目次

Editorial

米国FDAが、野放し状態にあった「自家製」診断テストの規制に乗り出したのは、歓迎すべきことだ。

Home-brew tests need regulation p.5

A US proposal to regulate medical diagnostics from individual labs reflects the tests’ growing complexity. Such guidance should be welcomed, not resisted.

doi: 10.1038/512005a

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News

巨大な連星イータ・カリーナが、初期宇宙の謎の手がかりに。

Binary star to spill celestial secrets p.13

Close approach and violent interaction of stars in η Carinae system will provide rare insight into stellar enigma.

doi: 10.1038/512013a

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アフリカでの肺炎球菌ワクチン接種の調査から、このワクチン接種に抗生物質耐性菌感染を減少させる効果があることが明らかに。

Hidden bonus from vaccination p.14

Immunization against pneumococcus in Africa also reduces levels of antibiotic resistance.

doi: 10.1038/512014a

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オープンアクセス・ジャーナルをまとめる最大級のサイトDOAJ(Directory of Open Access Journals)が、悪質な雑誌を閉め出すため、サイトへの掲載基準を厳格化へ。

Open-access website gets tough p.17

Leading directory tightens listing criteria to weed out rogue journals.

doi: 10.1038/512017a

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米国のPCORI(Patient-Centered Outcomes Research Institute)が、PCORnetと呼ばれる大きな臨床ネットワークを利用して、心疾患に対するアスピリンの効果を調べる研究を。

US big-data health network launches aspirin study p.18

PCORI clinical-research initiative will collect information on some 30 million people.

doi: 10.1038/512018a

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News Features

有機合成:ロボット化学者

Organic synthesis: THE ROBO-CHEMIST p.20

どんな有機化合物でも合成できる自動機械の開発競争が始まっており、化学を大きく変貌させる可能性がある。

doi: 10.1038/512020a

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News & Views

材料化学:ナノチューブの選択的合成のためのシード

Materials chemistry: Seeds of selective nanotube growth p.30

複数種の混合体でなく、一種類の単層カーボンナノチューブのみの合成を可能にする「シード(種子となる)」分子が作られた。これによってどんな種類のナノチューブであっても、純度の高いサンプルを用意できるようになりそうだ。

doi: 10.1038/512030a

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がん:ドライバー変異の使い方

Cancer: Directions for the drivers p.31

103人の患者に由来する大腸がん細胞と正常細胞との比較から腫瘍細胞での発現の仕方に違いのある遺伝子が数十個見つかった。これらの違いは、転写調節が変化した結果である。

doi: 10.1038/nature13649

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神経変性:アルツハイマー病の行き先は系統次第

Neurodegeneration: Alzheimer's disease under strain p.32

アルツハイマー病の原因となるアミロイドβタンパク質凝集体についての2つの研究から、凝集体のコンホメーションの違いによって、どのような系統のアルツハイマー病を発症するかが決まる可能性が明らかになった。これはプリオン病との類似性を示している。

doi: 10.1038/512032a

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宇宙物理学:破滅に向かいつつある星の肖像

Astrophysics: Portrait of a doomed star p.34

星の中には熱核爆発を起こして超新星になるものがあるが、こうした爆発がどうして起こるのか、その理由の解明は、主に間接的な手がかりによっている。今回、このような爆発の珍しいクラスに属する前駆天体が直接観測されたようだ。

doi: 10.1038/512034a

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HIV:早期の治療でも間に合わない?

HIV: Early treatment may not be early enough p.35

サル免疫不全ウイルスに曝露したわずか3日後に抗ウイルス療法を開始したサルでも、その後のウイルス複製のリバウンドが防止できないことが分かった。これは、ウイルスリザーバーが早期に確立されることを示唆している。

doi: 10.1038/nature13647

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進化:歯の構造を再構築する

Evolution: Tooth structure re-engineered p.36

EDAタンパク質を欠損するマウスでは、正常な歯が持つ特徴が失われる。胎児期の歯にEDAを徐々に量を増しながら戻してやると、こうした歯の特徴が進化を模倣する段階的パターンで回復することが分かった。

doi: 10.1038/nature13651

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Articles

生態学:全球の気候勾配にわたる陸上植物生産の収束

Convergence of terrestrial plant production across global climate gradients p.39

Net primary production is affected by temperature and precipitation, but whether this is a direct kinetic effect on plant metabolism or an indirect ecological effect mediated by changes in plant age, plant biomass or growing season length is unclear — this study develops metabolic scaling theory to be able to answer this question and applies it to a global data set of plant productivity, concluding that it is indirect effects that explain the influence of climate on productivity, which is characterized by a common scaling relationship across climate gradients.

doi: 10.1038/nature13470

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進化:歯の化石記録から明らかになっている進化的変遷の再現

Replaying evolutionary transitions from the dental fossil record p.44

Gradual changes that occur to mammalian tooth morphology across evolutionary time were modeled in vitro and in vivo by modulation of signalling pathways in the mouse, and computer modelling was used to provide further analysis of the parameters influencing tooth morphology.

doi: 10.1038/nature13613

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構造生物学:サリドマイドと複合体を形成したE3リガーゼDDB1–CRBNの構造

Structure of the DDB1–CRBN E3 ubiquitin ligase in complex with thalidomide p.49

The crystal structures of thalidomide and its derivatives bound to the E3 ligase subcomplex DDB1–CRBN are shown; these drugs are found to have dual functions, interfering with the binding of certain cellular substrates to the E3 ligase but promoting the binding of others, thereby modulating the degradation of cellular proteins.

doi: 10.1038/nature13527

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Letters

宇宙:Iax型超新星2012Zの青色の明るい前駆天体

A luminous, blue progenitor system for the type Iax supernova 2012Z p.54

The detection of the luminous, blue progenitor system of the type Iax supernova 2012Z suggests that this supernova was the explosion of a white dwarf accreting material from a helium-star companion.

doi: 10.1038/nature13615

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量子物理学:調整可能なスピン–スピン相互作用と分離したポテンシャル井戸中のイオンの量子もつれ

Tunable spin–spin interactions and entanglement of ions in separate potential wells p.57

The ability of individual ions trapped in separate potential wells to simulate spin–spin interactions is demonstrated by tuning the Coulomb interaction between two ions, independently controlling their local wells and entangling their internal states with a fidelity of approximately 0.82.

doi: 10.1038/nature13565

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材料化学:単一カイラリティー・カーボンナノチューブの制御合成

Controlled synthesis of single-chirality carbon nanotubes p.61

Present preparation methods fail to meet fully the demand for structurally pure single-walled carbon nanotubes; surface-catalysed cyclodehydrogenation reactions are now shown to convert precursor molecules deposited on a platinum(111) surface into ultrashort nanotube seeds that can then be grown further into defect-free and structurally pure single-walled carbon nanotubes of single chirality.

doi: 10.1038/nature13607

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海洋化学:水柱測定に基づく人為起源の水銀の全球海洋存在量

A global ocean inventory of anthropogenic mercury based on water column measurements p.65

GEOTRACES sampling of deep water from the Atlantic, Pacific and Southern oceans allows an estimate of the amount (tripled in surface waters) and distribution (two-thirds increase in water less than a thousand metres deep) of anthropogenic mercury accumulating in the global ocean.

doi: 10.1038/nature13563

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免疫:A20によるNLRP3インフラマソームの負の調節は関節炎を防ぐ

Negative regulation of the NLRP3 inflammasome by A20 protects against arthritis p.69

Pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis depends critically on the NLRP3 inflammasome/interleukin-1 signalling axis.

doi: 10.1038/nature13322

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医学:アカゲザルではSIVウイルス血症に先立ってウイルスリザーバーが迅速に形成される

Rapid seeding of the viral reservoir prior to SIV viraemia in rhesus monkeys p.74

Reservoirs of virus infection represent the most important reason why HIV-1 cannot be cured with current antiretroviral drugs; now the refractory viral reservoir is shown to be seeded as early as 3 days after infection in a monkey model, even before the virus is detected in the blood.

doi: 10.1038/nature13594

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がん:造血幹細胞ニッチの神経障害は骨髄増殖性腫瘍に不可欠である

Neuropathy of haematopoietic stem cell niche is essential for myeloproliferative neoplasms p.78

Myeloproliferative neoplasms are caused by mutations in the haematopoietic stem cell (HSC) compartment, and here the authors show that the HSC niche contributes to the pathogenesis; sympathetic innervation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) is reduced in the bone marrow of patients, which leads to reduced MSC numbers and increased mutant HSC expansion, and restoring sympathetic regulation of MSCs with neuroprotective/sympathomimetic drugs prevents mutant HSC expansion.

doi: 10.1038/nature13383

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がん:MYCのコピー数増加を伴うがんで見られるPVT1依存性

PVT1 dependence in cancer with MYC copy-number increase p.82

Pvt1 overexpression in mice contributes to high Myc levels due to 8q24.21 gain and to MYC-driven tumorigenesis.

doi: 10.1038/nature13311

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遺伝:大腸がんのシス調節性ドライバーと推定される遺伝子

Putative cis-regulatory drivers in colorectal cancer p.87

Examination of allele-specific expression identifies 71 genes with excess somatic cis-regulatory effects in colorectal cancer (CRC), and 1,693 and 948 expression quantitative trait loci (eQTLs) in normal samples and tumours, respectively (with 36% of tumour eQTLs exclusive to CRC); tumour-specific eQTLs are more enriched for low CRC genome-wide association study P values and accumulate more somatic mutations than shared eQTLs, suggesting a role as germline-derived cancer regulatory drivers.

doi: 10.1038/nature13602

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分子生物学:ショウジョウバエの発生エンハンサーのin vivoにおけるゲノム規模での機能的特徴付け

Genome-scale functional characterization of Drosophila developmental enhancers in vivo p.91

Systematically assaying the activity of 7,705 candidate enhancers during Drosophila embryogenesis shows that nearly half are active in the embryo and display dynamic spatial patterns during development; enhancer activity is matched to expression patterns of putative target genes and predictive cis-regulatory motifs are identified.

doi: 10.1038/nature13395

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分子生物学:エンハンサーループは発生の間安定しており、停止状態のポリメラーゼに結合している

Enhancer loops appear stable during development and are associated with paused polymerase p.96

A high-resolution map of enhancer three-dimensional contacts during Drosophila embryogenesis shows that although local regulatory interactions are frequent, long-range interactions are also very common; unexpectedly, most interactions appear unchanged between tissues and across development and are formed prior to gene expression, indicating that transcription initiates from preformed enhancer–promoter loops, which are associated with paused polymerase.

doi: 10.1038/nature13417

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化学生物学:プロトン共役型亜鉛(II)輸送を駆動する動力学的作動行程の可視化

Visualizing the kinetic power stroke that drives proton-coupled zinc(ii) transport p.101

The proton gradient is a principal energy source for respiration-dependent active transport, but the structural mechanisms of proton-coupled transport processes are poorly understood. YiiP is a proton-coupled zinc transporter found in the cytoplasmic membrane of Escherichia coli. Its transport site receives protons from water molecules that gain access to its hydrophobic environment and transduces the energy of an inward proton gradient to drive Zn(ii) efflux. This membrane protein is a well-characterized member of the family of cation diffusion facilitators that occurs at all phylogenetic levels. Here we show, using X-ray-mediated hydroxyl radical labelling of YiiP and mass spectrometry, that Zn(ii) binding triggers a highly localized, all-or-nothing change of water accessibility to the transport site and an adjacent hydrophobic gate. Millisecond time-resolved dynamics reveal a concerted and reciprocal pattern of accessibility changes along a transmembrane helix, suggesting a rigid-body helical re-orientation linked to Zn(ii) binding that triggers the closing of the hydrophobic gate. The gated water access to the transport site enables a stationary proton gradient to facilitate the conversion of zinc-binding energy to the kinetic power stroke of a vectorial zinc transport. The kinetic details provide energetic insights into a proton-coupled active-transport reaction.

doi: 10.1038/nature13382

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