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Editorials

欧州研究圏(ERA)は今でも価値ある目標であり、関係国および機関はその完成への努力を続けるべきだ。

A worthy ambition p.279

Finalizing the European Research Area is still a vibrant and relevant goal.

doi: 10.1038/513279b

優れた科学には、個々の違いを尊重し、多様性のあらゆる面を受け入れることが重要である。

Diversity challenge p.279

There is growing evidence that embracing diversity — in all its senses — is key to doing good science. But there is still work to be done to ensure that inclusivity is the default, not the exception.

doi: 10.1038/513279a

細菌酵素を利用して光合成の効率を高める方法に、作物の収穫量増加が期待できる。

Amped-up plants p.280

Bacterial enzyme supercharges photosynthesis, promising increased yields for crops.

doi: 10.1038/513280a

News

理化学研究所が世界で初めて、誘導多能性幹(iPS)細胞を使ったヒトへの網膜移植手術を実施。

Japan stem-cell trial stirs envy p.287

Researchers elsewhere can’t wait to test iPS cells in humans.

doi: 10.1038/513287a

欧州宇宙機関(ESA)の彗星探査機ロゼッタの着陸地点が、彗星「頭部」に決定。

Lander to aim for comet’s ‘head’ p.288

Touchdown site for Rosetta probe chosen unanimously.

doi: 10.1038/513288a

新たな気候変動条約への道筋をつけようと、国連の気候サミットが。

Climate summit previews push for new global treaty p.289

United Nations meeting aims to spark enthusiasm for a 2015 emissions pact.

doi: 10.1038/513289a

人工甘味料に、肥満や糖尿病との関連性があることを示す報告が。

Sugar substitutes linked to obesity p.290

Artificial sweetener seems to change gut microbiome.

doi: 10.1038/513290a

アジア初の火星探査機、インドの「マンガリアン」が、間もなく火星の軌道に。

Indian Mars craft prepares for orbit p.291

Mangalyaan aims to be Asia’s first successful Martian mission.

doi: 10.1038/513291a

古典的な交配法が、干ばつ耐性作物の開発に、遺伝子組換えをしのぐ成果を。

Cross-bred crops get fit faster p.292

Genetic engineering lags behind conventional breeding in efforts to create drought-resistant maize.

doi: 10.1038/513292a

News Features

海洋保全:賞金稼ぎ

Invasive-species control: Bounty hunters p.294

米国では、サンゴ礁を破壊するミノカサゴの侵入が問題になっているが、この問題改善に釣り競技会が役立つかもしれない。

doi: 10.1038/513294a

多様性:科学界の「プライド」

Diversity: Pride in science p.297

科学者は、自身の性的指向にかかわらず活躍できるようになってきているが、カミングアウトをためらう人はいまだに多い。

doi: 10.1038/513297a

News & Views

進化生物学:放散するゲノム

Evolutionary biology: Radiating genomes p.318

アフリカに生息するシクリッド類の5つの系統をそれぞれ代表する試料のゲノム塩基配列と遺伝子発現データから、シクリッドについて現在見られる非常に高い多様性の基盤となっているゲノム変化の特徴が明らかになった。

doi: 10.1038/nature13742

物性物理学:相対論的電子を捕らえる

Condensed-matter physics: Catching relativistic electrons p.319

ヒ化カドミウム中では低エネルギー電子が相対論的高エネルギー粒子と似た挙動をすることが示され、これによって安定な「三次元ディラック半金属」が初めて明らかになった。これは、基礎物理学研究にも実際的応用にも役立つと期待される。

doi: 10.1038/513319a

動物行動:「致命的な闘争」の進化的ルーツ

Animal behaviour: The evolutionary roots of lethal conflict p.321

チンパンジーで見られる、仲間を集めて相手を殺すような攻撃について包括的な解析が行われ、こうした攻撃は適応行動の1つであって、人為的影響を受けて生じたものではないことが確証された。

doi: 10.1038/513321a

宇宙物理学:銀河核がむき出しの銀河にある巨大ブラックホール

Astrophysics: Giant black hole in a stripped galaxy p.322

高密度に詰め込まれた星の集塊の中心にある、特大の超大質量ブラックホールが見つかった。この知見は、この系がかつてはもっと大きかった銀河の核であって、周りの物質が剥ぎ取られてしまったことを示唆している。

doi: 10.1038/513322a

神経科学:「心の変化」を解明する

Neuroscience: Shedding light on a change of mind p.323

脳細胞を光に応答させる巧妙な遺伝学的手法をマウスに用いて、特定の場所に結び付いている記憶を誘起し、その結び付きを否定的なものから肯定的なものへ、あるいはこの逆へと変更する実験が成功した。

doi: 10.1038/nature13745

有機化学:化学結合を、一度に1つずつ制御して作る反応性

Organic chemistry: Reactivity tamed one bond at a time p.324

3つの反応物を1つにまとめて、複数の可能性の中から1種類の化合物だけを選び、単一の鏡像異性体として形成させる触媒によって、生体分子の合成が容易になる可能性がある。

doi: 10.1038/513324a

Articles

化学:スケーラブルな天然物合成のための多官能基有機ホウ素化合物

Multifunctional organoboron compounds for scalable natural product synthesis p.367

A catalytic process is reported that begins with a highly selective copper–boron addition to a monosubstituted allene, and in which the resulting boron-substituted organocopper intermediate then participates in a chemoselective, site-selective and enantioselective allylic substitution; this approach is used in the enantioselective synthesis of gram quantities of two natural products.

doi: 10.1038/nature13735

ゲノム進化:魚類アフリカンシクリッドの適応放散に関わるゲノム基質

The genomic substrate for adaptive radiation in African cichlid fish OPEN p.375

Genomes and transcriptomes of five distinct lineages of African cichlids, a textbook example of adaptive radiation, have been sequenced and analysed to reveal that many types of molecular changes contributed to rapid evolution, and that standing variation accumulated during periods of relaxed selection may have primed subsequent diversification.

doi: 10.1038/nature13726

がん:ヒト結腸がんおよび直腸がんのプロテオゲノミクスによる特徴付け

Proteogenomic characterization of human colon and rectal cancer p.382

Proteome analysis of The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) colorectal cancer specimens reveals that DNA- or RNA-level measurements cannot reliably predict protein abundance, colorectal tumours can be separated into distinct proteotypes, and that copy number alterations drive mRNA abundance changes but few extend to protein-level changes.

doi: 10.1038/nature13438

細胞生物学:分裂後期促進複合体の分子的な構造と機構

Molecular architecture and mechanism of the anaphase-promoting complex p.388

The anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C) is a large E3 ligase that mediates ubiquitin-dependent proteolysis of cell cycle regulatory proteins; here the complete secondary structure architecture of human APC/C complexed with its coactivator CDH1 and substrate HSL1 is determined at 7.4 Å resolution, revealing allosteric changes induced by the coactivator that enhance affinity for UBCH10–ubiqutin.

doi: 10.1038/nature13543

Letters

宇宙:ビッグバンから30億年後のコア形成段階にある大質量銀河

A massive galaxy in its core formation phase three billion years after the Big Bang p.394

Hubble Space Telescope, Keck telescope and Spitzer satellite data reveal the formation of the dense stellar core of a massive galaxy occurring three billion years after the Big Bang.

doi: 10.1038/nature13616

宇宙:超コンパクト矮小銀河の超大質量ブラックホール

A supermassive black hole in an ultra-compact dwarf galaxy p.398

Dynamical modelling of the ultra-compact dwarf galaxy M60-UCD1 reveals the presence of a supermassive black hole; this suggests the object is a stripped galaxy nucleus and implies the existence of supermassive black holes in many other ultra-compact dwarf galaxies.

doi: 10.1038/nature13762

気候:中新世後期にテチス海の収縮によって引き起こされたサハラ砂漠の乾燥化

Aridification of the Sahara desert caused by Tethys Sea shrinkage during the Late Miocene p.401

The drying of the Tethys Sea—the progenitor of the modern Mediterranean, Black and Caspian seas—weakened the northern extension of the African monsoon and led to the creation of the Sahara desert about 7 million years ago.

doi: 10.1038/nature13705

地球:拡大する大陸がプレートテクトニクスを始動させた

Spreading continents kick-started plate tectonics p.405

The slow gravitational collapse of early continents could have kick-started transient episodes of plate tectonics until, as the Earth’s interior cooled and oceanic lithosphere became heavier, plate tectonics became self-sustaining.

doi: 10.1038/nature13728

進化:古代人ゲノムは、現代ヨーロッパ人が3つの祖先集団に由来することを示唆している

Ancient human genomes suggest three ancestral populations for present-day Europeans p.409

A sequencing study comparing ancient and contemporary genomes reveals that most present-day Europeans derive from at least three highly differentiated populations: west European hunter-gatherers, ancient north Eurasians (related to Upper Palaeolithic Siberians) and early European farmers of mainly Near Eastern origin.

doi: 10.1038/nature13673

動物行動学:チンパンジー属(Pan)に見られる致命的攻撃は人為的影響よりも適応戦略で説明がつく

Lethal aggression in Pan is better explained by adaptive strategies than human impacts p.414

A meta-analysis of studies on chimpanzees and bonobos across Africa shows that their conspecific aggression is the normal and expected product of adaptive strategies to obtain resources or mates and has no connection with the impacts of human activities.

doi: 10.1038/nature13727

実験進化学:遅滞時間の最適化が、進化した細菌集団における抗生物質耐性の原因となる

Optimization of lag time underlies antibiotic tolerance in evolved bacterial populations p.418

Repeated exposure of the bacterium Escherichia coli to clinically relevant concentrations of ampicillin results in the evolution of tolerance—the ability to survive until the antibiotic concentration diminishes—through an extension of the lag phase, a finding that has implications for slowing the evolution of antibiotic resistance.

doi: 10.1038/nature13469

発生学:正常細胞のゲノム塩基配列解読から明らかになる発生系譜と変異過程

Genome sequencing of normal cells reveals developmental lineages and mutational processes p.422

On the basis of whole-genome sequences of clonal lines derived from normal mouse tissues, variation in mutational patterns and load across different tissues are described and early embryonic cell divisions are reconstructed.

doi: 10.1038/nature13448

神経科学:海馬の文脈記憶エングラムに連合した誘意性の両方向性切り替え

Bidirectional switch of the valence associated with a hippocampal contextual memory engram p.426

An optogenetic approach in mice was used to investigate the neural mechanisms underlying memory valence association; dentate gyrus, but not amygdala, memory engram cells exhibit plasticity in valence associations, suggesting that emotional memory associations can be changed at the circuit level.

doi: 10.1038/nature13725

医学:エキソヌクレアーゼを介した新生RNAの分解は重症マラリアに関連する遺伝子をサイレンシングする

Exonuclease-mediated degradation of nascent RNA silences genes linked to severe malaria p.431

A novel type of post-transcriptional regulation controls the expression of virulence genes in blood-stage malaria parasites.

doi: 10.1038/nature13468

生化学:ホルモン化したFGF1は、新形質の強力なインスリン抵抗性改善薬になる

Endocrinization of FGF1 produces a neomorphic and potent insulin sensitizer p.436

Pharmacological fibroblast growth factor 1 (FGF1) normalizes blood glucose in diabetic mice by means of an FGF receptor signalling pathway that is independent of its mitogenic activity.

doi: 10.1038/nature13540

細胞生物学:タンパク質合成と分解のmTORC1による協調的な調節

Coordinated regulation of protein synthesis and degradation by mTORC1 p.440

mTORC1 is known to stimulate protein synthesis; now, it is shown to also promote the synthesis of proteasomes, which degrade proteins into the amino acids needed to create new proteins.

doi: 10.1038/nature13492

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