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Editorials

米国政府は、他の重要な健康問題を犠牲にしてまで、ジカウイルス対策に財源を振り向けるべきではない。

Don’t redirect Ebola cash to Zika vaccines p.7

The US government should not focus funds on the Zika virus at the expense of other health priorities.

doi: 10.1038/537007a

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新たに別種と判明した、森林に住むアフリカゾウは、繁殖に時間がかかり、密猟による絶滅の危機にある。

Threat to African forest elephants p.7

Analysis highlights the risk faced by a newly distinct species.

doi: 10.1038/537007b

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News

イタリア中部で地震が発生し、大きな被害が。

Italian scientists shocked by earthquake devastation p.15

In a region known to be seismically active, destruction on this scale was still a surprise.

doi: 10.1038/537015a

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米国では、老朽化する原子力発電所を延命しようと、さまざまな努力が。

Nuclear power plants prepare for old age p.16

Materials research is at the heart of efforts to keep the world’s reactors running well past 2050.

doi: 10.1038/537016a

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アウストラロピテクスの「ルーシー」の死因についての検証に、3Dプリンターが威力を。

Print your own 3D Lucy to work out how the famous hominin died p.19

Digital scans will help researchers test whether she fell out of a tree.

doi: 10.1038/537019a

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数学者の師弟関係に着目した「系統樹」が、数学の歴史を知る手掛かりに。

Majority of mathematicians hail from just 24 scientific ‘families’ p.20

Evolution of mathematics traced using unusually comprehensive genealogy database.

doi: 10.1038/nature.2016.20491

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News Features

技術:デジタルDNA

How DNA could store all the world’s data p.22

遺伝情報の貯蔵に使われるDNA分子を、爆発的に増えているコンピューターデータの保存にも利用できるかどうかの研究が盛んに行われている。

doi: 10.1038/537022a

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健康:ヘビによる咬傷との闘い

Vipers, mambas and taipans: the escalating health crisis over snakebites p.26

ヘビによる死者は毎年何万人にも上り、抗毒素の供給不足が深刻だが、その打開策についての専門家の意見は分かれている。

doi: 10.1038/537026a

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News & Views

アルツハイマー病:アミロイドβタンパク質を叩け!

Alzheimer's disease: Attack on amyloid-β protein p.36

抗体療法の1つが、アルツハイマー病の特徴であるアミロイドβタンパク質凝集体を著しく減らし、さらに認知障害の進行を遅らせる可能性もあることが、患者への投与で明らかになった。認知障害への効果が確認されれば、治療に大変革がもたらされるかもしれない。

doi: 10.1038/537036a

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惑星科学:彗星の塵を詳細に調べる

Planetary science: Cometary dust under the microscope p.37

ロゼッタ探査機は彗星の周囲を周回するのに成功するという歴史的偉業を成し遂げた。得られたデータによって、彗星の塵粒子の構造が今回明らかになり、惑星系の形成過程の一端が明らかになった。

doi: 10.1038/537037a

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構造生物学:リボソームを作り出す

Structural biology: Moulding the ribosome p.38

細胞の翻訳装置であるリボソームの産生には、数百種のタンパク質が共同して機能することが必要である。リボソームの最初期の前駆体の構造から、リボソームの形成について、これまで知られていなかった知見が得られた。

doi: 10.1038/537038a

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気候科学:海氷で淡水化された南大洋

Climate science: Southern Ocean freshened by sea ice p.40

南大洋は過去数十年間にわたって、塩分濃度が低下し続けている。南大洋での海氷の輸送状況が解析され、この現象は海氷の流動と氷の厚さの連動した変化によって説明できることが示された。

doi: 10.1038/537040a

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生態学:過ぎたるは及ばざるが如し

Ecology: More is less p.42

植物種が共存するには、資源の使用におけるトレードオフが必要である。草原に関する広範囲にわたる研究によって、限りある資源の1つを増やすとこのような潜在的トレードオフが消滅して、種の多様性の低下が起こりかねないことが示された。

doi: 10.1038/537042a

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がん:遺伝子発現の息の根を止める

Cancer: Suffocation of gene expression p.42

腫瘍の増殖が進み過ぎて血液による栄養供給が足りなくなると、腫瘍中の細胞では酸素レベルが低下する。この変化は、DNAからメチル基を取り除く酵素のTETの活性を制限し、それによって遺伝子発現状況を変化させる可能性があることが今回明らかになった。

doi: 10.1038/nature19426

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古代のDNA:北米大陸への移動についての泥まみれの手掛かり

Ancient DNA: Muddy messages about American migration p.43

初期の人類の北米大陸への移動はいつ頃、どういう経路を通って行われたのだろうか。古代の植物や動物の遺物の解析から、北米大陸北西部の複数の氷床の間に道が開けた可能性があると考えられていた時期が修正された。

doi: 10.1038/nature19421

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Articles

環境科学:後氷期の北米の無氷回廊における生物の生存可能性と定着

Postglacial viability and colonization in North America’s ice-free corridor p.45

During much of the last ice age, continental ice sheets prevented humans from migrating into North America from Siberia; an environmental reconstruction of the corridor that opened up between the Cordilleran and Laurentide ice sheets reveals that it would have been inhospitable to the initial colonizing humans, who therefore probably entered North America by a different route.

doi: 10.1038/nature19085

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神経疾患:抗体aducanumabはアルツハイマー病でAβ斑を減少させる

The antibody aducanumab reduces Aβ plaques in Alzheimer’s disease p.50

Aducanumab, a human monoclonal antibody that selectively targets aggregated Aβ, reduces soluble and insoluble Aβ in the brain, an action accompanied by a dose-dependent slowing of clinical decline in treated patients.

doi: 10.1038/nature19323

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発生生物学:マウス、サルおよびヒトにおける多能性の発生座標

A developmental coordinate of pluripotency among mice, monkeys and humans p.57

Using a single-cell sequencing analysis in monkey embryos, and comparing the genes expressed during early development in this species with those in mice and in human pluripotent stem cells, the authors define characteristics of pluripotency ontogeny across mammalian species.

doi: 10.1038/nature19096

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がん:腫瘍の低酸素状態はTET活性を低下させることによるDNAの高メチル化を引き起こす

Tumour hypoxia causes DNA hypermethylation by reducing TET activity p.63

Hypoxia in solid tumours reduces the expression of tumour suppressor genes through an epigenetic mechanism.

doi: 10.1038/nature19081

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Letters

惑星科学:地球程度の大きさの太陽系外惑星TRAPPIST-1 bおよびcの混合した透過スペクトル

A combined transmission spectrum of the Earth-sized exoplanets TRAPPIST-1 b and c p.69

Recently, temperate Earth-sized planets were discovered around the nearby star TRAPPIST-1; now, preliminary transmission spectra observations of the two inner planets by the Hubble Space Telescope suggest that these planets do not have a hydrogen-dominated atmosphere and are thus terrestrial, their atmospheric type still to be determined.

doi: 10.1038/nature18641

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惑星科学:67P/チュリュモフ・ゲラシメンコ彗星の集合体塵粒子

Aggregate dust particles at comet 67P/Churyumov–Gerasimenko p.73

In situ measurements of dust particles at comet 67P/Churyumov–Gerasimenko confirm that the particles are aggregates of smaller, elongated grains even at the smallest sizes examined.

doi: 10.1038/nature19091

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量子光学:非対称モードスイッチングに対する除外点を動的に一回りする

Dynamically encircling an exceptional point for asymmetric mode switching p.76

A two-mode waveguide is designed to realize a dynamical encircling of an exceptional point at which two resonances coincide in their frequency and their rate of decay; as a result the waveguide transmits only into a unique mode at either one of its two output ports.

doi: 10.1038/nature18605

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量子光学:除外点を有するオプトメカニカル系におけるトポロジカルエネルギー移動

Topological energy transfer in an optomechanical system with exceptional points p.80

The transfer of energy between two vibrational modes of an optomechanical device is achieved using topological operations; the key to this transfer is the existence of an exceptional point in the complex spectrum of the device.

doi: 10.1038/nature18604

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超高速レーザー:超高速バーストパルスを用いるアブレーション冷却による材料除去

Ablation-cooled material removal with ultrafast bursts of pulses p.84

Ablation cooling is demonstrated as an effective means of removing material using successive bursts of laser pulses with short intraburst delay times; the technique allows the overall pulse energy to be decreased, overcoming negative thermal effects during the ablation process.

doi: 10.1038/nature18619

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気候科学:南大洋の塩分分布とその最近の変動を駆動する海氷の輸送

Sea-ice transport driving Southern Ocean salinity and its recent trends p.89

Multiple lines of evidence indicate that the northward transport of sea ice from Antarctica can explain the bulk of the observed freshening in the Southern Ocean.

doi: 10.1038/nature19101

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生態学:複数の限定的資源の添加は草原の多様性を低下させる

Addition of multiple limiting resources reduces grassland diversity p.93

Analysis of multi-year nutrient enrichment experiments carried out on 45 global grassland sites show that an addition of an increasing number of nutrients leads to a reduction in plant species diversity, and competition for multiple below-ground resources promotes plant species diversity.

doi: 10.1038/nature19324

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神経科学:拡張扁桃体の不安と恐怖の促進回路を起動するセロトニン

Serotonin engages an anxiety and fear-promoting circuit in the extended amygdala p.97

A brain circuit is identified through which serotonin induces an anxiety-like state; this circuit also mediates the anxiety-like behaviour induced by acute administration of the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor fluoxetine and may underlie the early adverse events that some patients with anxiety disorders have to these types of drugs.

doi: 10.1038/nature19318

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がん:HER2発現から明らかになる循環乳がん細胞内の動的な機能状態

HER2 expression identifies dynamic functional states within circulating breast cancer cells p.102

Patient-derived circulating tumour cells are used to characterize the dynamics and underlying plasticity of HER2 expression in non-HER2-amplified breast tumours.

doi: 10.1038/nature19328

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細胞生物学:エンドソームの繋留タンパク質はエントロピー的崩壊によって小胞を寄せ集める

An endosomal tether undergoes an entropic collapse to bring vesicles together p.107

A new endosomal tethering mechanism involving a mechanochemical cycle of the dimeric coiled-coil protein EEA1 regulated by Rab5:GTP binding and GTP hydrolysis.

doi: 10.1038/nature19326

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がん:KSRの不活性状態を低分子によって安定化すると、発がん性のRasシグナル伝達が抑制される

Small molecule stabilization of the KSR inactive state antagonizes oncogenic Ras signalling p.112

A class of small molecules that stabilize a previously unrecognized inactive state of KSR is reported; the agonists synergize with MEK inhibitors to prevent growth of Ras mutant cell lines.

doi: 10.1038/nature19327

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構造生物学:電位依存性Ca2+チャネルのCa2+アンタゴニストによる抑制の構造的基盤

Structural basis for inhibition of a voltage-gated Ca2+ channel by Ca2+ antagonist drugs p.117

Ca2+ antagonist drugs are widely used in therapy of cardiovascular disorders. Three chemical classes of drugs bind to three separate, but allosterically interacting, receptor sites on CaV1.2 channels, the most prominent voltage-gated Ca2+ (CaV) channel type in myocytes in cardiac and vascular smooth muscle. The 1,4-dihydropyridines are used primarily for treatment of hypertension and angina pectoris and are thought to act as allosteric modulators of voltage-dependent Ca2+ channel activation, whereas phenylalkylamines and benzothiazepines are used primarily for treatment of cardiac arrhythmias and are thought to physically block the pore. The structural basis for the different binding, action, and therapeutic uses of these drugs remains unknown. Here we present crystallographic and functional analyses of drug binding to the bacterial homotetrameric model CaV channel CaVAb, which is inhibited by dihydropyridines and phenylalkylamines with nanomolar affinity in a state-dependent manner. The binding site for amlodipine and other dihydropyridines is located on the external, lipid-facing surface of the pore module, positioned at the interface of two subunits. Dihydropyridine binding allosterically induces an asymmetric conformation of the selectivity filter, in which partially dehydrated Ca2+ interacts directly with one subunit and blocks the pore. In contrast, the phenylalkylamine Br-verapamil binds in the central cavity of the pore on the intracellular side of the selectivity filter, physically blocking the ion-conducting pathway. Structure-based mutations of key amino-acid residues confirm drug binding at both sites. Our results define the structural basis for binding of dihydropyridines and phenylalkylamines at their distinct receptor sites on CaV channels and offer key insights into their fundamental mechanisms of action and differential therapeutic uses in cardiovascular diseases.

doi: 10.1038/nature19102

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