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Editorials

ヨーロッパのヒューマン・ブレイン・プロジェクト(HBP)は、批判を受け止め、運営方法と科学的方向性を修正すべきだ。

Rethinking the brain p.389

Critics of the European Human Brain Project were justified, says an independent report on the project. Both its governance and its scientific direction need to be adjusted.

doi: 10.1038/519389a

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英国の2014年研究卓越性フレームワーク(REF)を詳しく見れば、研究が社会的に有益な影響をもたらしているのは明らかだ。

Applied prestige p.389

The UK research assessment should inspire everybody to reward excellent societal impacts.

doi: 10.1038/519389b

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巨大なガス惑星、土星の秘密が、NASAの探査で次第に明らかになるだろう。

About time p.390

The next few years will see NASA missions probe the innermost secrets of gas giants.

doi: 10.1038/519390a

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News

ドイツに、初めてのブタ組織のバイオバンクが設立され、糖尿病研究の試料提供に役立つと期待が。

An inside look at the first pig biobank p.397

Nature watches a porcine autopsy that will help create a powerful animal model of diabetes.

doi: 10.1038/519397a

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地球温暖化のシミュレーションの欠落をなくそうと、米国主導の熱帯研究プロジェクトが。

Climate modellers take tropical approach p.398

Ten-year US-led project seeks to plug gaps in global-warming simulations.

doi: 10.1038/519398a

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クラウド上のゲノムデータの保護に、準同型暗号が有効なことが。

Extreme cryptography paves way to personalized medicine p.400

Encrypted analysis of data in the cloud would allow secure access to sensitive information.

doi: 10.1038/519400a

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探査機ドーンが撮影した準惑星ケレスの画像に、氷の活動を示すと思われる光が。

Bright spots on Ceres could be active ice p.401

Early data from Dawn spacecraft bring scientists closer to clearing up mystery about dwarf planet.

doi: 10.1038/nature.2015.17139

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News Features

事業:バイオテクノロジー特訓コース

Biotech boot camp p.402

米国の助成機関が、シリコンバレーの起業家に対し、新生バイオメディカル企業を成功させるための集中訓練プログラムを試みている。

doi: 10.1038/519402a

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News & Views

心臓学:心臓に優しい分子

Cardiology: A big-hearted molecule p.416

サイクリックGMP分子は心不全から心臓を保護することが示されており、PDE9酵素の阻害はサイクリックGMPの分解を防止する。この知見はPDE9の阻害が心不全治療の薬剤標的となる可能性を示している。

doi: 10.1038/nature14373

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物理化学:グラフェンシートの間のスクエアアイス

Physical chemistry: Square ice in a graphene sandwich p.417

グラフェンシートの間に挟まれた1 nm未満の厚さの氷の薄膜で、正方格子構造が観察された。この構造はバルクの氷で広く生じる六方晶系構造とは全く異なるものである。

doi: 10.1038/519417a

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分子生物学:DNA複製系の再構築

Molecular biology: DNA replication reconstructed p.418

染色体はゲノムの完全性を確保するために、細胞分裂の周期ごとに忠実に複製されなければならない。酵母でのDNA複製開始をin vitroで再構築することで、この基本的な過程の仕組みを調べることが可能になる。

doi: 10.1038/519418a

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発生生物学:翅の形態は環境次第

Developmental biology: Earn your wings p.420

トビイロウンカという名前のイネの害虫は環境からの合図に応じて2種類の形態のどちらかを選ぶことができる。2種類のインスリン受容体タンパク質が、形態を切り替える分子スイッチとして働いていることが明らかになってきた。

doi: 10.1038/519420a

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量子物理学:単一光子から生じる原子のドーナツ

Quantum physics: Atomic doughnuts from single photons p.420

2枚の鏡の間に閉じ込められた約3000個の原子からなる集団と1個の光子の相互作用の解析から、多原子の量子エンタングルメントの形態の1つが明らかになった。この形態に相当するものは古典力学では存在しない。

doi: 10.1038/519420b

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システム生物学:反抗的な娘たちと協調性のあるいとこたち

Systems biology: Defiant daughters and coordinated cousins p.422

遺伝学的に同じ細胞であっても多数の性質が異なっている場合がある。同じ系統に属する細胞の間に見られる相関関係の研究によって、母細胞と娘細胞の間の相関性が、いとこの間柄にある細胞間での相関性よりも低いように見えるという、一見矛盾しているような遺伝法則が説明された。

doi: 10.1038/nature14210

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銀河形成:風が吹く時

Galaxy formation: When the wind blows p.423

質量降着中の超大質量ブラックホールが中心にある明るい銀河の天文学的観測から、このような存在がガスを放射して銀河全体に送り出す仕組みが明らかになった。

doi: 10.1038/519423a

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Articles

細胞生物学:MAP4K4はインテグリンとFERMの結合を調節して内皮の細胞運動を制御する

MAP4K4 regulates integrin-FERM binding to control endothelial cell motility p.425

A new MAP4K4–moesin–talin–β1-integrin pathway regulating endothelial cell motility was discovered through chemical and siRNA screens; loss of Map4k4 or inhibition of MAP4K4 kinase activity altered the sprout morphology of endothelial cells during angiogenesis by blocking moesin phosphorylation, which regulates the disassembly of focal adhesions, demonstrating that this pathway is involved in both normal and pathological angiogenesis.

doi: 10.1038/nature14323

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生化学:精製タンパク質による真核生物のDNA複製起点発火の調節

Regulated eukaryotic DNA replication origin firing with purified proteins p.431

It has long been a goal to reconstitute eukaryotic DNA replication; here a purified in vitro system from budding yeast containing 16 factors, themselves composed of 42 polypeptides, fulfils the staged process of origin-dependent initiation, including its regulation by kinases.

doi: 10.1038/nature14285

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Letters

宇宙物理学:活動銀河で分子アウトフローを駆動するブラックホールの降着円盤からの風

Wind from the black-hole accretion disk driving a molecular outflow in an active galaxy p.436

Observations of an ultrafast accretion-disk wind in the X-ray spectrum of a nearby ultraluminous infrared galaxy support the theory that such winds affect the evolution of supermassive black holes and their host galaxies.

doi: 10.1038/nature14261

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量子物理学:単一光子が伝令する約3000個の原子のウィグナー関数を持つエンタングルメントの生成

Entanglement with negative Wigner function of almost 3,000 atoms heralded by one photon p.439

The detection of a single photon from a laser interacting with an atomic ensemble is shown to produce entanglement of almost 3,000 atoms; in contrast to previous production of multi-atom entanglement, the highly non-classical nature of the present entangled state is verified by measurement of a negative quasiprobability distribution.

doi: 10.1038/nature14293

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物理化学:グラフェンナノ毛細管中に形成されたスクエアアイス

Square ice in graphene nanocapillaries p.443

The structure of the low-dimensional water confined in hydrophobic pores is shown, using electron microscopy and supported by molecular dynamics simulations, to be ‘square ice’, which does not have the conventional tetrahedral hydrogen bonding.

doi: 10.1038/nature14295

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流体力学:蒸気を介する2成分液滴のセンシングと運動

Vapour-mediated sensing and motility in two-component droplets p.446

Droplets of mixed water and propylene glycol deposited on clean glass exhibit a contact angle but do not suffer from contact line pinning; their motion can be controlled by the vapour emitted from neighbouring droplets to create a variety of autonomous fluidic machines with integrated sensing and motility capabilities.

doi: 10.1038/nature14272

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気候科学:組織化した深い対流の頻度の変化によって生じる熱帯の降水量の増加

Increases in tropical rainfall driven by changes in frequency of organized deep convection p.451

An increase in the frequency of organized deep convection—essentially a large aggregation of heavily precipitating and largely stratiform clouds—is behind most of the recent increases in tropical precipitation.

doi: 10.1038/nature14339

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神経科学:視床室傍核は扁桃体中心核の恐怖回路を制御する

The paraventricular thalamus controls a central amygdala fear circuit p.455

Inhibiting projections from the paraventricular nucleus of the thalamus to a specific division of the amygdala prevents fear conditioning in mice, indicating an important role for the thalamus–amygdala circuit in establishing and maintaining fear responses.

doi: 10.1038/nature13978

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神経科学:恐怖記憶の想起に関わる回路の時間的変化

A temporal shift in the circuits mediating retrieval of fear memory p.460

Dissociating early from late fear memory retrieval in rats reveals that while the projection from the prelimbic prefrontal cortex to the amygdala is critical for fear memory retrieval at early time points, a separate circuit involving the paraventricular region of the dorsal midline thalamus is critical for fear memory retrieval at late time points, establishing the paraventricular region as a critical maintenance/retrieval node during the transition from short- to long-term fear memory.

doi: 10.1038/nature14030

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発生生物学:ウンカでは2種類のインスリン受容体が選択的な翅形態を決定する

Two insulin receptors determine alternative wing morphs in planthoppers p.464

Some insects have alternative wing morphs, one that is long-winged and changes habitat to follow resources, and one that is short-winged and flightless but has high fertility; here, the molecular details of this switch are revealed, with opposite effects of two insulin receptors controlling the development of different wing morphs in the planthopper.

doi: 10.1038/nature14286

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細胞生物学:細胞周期の動態を探る指針となる、単一細胞の分裂時間の系譜的相関

Lineage correlations of single cell division time as a probe of cell-cycle dynamics p.468

Precise measurement of cell-cycle duration in thousands of mammalian cells reveals correlations among cousin cells, but no such correlations between mother and daughter cells; recapitulating this finding using a deterministic model suggests that observed cellular heterogeneities in cell-cycle duration may be attributable to deterministic processes, and eventually be controlled.

doi: 10.1038/nature14318

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細胞生物学:ホスホジエステラーゼ9Aは一酸化窒素非依存的cGMPと肥大型心疾患を制御する

Phosphodiesterase 9A controls nitric-oxide-independent cGMP and hypertrophic heart disease p.472

The inhibition, in mice, of the phosphodiesterase PDE9A, which specifically regulates natriuretic-peptide-coupled cGMP signalling, is independent of nitric oxide and is upregulated in failing human hearts, and can reverse pre-established stress-induced heart disease.

doi: 10.1038/nature14332

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細胞生物学:SLC38A9はmTORC1を制御するリソソームのアミノ酸感知装置の構成要素である

SLC38A9 is a component of the lysosomal amino acid sensing machinery that controls mTORC1 p.477

The mTORC1 protein kinase complex integrates nutrient and growth stimuli to modulate signalling pathways that regulate cellular metabolism and physiology, but the molecular nature of the amino acid sensing mechanism at the lysosome is unknown; here, an orphan member of the human solute carrier group of proteins, SLC38A9, is shown to be an integral component of the lysosomal machinery that can directly sense amino acids and activate mTORC1.

doi: 10.1038/nature14107

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細胞生物学:N6-メチルアデノシンは一次マイクロRNAをプロセシングするための標識である

N6-methyladenosine marks primary microRNAs for processing p.482

The first step in the biogenesis of microRNAs is the processing of primary microRNAs (pri-miRNAs) by the microprocessor complex, composed of the RNA-binding protein DGCR8 and the type III RNase DROSHA. This initial event requires recognition of the junction between the stem and the flanking single-stranded RNA of the pri-miRNA hairpin by DGCR8 followed by recruitment of DROSHA, which cleaves the RNA duplex to yield the pre-miRNA product. While the mechanisms underlying pri-miRNA processing have been determined, the mechanism by which DGCR8 recognizes and binds pri-miRNAs, as opposed to other secondary structures present in transcripts, is not understood. Here we find in mammalian cells that methyltransferase-like 3 (METTL3) methylates pri-miRNAs, marking them for recognition and processing by DGCR8. Consistent with this, METTL3 depletion reduced the binding of DGCR8 to pri-miRNAs and resulted in the global reduction of mature miRNAs and concomitant accumulation of unprocessed pri-miRNAs. In vitro processing reactions confirmed the sufficiency of the N6-methyladenosine (m6A) mark in promoting pri-miRNA processing. Finally, gain-of-function experiments revealed that METTL3 is sufficient to enhance miRNA maturation in a global and non-cell-type-specific manner. Our findings reveal that the m6A mark acts as a key post-transcriptional modification that promotes the initiation of miRNA biogenesis.

doi: 10.1038/nature14281

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分子生物学:in vivoでの構造的インプリントによりRNA調節機構を解読する

Structural imprints in vivo decode RNA regulatory mechanisms p.486

The single-stranded nature of RNAs synthesized in the cell gives them great scope to form different structures, but current methods to measure RNA structure in vivo are limited; now, a new methodology allows researchers to examine all four nucleotides in mouse embryonic stem cells.

doi: 10.1038/nature14263

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分子生物学:hiCLIP法により明らかになった、Staufen 1が認識するmRNA二次構造のin vivoアトラス

hiCLIP reveals the in vivo atlas of mRNA secondary structures recognized by Staufen 1 p.491

A method, termed hiCLIP, has been developed to determine the RNA duplexes bound by RNA-binding proteins, revealing an unforeseen prevalence of long-range duplexes in 3′ untranslated regions (UTRs), and a decreased incidence of SNPs in duplex-forming regions; the results also show that RNA structure is able to regulate gene expression.

doi: 10.1038/nature14280

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