Volume 539 Number 7628



Judge science on merit, not assumptions p.139

Prejudices about research in particular countries harms the openness required for successful international relationships.

doi: 10.1038/539139b


Don’t bypass Brazil’s environmental protections p.139

Proposals to streamline infrastructure projects are headed in the wrong direction.

doi: 10.1038/539139a


Scientific language is becoming more informal p.140

Biologists in particular are writing their papers in a less formal style.

doi: 10.1038/539140a



Political upheaval threatens Brazil’s environmental protections p.147

Barrage of proposals would allow developers to sidestep environmental reviews.

doi: 10.1038/539147a


Brexit chancellor’s annual address is a science nail-biter p.148

Government’s first Autumn Statement could reveal how it regards science.

doi: 10.1038/539148a

米国立衛生研究所(NIH)が開発した、研究論文の新たな影響力指標Relative Citation Ratio(RCR)が注目を。

The quiet rise of the NIH’s hot new metric p.150

Biomedical funders worldwide are adopting the US agency’s free Relative Citation Ratio to analyse grant outcomes.

doi: 10.1038/539150a


Big brain projects urged to aid public health p.151

World Health Organization asks research initiatives to focus on translating their findings into clinical benefits.

doi: 10.1038/539151a


Quest to map Africa’s soil microbiome begins p.152

Sub-Saharan project could one day help ecosystems to resist climate change and improve agriculture.

doi: 10.1038/539152a


Tracker flags up failures to report clinical trials p.153

Computerized search of trial registry lists worst offenders.

doi: 10.1038/nature.2016.20930

News Features


How to defeat dementia p.156


doi: 10.1038/539156a

News & Views


Nanoscience: Single-molecule instant replay p.170


doi: 10.1038/539170a


Evolution: Genomic remodelling in the primate brain p.171


doi: 10.1038/539171a


Geoscience: Cliffs make a hasty retreat p.173


doi: 10.1038/539173a


Cancer: Bad neighbours cause bad blood p.173


doi: 10.1038/nature19479


In retrospect: Eighty years of stress p.175


doi: 10.1038/nature20473


Atomic physics: A strange kind of liquid p.176


doi: 10.1038/539176a


Spinal-cord injury: Neural interfaces take another step forward p.177


doi: 10.1038/539177a



The stem osteichthyan Andreolepis and the origin of tooth replacement p.237

The extinct Andreolepis, an early fish that is close to the common ancestor of all bony fish and land vertebrates, shed its teeth by basal resportion—the earliest example of this mode of tooth replacement.

doi: 10.1038/nature19812


Evolution of Osteocrin as an activity-regulated factor in the primate brain p.242

Osteocrin is a non-neuronal secreted protein in mice that has been evolutionarily repurposed to act as a neuronal development factor in primates.

doi: 10.1038/nature20111


Transplanted embryonic neurons integrate into adult neocortical circuits p.248

Transplanted embryonic neurons in mice mature and achieve adult-like properties within 4–8 weeks, receiving appropriate inputs and establishing stimulus-selective responses.

doi: 10.1038/nature20113


Balancing selection shapes density-dependent foraging behaviour p.254

Natural isolates of Caenorhabditis elegans nematodes differ in their sensitivity to the anti-exploratory pheromone icas#9, yielding two distinct foraging strategies that possess different survival advantages depending on environmental conditions such as food distribution.

doi: 10.1038/nature19848



Self-bound droplets of a dilute magnetic quantum liquid p.259

A self-bound quantum droplet of magnetic atoms is observed in a trap-free levitation field.

doi: 10.1038/nature20126


Tracking the ultrafast motion of a single molecule by femtosecond orbital imaging p.263

Watching a single molecule move calls for measurements that combine ultrafast temporal resolution with atomic spatial resolution; this is now shown to be possible by combining scanning tunnelling microscopy with lightwave electronics, through a technique that involves removing a single electron from the highest occupied orbital of a single pentacene molecule in a time window shorter than an oscillation cycle of light.

doi: 10.1038/nature19816


Catalytic alkylation of remote C–H bonds enabled by proton-coupled electron transfer p.268

Catalytic alkylation of C–H bonds is achieved via homolysis of N–H bonds of N-alkyl amides through proton-coupled electron transfer.

doi: 10.1038/nature19811

化学:非活性化sp3 C–H結合におけるアミド配向基を用いる光酸化還元触媒的C–C結合形成

Amide-directed photoredox-catalysed C–C bond formation at unactivated sp3 C–H bonds p.272

The formation of carbon–carbon bonds is achieved via directed cleavage of traditionally non-reactive carbon–hydrogen bonds and their subsequent coupling with readily available alkenes.

doi: 10.1038/nature19810


Fluvial sediment supply to a mega-delta reduced by shifting tropical-cyclone activity p.276

About a third of the sediment delivery of the Mekong River is shown to be associated with rainfall generated by tropical cyclones, suggesting that future delta stability will be strongly moderated by changes to tropical cyclone intensity, frequency and track.

doi: 10.1038/nature19809


Cultural innovation and megafauna interaction in the early settlement of arid Australia p.280

Warratyi rock shelter shows evidence of human occupation approximately 50,000 years ago, development of tool use and cultural innovation, and interaction with now-extinct megafauna in arid Australia.

doi: 10.1038/nature20125


A brain–spine interface alleviating gait deficits after spinal cord injury in primates p.284

A wireless brain–spine interface is presented that enables macaques with a spinal cord injury to regain locomotor movements of a paralysed leg.

doi: 10.1038/nature20118


A basal ganglia circuit for evaluating action outcomes p.289

In mice, glutamatergic globus pallidus neurons projecting to the lateral habenula (GPh neurons) bi-directionally encode positive and negative prediction error signals that are critical for outcome evaluation and are driven by a subset of basal ganglia circuits.

doi: 10.1038/nature19845


Fatty acid synthesis configures the plasma membrane for inflammation in diabetes p.294

Mice with macrophages deficient in fatty acid synthase exhibit lower levels of diabetes-related insulin resistance and inflammation, qualities that are restored on addition of exogenous cholesterol.

doi: 10.1038/nature20117

幹細胞:マウスの完全な雌性生殖系列サイクルのin vitroにおける再構築

Reconstitution in vitro of the entire cycle of the mouse female germ line p.299

Using a protocol that recapitulates both meiosis and oocyte growth in vitro, the authors induce mouse pluripotent stem cells to differentiate into fully functional oocytes that can be fertilized and generate viable offspring, thereby recapitulating the full mammalian female germline cycle in a dish.

doi: 10.1038/nature20104


Leukaemogenic effects of Ptpn11 activating mutations in the stem cell microenvironment p.304

Mutations in the protein tyrosine phosphatase SHP2 affect cells in the bone marrow environment, which leads to aberrant activation of resident haematopoietic stem cells and thereby contributes to the development of leukaemia.

doi: 10.1038/nature20131


Single-cell RNA-seq supports a developmental hierarchy in human oligodendroglioma p.309

Single-cell RNA-seq in human gliomas identifies cycling cancer stem cells and their differentiated glial-like cell progeny.

doi: 10.1038/nature20123

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