Hillary Clinton will make a fine US president p.289

And not only because she is not Donald Trump.

doi: 10.1038/538289a

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Women need to be seen and heard at conferences p.290

A neuroscience initiative is boosting the number of female invited speakers at meetings. Other disciplines should do the same.

doi: 10.1038/538290b

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One sharp edge does not a tool make p.290

Capuchin monkeys have been observed smashing stones to produce flakes ­ — but why they do so remains a mystery.

doi: 10.1038/538290a

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Arecibo Observatory hit with discrimination lawsuit p.297

Two former workers say that they were treated unfairly on the basis of age and disability.

doi: 10.1038/nature.2016.20778

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The scientists who support Donald Trump p.298

Science policy fades into background for many who back Republican candidate in US presidential race.

doi: 10.1038/538298a

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How Republicans reshaped the House science committee p.300

Chairman Lamar Smith has turned once-placid panel into investigative powerhouse.

doi: 10.1038/538300a

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Mouse eggs made from skin cells in a dish p.301

Breakthrough raises call for debate over prospect of artificial human eggs.

doi: 10.1038/nature.2016.20817

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Science group seeks to guide Silicon Valley philanthropists p.302

Uncertain government funding drives effort to beef up private support for research.

doi: 10.1038/nature.2016.20802

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Effort to wrangle geoscience data faces uncertain future p.303

Five years in, the US EarthCube programme has struggled to deliver on its promises.

doi: 10.1038/538303a

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News Features


The polling crisis: How to tell what people really think p.304


doi: 10.1038/538304a

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The power of prediction markets p.308


doi: 10.1038/538308a

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News & Views


Genomics: A matched set of frog sequences p.320

アフリカツメガエル(Xenopus laevis)では3400万年ほど前に全ゲノム重複が起こっており、そのためこの有用なモデル生物のゲノム塩基配列解読は難問となっていた。今回、そうした障害がついに克服されてゲノムが解読された。

doi: 10.1038/538320a

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Astrophysics: Unexpected X-ray flares p.321


doi: 10.1038/538321a

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Cancer: A shocking protein complex p.322


doi: 10.1038/nature19476

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Drug discovery: Chemical diversity targets malaria p.323


doi: 10.1038/nature19481

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Optical physics: Speedy electrons exposed in a flash p.325


doi: 10.1038/538325a

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Cell biology: The organelle replication connection p.326


doi: 10.1038/538326b

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計算生物学:構造が固定化された非常に安定なペプチドの精密なde novo設計

Accurate de novo design of hyperstable constrained peptides p.329

Computational methods for the de novo design of conformationally restricted peptides produce exceptionally stable short peptides stabilized by backbone cyclization and/or internal disulfide bonds that are promising starting points for a new generation of peptide-based drugs.

doi: 10.1038/nature19791

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Genome evolution in the allotetraploid frog Xenopus laevis OPEN p.336

The two homoeologous subgenomes in the allotetraploid frog Xenopus laevis evolved asymmetrically; one often retained the ancestral state, whereas the other experienced gene loss, deletion, rearrangement and reduced gene expression.

doi: 10.1038/nature19840

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Diversity-oriented synthesis yields novel multistage antimalarial inhibitors p.344

The bicyclic azetidines, a class of potent, well-tolerated antimalarial compounds that is active against multiple stages of the Plasmodium life-cycle, has been discovered following screens against libraries of compounds reminiscent of natural products.

doi: 10.1038/nature19804

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微生物学:Frizzledタンパク質はC. difficile毒素Bに対する大腸上皮受容体である

Frizzled proteins are colonic epithelial receptors for C. difficile toxin B p.350

Here, a genome-wide CRISPR–Cas9 screen is used to identify the Wnt receptors frizzled as physiologically relevant Clostridium difficile toxin B receptors, providing new therapeutic targets for treating C. difficile infections.

doi: 10.1038/nature19799

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Ultraluminous X-ray bursts in two ultracompact companions to nearby elliptical galaxies p.356

A search of archival X-ray data for 70 nearby galaxies yielded two flaring sources in globular clusters or ultracompact dwarf companions of parent elliptical galaxies.

doi: 10.1038/nature19822

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Multi-petahertz electronic metrology p.359

Investigations using single-cycle intense optical fields to drive electron motion in bulk silicon dioxide show that the light-induced electric currents extend in frequency up to about 8 petahertz.

doi: 10.1038/nature19821

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Real-space investigation of energy transfer in heterogeneous molecular dimers p.364

Scanning tunnelling microscopy is shown to be effective for probing energy transfer in a molecular dimer with submolecular resolution in real space.

doi: 10.1038/nature19765

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Asthenosphere rheology inferred from observations of the 2012 Indian Ocean earthquake p.368

Analysis of the postseismic deformation of the moment magnitude 8.6 Indian Ocean earthquake in 2012 reveals that the asthenospheric layer must be thin and of low viscosity, constraining the structure of oceanic upper-mantle rheology.

doi: 10.1038/nature19787

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Upper-mantle water stratification inferred from observations of the 2012 Indian Ocean earthquake p.373

Postseismic recordings of the moment magnitude 8.6 Indian Ocean earthquake of 2012, combined with the characteristics of olivine creep, provide constraints on the water content of the asthenosphere.

doi: 10.1038/nature19783

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A renewed model of pancreatic cancer evolution based on genomic rearrangement patterns p.378

Pancreatic cancer is not caused by a specific series of genetic alterations that occur sequentially but by one, or few, catastrophic events that result in simultaneous oncogenic genetic rearrangements, giving rise to highly aggressive tumours.

doi: 10.1038/nature19823

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Cortico-fugal output from visual cortex promotes plasticity of innate motor behaviour p.383

The mammalian visual cortex massively innervates the brainstem, a phylogenetically older structure, via cortico-fugal axonal projections. Many cortico-fugal projections target brainstem nuclei that mediate innate motor behaviours, but the function of these projections remains poorly understood. A prime example of such behaviours is the optokinetic reflex (OKR), an innate eye movement mediated by the brainstem accessory optic system, that stabilizes images on the retina as the animal moves through the environment and is thus crucial for vision. The OKR is plastic, allowing the amplitude of this reflex to be adaptively adjusted relative to other oculomotor reflexes and thereby ensuring image stability throughout life. Although the plasticity of the OKR is thought to involve subcortical structures such as the cerebellum and vestibular nuclei, cortical lesions have suggested that the visual cortex might also be involved. Here we show that projections from the mouse visual cortex to the accessory optic system promote the adaptive plasticity of the OKR. OKR potentiation, a compensatory plastic increase in the amplitude of the OKR in response to vestibular impairment, is diminished by silencing visual cortex. Furthermore, targeted ablation of a sparse population of cortico-fugal neurons that specifically project to the accessory optic system severely impairs OKR potentiation. Finally, OKR potentiation results from an enhanced drive exerted by the visual cortex onto the accessory optic system. Thus, cortico-fugal projections to the brainstem enable the visual cortex, an area that has been principally studied for its sensory processing function, to plastically adapt the execution of innate motor behaviours.

doi: 10.1038/nature19818

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Allogeneic transplantation of iPS cell-derived cardiomyocytes regenerates primate hearts p.388

Allogenic induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes transplanted directly into infarcted cynomolgus monkey hearts show electrical coupling with host cardiomyocytes improve cardiac contractile function after mild immunosuppression.

doi: 10.1038/nature19815

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Fetal liver endothelium regulates the seeding of tissue-resident macrophages p.392

PLVAP selectively controls the seeding of fetal liver monocyte-derived tissue-resident macrophages, seemingly by interacting with chemotactic and adhesive molecules at the diaphragms of liver sinusoidal endothelium.

doi: 10.1038/nature19814

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The epichaperome is an integrated chaperome network that facilitates tumour survival p.397

Chaperomes are dynamic assemblies of proteins that regulate cellular homeostasis but specific cellular stresses remodel chaperome components into a stable chaperome network called the epichaperome, which might offer a new cancer target.

doi: 10.1038/nature19807

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Molecular basis of Lys11-polyubiquitin specificity in the deubiquitinase Cezanne p.402

The structures of the deubiquitinating enzyme Cezanne alone or in complex with its substrate or product are solved, showing how Cezanne specifically targets Lys11-linked polyubiquitin.

doi: 10.1038/nature19836

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Atomic structure of the entire mammalian mitochondrial complex I p.406

The atomic structure of ovine mitochondrial complex I is solved at 3.9 Å resolution, revealing that supernumerary subunits stabilize the complex and providing insight into the molecular basis of its function and regulation.

doi: 10.1038/nature19794

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X-ray structure of the human α4β2 nicotinic receptor p.411

Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors are ligand-gated ion channels that mediate fast chemical neurotransmission at the neuromuscular junction and have diverse signalling roles in the central nervous system. The nicotinic receptor has been a model system for cell-surface receptors, and specifically for ligand-gated ion channels, for well over a century. In addition to the receptors’ prominent roles in the development of the fields of pharmacology and neurobiology, nicotinic receptors are important therapeutic targets for neuromuscular disease, addiction, epilepsy and for neuromuscular blocking agents used during surgery. The overall architecture of the receptor was described in landmark studies of the nicotinic receptor isolated from the electric organ of Torpedo marmorata. Structures of a soluble ligand-binding domain have provided atomic-scale insights into receptor–ligand interactions, while high-resolution structures of other members of the pentameric receptor superfamily provide touchstones for an emerging allosteric gating mechanism. All available high-resolution structures are of homopentameric receptors. However, the vast majority of pentameric receptors (called Cys-loop receptors in eukaryotes) present physiologically are heteromeric. Here we present the X-ray crystallographic structure of the human α4β2 nicotinic receptor, the most abundant nicotinic subtype in the brain. This structure provides insights into the architectural principles governing ligand recognition, heteromer assembly, ion permeation and desensitization in this prototypical receptor class.

doi: 10.1038/nature19785

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