is proposed.

doi: 10.1038/nature19767

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