目次

Editorials

米国大統領にはヒラリー・クリントン候補がなるべきだ。

Hillary Clinton will make a fine US president p.289

And not only because she is not Donald Trump.

doi: 10.1038/538289a

神経科学者たちは学会の招待講演などでジェンダーバランス改善を図っており、この試みが他の分野にも広がることを期待する。

Women need to be seen and heard at conferences p.290

A neuroscience initiative is boosting the number of female invited speakers at meetings. Other disciplines should do the same.

doi: 10.1038/538290b

サルもヒトの石器に似た道具のようなものを作るが、そこに意図があるとはかぎらない。

One sharp edge does not a tool make p.290

Capuchin monkeys have been observed smashing stones to produce flakes ­ — but why they do so remains a mystery.

doi: 10.1038/538290a

News

プエルトリコのアレシボ天文台の元従業員が、差別禁止法違反で訴訟を。

Arecibo Observatory hit with discrimination lawsuit p.297

Two former workers say that they were treated unfairly on the basis of age and disability.

doi: 10.1038/nature.2016.20778

米国大統領選でトランプ候補を支持する科学者にとって、科学政策は些細な問題という調査結果が。

The scientists who support Donald Trump p.298

Science policy fades into background for many who back Republican candidate in US presidential race.

doi: 10.1038/538298a

超党派で比較的穏やかであった米下院科学委員会が、近年は精力的な調査活動を。

How Republicans reshaped the House science committee p.300

Chairman Lamar Smith has turned once-placid panel into investigative powerhouse.

doi: 10.1038/538300a

九州大学の研究者が、マウスの誘導多能性幹(iPS)細胞から完全に人為的な卵子を作り、生殖能力を持つ仔マウスを誕生させることに成功。

Mouse eggs made from skin cells in a dish p.301

Breakthrough raises call for debate over prospect of artificial human eggs.

doi: 10.1038/nature.2016.20817

科学者たちが、シリコンバレーからの寄付を基礎研究などにうまく結び付ける仕組み作りを。

Science group seeks to guide Silicon Valley philanthropists p.302

Uncertain government funding drives effort to beef up private support for research.

doi: 10.1038/nature.2016.20802

全米科学財団(NSF)が支援するビッグデータ活用計画「EarthCube」プログラムが、危機的状況に。

Effort to wrangle geoscience data faces uncertain future p.303

Five years in, the US EarthCube programme has struggled to deliver on its promises.

doi: 10.1038/538303a

News Features

世論調査の危機:民意を探る

The polling crisis: How to tell what people really think p.304

今年の米国大統領選はこれまでになく予測が難しく、人口統計や技術の変化への対応に専門家も苦労している。

doi: 10.1038/538304a

予測市場:市場の見通し

The power of prediction markets p.308

予測市場の精度は驚くほど高いことがあるが、予測市場がなぜうまく働き、どうして失敗するのか、科学的な解明が始まっている。

doi: 10.1038/538308a

News & Views

ゲノミクス:アフリカツメガエルのゲノムを構成している2つのサブゲノム

Genomics: A matched set of frog sequences p.320

アフリカツメガエル(Xenopus laevis)では3400万年ほど前に全ゲノム重複が起こっており、そのためこの有用なモデル生物のゲノム塩基配列解読は難問となっていた。今回、そうした障害がついに克服されてゲノムが解読された。

doi: 10.1038/538320a

宇宙物理学:意外なX線フレア

Astrophysics: Unexpected X-ray flares p.321

70個の近傍銀河のアーカイブデータが今回調べられ、高エネルギーフレアのX線源が2つ見つかった。これらのフレアの起源は明らかになっておらず、これまで知られていなかった宇宙物理学的現象なのかもしれない。

doi: 10.1038/538321a

がん:熱ショックタンパク質複合体

Cancer: A shocking protein complex p.322

熱ショックタンパク質が、エピシャペロームと命名された大型のタンパク質複合体の一部となっていることが今回明らかにされた。エピシャペロームは一部のがん細胞の生存を促進するので、がん治療の新しい標的となるかもしれない。

doi: 10.1038/nature19476

創薬:多様性指向合成でマラリアを攻撃する

Drug discovery: Chemical diversity targets malaria p.323

天然物と似た構造を持つ化合物のライブラリー中から選び出された分子が、寄生虫であるマラリア原虫の生活環中の複数の段階を標的とすることが示され、マラリアのマウスモデルでは単回の投与でこの病気が治療できることも分かった。

doi: 10.1038/nature19481

光物理学:フラッシュを浴びた速い電子

Optical physics: Speedy electrons exposed in a flash p.325

高周波数の光の放射とレーザーによって絶縁体に誘起された電子振動の関連性が立証された。これは現在可能な速度よりも速く動作する電子デバイスを作製する取り組みにおける重要なステップである。

doi: 10.1038/538325a

細胞生物学:細胞小器官の複製には接触が必要

Cell biology: The organelle replication connection p.326

生きている細胞の画像化によって、ミトコンドリアのDNA複製と分裂には小胞体との接触が必要であることが今回示され、2種類の細胞小器官の間に機能に関わる相互作用が起こっていることが明らかになった。

doi: 10.1038/538326b

Articles

計算生物学:構造が固定化された非常に安定なペプチドの精密なde novo設計

Accurate de novo design of hyperstable constrained peptides p.329

Computational methods for the de novo design of conformationally restricted peptides produce exceptionally stable short peptides stabilized by backbone cyclization and/or internal disulfide bonds that are promising starting points for a new generation of peptide-based drugs.

doi: 10.1038/nature19791

ゲノミクス:異質四倍体アフリカツメガエルのゲノム進化

Genome evolution in the allotetraploid frog Xenopus laevis OPEN p.336

The two homoeologous subgenomes in the allotetraploid frog Xenopus laevis evolved asymmetrically; one often retained the ancestral state, whereas the other experienced gene loss, deletion, rearrangement and reduced gene expression.

doi: 10.1038/nature19840

マラリア:多様性指向合成により得られる新規多段階抗マラリア薬

Diversity-oriented synthesis yields novel multistage antimalarial inhibitors p.344

The bicyclic azetidines, a class of potent, well-tolerated antimalarial compounds that is active against multiple stages of the Plasmodium life-cycle, has been discovered following screens against libraries of compounds reminiscent of natural products.

doi: 10.1038/nature19804

微生物学:Frizzledタンパク質はC. difficile毒素Bに対する大腸上皮受容体である

Frizzled proteins are colonic epithelial receptors for C. difficile toxin B p.350

Here, a genome-wide CRISPR–Cas9 screen is used to identify the Wnt receptors frizzled as physiologically relevant Clostridium difficile toxin B receptors, providing new therapeutic targets for treating C. difficile infections.

doi: 10.1038/nature19799

Letters

高エネルギー宇宙物理学:近傍楕円銀河の2つの超コンパクト伴銀河内の超高光度X線バースト

Ultraluminous X-ray bursts in two ultracompact companions to nearby elliptical galaxies p.356

A search of archival X-ray data for 70 nearby galaxies yielded two flaring sources in globular clusters or ultracompact dwarf companions of parent elliptical galaxies.

doi: 10.1038/nature19822

超高速フォトニクス:マルチペタヘルツの電子計測

Multi-petahertz electronic metrology p.359

Investigations using single-cycle intense optical fields to drive electron motion in bulk silicon dioxide show that the light-induced electric currents extend in frequency up to about 8 petahertz.

doi: 10.1038/nature19821

ナノフォトニクス:異分子二量体におけるエネルギー移動の実空間計測

Real-space investigation of energy transfer in heterogeneous molecular dimers p.364

Scanning tunnelling microscopy is shown to be effective for probing energy transfer in a molecular dimer with submolecular resolution in real space.

doi: 10.1038/nature19765

地球力学:2012年インド洋地震の観測から推定されるアセノスフェアのレオロジー的性質

Asthenosphere rheology inferred from observations of the 2012 Indian Ocean earthquake p.368

Analysis of the postseismic deformation of the moment magnitude 8.6 Indian Ocean earthquake in 2012 reveals that the asthenospheric layer must be thin and of low viscosity, constraining the structure of oceanic upper-mantle rheology.

doi: 10.1038/nature19787

地球力学:2012年インド洋地震の観測から推測される上部マントルの水含有量の成層

Upper-mantle water stratification inferred from observations of the 2012 Indian Ocean earthquake p.373

Postseismic recordings of the moment magnitude 8.6 Indian Ocean earthquake of 2012, combined with the characteristics of olivine creep, provide constraints on the water content of the asthenosphere.

doi: 10.1038/nature19783

がんゲノミクス:ゲノム再編成パターンに基づいた、膵臓がんの新たな進化モデル

A renewed model of pancreatic cancer evolution based on genomic rearrangement patterns p.378

Pancreatic cancer is not caused by a specific series of genetic alterations that occur sequentially but by one, or few, catastrophic events that result in simultaneous oncogenic genetic rearrangements, giving rise to highly aggressive tumours.

doi: 10.1038/nature19823

神経科学:視覚皮質からの皮質遠心性出力は生得的運動行動の可塑性を促す

Cortico-fugal output from visual cortex promotes plasticity of innate motor behaviour p.383

The mammalian visual cortex massively innervates the brainstem, a phylogenetically older structure, via cortico-fugal axonal projections. Many cortico-fugal projections target brainstem nuclei that mediate innate motor behaviours, but the function of these projections remains poorly understood. A prime example of such behaviours is the optokinetic reflex (OKR), an innate eye movement mediated by the brainstem accessory optic system, that stabilizes images on the retina as the animal moves through the environment and is thus crucial for vision. The OKR is plastic, allowing the amplitude of this reflex to be adaptively adjusted relative to other oculomotor reflexes and thereby ensuring image stability throughout life. Although the plasticity of the OKR is thought to involve subcortical structures such as the cerebellum and vestibular nuclei, cortical lesions have suggested that the visual cortex might also be involved. Here we show that projections from the mouse visual cortex to the accessory optic system promote the adaptive plasticity of the OKR. OKR potentiation, a compensatory plastic increase in the amplitude of the OKR in response to vestibular impairment, is diminished by silencing visual cortex. Furthermore, targeted ablation of a sparse population of cortico-fugal neurons that specifically project to the accessory optic system severely impairs OKR potentiation. Finally, OKR potentiation results from an enhanced drive exerted by the visual cortex onto the accessory optic system. Thus, cortico-fugal projections to the brainstem enable the visual cortex, an area that has been principally studied for its sensory processing function, to plastically adapt the execution of innate motor behaviours.

doi: 10.1038/nature19818

幹細胞:iPS細胞由来心筋細胞の同種異系移植が霊長類の心臓を再生する

Allogeneic transplantation of iPS cell-derived cardiomyocytes regenerates primate hearts p.388

Allogenic induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes transplanted directly into infarcted cynomolgus monkey hearts show electrical coupling with host cardiomyocytes improve cardiac contractile function after mild immunosuppression.

doi: 10.1038/nature19815

発生生物学:胎仔の肝臓内皮は組織常在型マクロファージの播種を調節する

Fetal liver endothelium regulates the seeding of tissue-resident macrophages p.392

PLVAP selectively controls the seeding of fetal liver monocyte-derived tissue-resident macrophages, seemingly by interacting with chemotactic and adhesive molecules at the diaphragms of liver sinusoidal endothelium.

doi: 10.1038/nature19814

細胞生物学:エピシャペロームは腫瘍の生存を促進する統合されたシャペロームネットワークである

The epichaperome is an integrated chaperome network that facilitates tumour survival p.397

Chaperomes are dynamic assemblies of proteins that regulate cellular homeostasis but specific cellular stresses remodel chaperome components into a stable chaperome network called the epichaperome, which might offer a new cancer target.

doi: 10.1038/nature19807

分子生物学:脱ユビキチン化酵素Cezanneで見られるLys11結合型ユビキチン鎖に対する特異性の分子基盤

Molecular basis of Lys11-polyubiquitin specificity in the deubiquitinase Cezanne p.402

The structures of the deubiquitinating enzyme Cezanne alone or in complex with its substrate or product are solved, showing how Cezanne specifically targets Lys11-linked polyubiquitin.

doi: 10.1038/nature19836

構造生物学:哺乳類ミトコンドリア複合体Iの全体の原子構造

Atomic structure of the entire mammalian mitochondrial complex I p.406

The atomic structure of ovine mitochondrial complex I is solved at 3.9 Å resolution, revealing that supernumerary subunits stabilize the complex and providing insight into the molecular basis of its function and regulation.

doi: 10.1038/nature19794

構造生物学:ヒトα4β2ニコチン受容体のX線結晶構造

X-ray structure of the human α4β2 nicotinic receptor p.411

Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors are ligand-gated ion channels that mediate fast chemical neurotransmission at the neuromuscular junction and have diverse signalling roles in the central nervous system. The nicotinic receptor has been a model system for cell-surface receptors, and specifically for ligand-gated ion channels, for well over a century. In addition to the receptors’ prominent roles in the development of the fields of pharmacology and neurobiology, nicotinic receptors are important therapeutic targets for neuromuscular disease, addiction, epilepsy and for neuromuscular blocking agents used during surgery. The overall architecture of the receptor was described in landmark studies of the nicotinic receptor isolated from the electric organ of Torpedo marmorata. Structures of a soluble ligand-binding domain have provided atomic-scale insights into receptor–ligand interactions, while high-resolution structures of other members of the pentameric receptor superfamily provide touchstones for an emerging allosteric gating mechanism. All available high-resolution structures are of homopentameric receptors. However, the vast majority of pentameric receptors (called Cys-loop receptors in eukaryotes) present physiologically are heteromeric. Here we present the X-ray crystallographic structure of the human α4β2 nicotinic receptor, the most abundant nicotinic subtype in the brain. This structure provides insights into the architectural principles governing ligand recognition, heteromer assembly, ion permeation and desensitization in this prototypical receptor class.

doi: 10.1038/nature19785

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