A worthy ambition p.279

Finalizing the European Research Area is still a vibrant and relevant goal.

doi: 10.1038/513279b

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Diversity challenge p.279

There is growing evidence that embracing diversity — in all its senses — is key to doing good science. But there is still work to be done to ensure that inclusivity is the default, not the exception.

doi: 10.1038/513279a

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Amped-up plants p.280

Bacterial enzyme supercharges photosynthesis, promising increased yields for crops.

doi: 10.1038/513280a

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Japan stem-cell trial stirs envy p.287

Researchers elsewhere can’t wait to test iPS cells in humans.

doi: 10.1038/513287a

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Lander to aim for comet’s ‘head’ p.288

Touchdown site for Rosetta probe chosen unanimously.

doi: 10.1038/513288a

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Climate summit previews push for new global treaty p.289

United Nations meeting aims to spark enthusiasm for a 2015 emissions pact.

doi: 10.1038/513289a

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Sugar substitutes linked to obesity p.290

Artificial sweetener seems to change gut microbiome.

doi: 10.1038/513290a

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Indian Mars craft prepares for orbit p.291

Mangalyaan aims to be Asia’s first successful Martian mission.

doi: 10.1038/513291a

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Cross-bred crops get fit faster p.292

Genetic engineering lags behind conventional breeding in efforts to create drought-resistant maize.

doi: 10.1038/513292a

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News Features


Invasive-species control: Bounty hunters p.294


doi: 10.1038/513294a

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Diversity: Pride in science p.297


doi: 10.1038/513297a

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News & Views


Evolutionary biology: Radiating genomes p.318


doi: 10.1038/nature13742

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Condensed-matter physics: Catching relativistic electrons p.319


doi: 10.1038/513319a

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Animal behaviour: The evolutionary roots of lethal conflict p.321


doi: 10.1038/513321a

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Astrophysics: Giant black hole in a stripped galaxy p.322


doi: 10.1038/513322a

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Neuroscience: Shedding light on a change of mind p.323


doi: 10.1038/nature13745

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Organic chemistry: Reactivity tamed one bond at a time p.324


doi: 10.1038/513324a

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Multifunctional organoboron compounds for scalable natural product synthesis p.367

A catalytic process is reported that begins with a highly selective copper–boron addition to a monosubstituted allene, and in which the resulting boron-substituted organocopper intermediate then participates in a chemoselective, site-selective and enantioselective allylic substitution; this approach is used in the enantioselective synthesis of gram quantities of two natural products.

doi: 10.1038/nature13735

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The genomic substrate for adaptive radiation in African cichlid fish OPEN p.375

Genomes and transcriptomes of five distinct lineages of African cichlids, a textbook example of adaptive radiation, have been sequenced and analysed to reveal that many types of molecular changes contributed to rapid evolution, and that standing variation accumulated during periods of relaxed selection may have primed subsequent diversification.

doi: 10.1038/nature13726

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Proteogenomic characterization of human colon and rectal cancer p.382

Proteome analysis of The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) colorectal cancer specimens reveals that DNA- or RNA-level measurements cannot reliably predict protein abundance, colorectal tumours can be separated into distinct proteotypes, and that copy number alterations drive mRNA abundance changes but few extend to protein-level changes.

doi: 10.1038/nature13438

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Molecular architecture and mechanism of the anaphase-promoting complex p.388

The anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C) is a large E3 ligase that mediates ubiquitin-dependent proteolysis of cell cycle regulatory proteins; here the complete secondary structure architecture of human APC/C complexed with its coactivator CDH1 and substrate HSL1 is determined at 7.4 Å resolution, revealing allosteric changes induced by the coactivator that enhance affinity for UBCH10–ubiqutin.

doi: 10.1038/nature13543

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A massive galaxy in its core formation phase three billion years after the Big Bang p.394

Hubble Space Telescope, Keck telescope and Spitzer satellite data reveal the formation of the dense stellar core of a massive galaxy occurring three billion years after the Big Bang.

doi: 10.1038/nature13616

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A supermassive black hole in an ultra-compact dwarf galaxy p.398

Dynamical modelling of the ultra-compact dwarf galaxy M60-UCD1 reveals the presence of a supermassive black hole; this suggests the object is a stripped galaxy nucleus and implies the existence of supermassive black holes in many other ultra-compact dwarf galaxies.

doi: 10.1038/nature13762

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Aridification of the Sahara desert caused by Tethys Sea shrinkage during the Late Miocene p.401

The drying of the Tethys Sea—the progenitor of the modern Mediterranean, Black and Caspian seas—weakened the northern extension of the African monsoon and led to the creation of the Sahara desert about 7 million years ago.

doi: 10.1038/nature13705

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Spreading continents kick-started plate tectonics p.405

The slow gravitational collapse of early continents could have kick-started transient episodes of plate tectonics until, as the Earth’s interior cooled and oceanic lithosphere became heavier, plate tectonics became self-sustaining.

doi: 10.1038/nature13728

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Ancient human genomes suggest three ancestral populations for present-day Europeans p.409

A sequencing study comparing ancient and contemporary genomes reveals that most present-day Europeans derive from at least three highly differentiated populations: west European hunter-gatherers, ancient north Eurasians (related to Upper Palaeolithic Siberians) and early European farmers of mainly Near Eastern origin.

doi: 10.1038/nature13673

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Lethal aggression in Pan is better explained by adaptive strategies than human impacts p.414

A meta-analysis of studies on chimpanzees and bonobos across Africa shows that their conspecific aggression is the normal and expected product of adaptive strategies to obtain resources or mates and has no connection with the impacts of human activities.

doi: 10.1038/nature13727

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Optimization of lag time underlies antibiotic tolerance in evolved bacterial populations p.418

Repeated exposure of the bacterium Escherichia coli to clinically relevant concentrations of ampicillin results in the evolution of tolerance—the ability to survive until the antibiotic concentration diminishes—through an extension of the lag phase, a finding that has implications for slowing the evolution of antibiotic resistance.

doi: 10.1038/nature13469

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Genome sequencing of normal cells reveals developmental lineages and mutational processes p.422

On the basis of whole-genome sequences of clonal lines derived from normal mouse tissues, variation in mutational patterns and load across different tissues are described and early embryonic cell divisions are reconstructed.

doi: 10.1038/nature13448

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Bidirectional switch of the valence associated with a hippocampal contextual memory engram p.426

An optogenetic approach in mice was used to investigate the neural mechanisms underlying memory valence association; dentate gyrus, but not amygdala, memory engram cells exhibit plasticity in valence associations, suggesting that emotional memory associations can be changed at the circuit level.

doi: 10.1038/nature13725

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Exonuclease-mediated degradation of nascent RNA silences genes linked to severe malaria p.431

A novel type of post-transcriptional regulation controls the expression of virulence genes in blood-stage malaria parasites.

doi: 10.1038/nature13468

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Endocrinization of FGF1 produces a neomorphic and potent insulin sensitizer p.436

Pharmacological fibroblast growth factor 1 (FGF1) normalizes blood glucose in diabetic mice by means of an FGF receptor signalling pathway that is independent of its mitogenic activity.

doi: 10.1038/nature13540

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Coordinated regulation of protein synthesis and degradation by mTORC1 p.440

mTORC1 is known to stimulate protein synthesis; now, it is shown to also promote the synthesis of proteasomes, which degrade proteins into the amino acids needed to create new proteins.

doi: 10.1038/nature13492

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