目次

Editorials

武力紛争のトラウマによる子どもの精神疾患に、関心と取り組みが必要だ。

Save the children p.113

Infants and young people are being traumatized by armed conflict in their countries. Their resulting mental illnesses must be addressed, for the good of both the individuals and their society.

doi: 10.1038/512113a

既存のコンピューター技術の限界をきちんと把握し、それを押し上げることが、より速いコンピューターへの道につながるだろう。

Future computing p.113

Pushing the boundaries of current computing technologies will show the way to new ones.

doi: 10.1038/512113b

News

米国カリフォルニア州の長びく干ばつに、気候変動の深刻な将来像が伺えると、危機感が。

Native ecosystems blitzed by drought p.121

California’s current water crisis offers a preview of what climate change will bring.

doi: 10.1038/512121a

深海底の資源開発に関心が高まる中、ヨーロッパが、こうした脆弱な生態系に資源開発が及ぼす影響について調査を。

Health check for deep-sea mining p.122

European project evaluates risks to delicate ecosystems.

doi: 10.1038/512122a

一部の州のマリファナ合法化を受け、薬物やアルコールが成長期の脳に与える影響について米国立薬物乱用研究所(NIDA)が大規模な長期研究を。

Teen drug use gets supersize study p.123

US government programme will examine 10,000 adolescents to document effects on developing brains.

doi: 10.1038/512123a

チクングニア熱は、そのウイルスのわずかな変異により、北米へも広がる恐れがあることが、モデル研究によって明らかに。

US assesses virus of the Caribbean p.124

Researchers warn that a change of mosquito host could accelerate spread of chikungunya across the Americas.

doi: 10.1038/512124a

News Features

オンラインでの協力:科学者とソーシャルネットワーク

Online collaboration: Scientists and the social network p.126

大規模な学術ソーシャルネットワークは、科学に思いがけない変化をもたらす可能性があり、何百万人もの研究者が参加して活発に動き始めている。

doi: 10.1038/512126a

News & Views

神経科学:雌が本当に望むもの

Neuroscience: What females really want p.138

雌のショウジョウバエが配偶者候補と交尾するかどうかを選択する際に使われる神経サブ回路を突き止めれば、脳が複雑な情報を統合して意思決定に至る仕組みを解明するための枠組みが得られる。

doi: 10.1038/512138a

太陽系:宇宙の砂の城

Solar system: Sandcastles in space p.139

地球近傍にあるキロメートルサイズの小惑星の解析から、小惑星がばらばらにならないのは1枚の硬貨の重さよりも弱い力が働いているためであることが分かった。これは太陽系の進化の解明に関わってくる。

doi: 10.1038/512139a

老化:年取った造血幹細胞はストレスをためる

Ageing: Old blood stem cells feel the stress p.140

血液系の再生を担う造血幹細胞の質は、加齢に伴って低下する。こうした劣化の原因は老化した幹細胞での細胞ストレスであるらしい。

doi: 10.1038/nature13652

物性物理学:純金属から作られたガラス

Condensed-matter physics: Glasses made from pure metals p.142

非晶質の純金属が実験によって作製された。これは、ガラス形成の基本過程を調べるための準備段階となり、またこれによって、非晶質構造は凝縮物質の最も広く見られる形態であることが示唆された。

doi: 10.1038/nature13653

がん:1回に細胞1個ずつ

Cancer: One cell at a time p.143

2種類の乳がんについて行われた単一細胞DNA塩基配列解読で、起こっている変異が個々の腫瘍によって大幅に変動することが明らかになり、遺伝学的多様性は腫瘍の進化の仕方に付随して生じることが確認された。

doi: 10.1038/nature13650

天文観測機器:大気によるぼやけへの新しい対抗策

Astronomical instrumentation: Atmospheric blurring has a new enemy p.144

大気による天体像のぼやけを補正する完全自動化された光学系によって、惑星を持つと考えられている715の恒星系が画像化され、1つの系の観測には、このN&V記事を読むより短い時間しかかからなかった。

doi: 10.1038/512144a

構造生物学:タンパク質分解の調節因子を囲い込む

Structural biology: Corralling a protein-degradation regulator p.145

細胞内タンパク質分解を調節する大型のタンパク質複合体であるCOP9シグナロソームの結晶構造から、この複合体が基質に対して際立って高い特異性を示す理由が明らかになった。

doi: 10.1038/nature13644

Review

計算機科学:コンピューター開発の基本限界の限度

Limits on fundamental limits to computation p.147

To evaluate the promise of potential computing technologies, this review examines a wide range of fundamental limits, such as to performance, power consumption, size and cost, from the device level to the system level.

doi: 10.1038/nature13570

Articles

がん:単一核ゲノム塩基配列解読で明らかになった乳がんのクローン進化

Clonal evolution in breast cancer revealed by single nucleus genome sequencing p.155

To investigate genomic diversity within tumours, a new type of whole-genome and exome single cell sequencing has been developed using G2/M nuclei; the technique was used to sequence single nuclei from an oestrogen-positive breast cancer and a triple-negative ductal carcinoma—aneuploidy rearrangements emerged as early events in tumour formation and then point mutations evolved gradually over time.

doi: 10.1038/nature13600

構造生物学:ヒトCOP9シグナロソームの結晶構造

Crystal structure of the human COP9 signalosome p.161

The COP9 signalosome (CSN) complex regulates cullin–RING E3 ubiquitin ligases—the largest class of ubiquitin ligase enzymes, which are involved in a multitude of regulatory processes; here, the crystal structure of the entire human CSN holoenzyme is presented.

doi: 10.1038/nature13566

構造生物学:ヒトγセクレターゼの三次元構造

Three-dimensional structure of human γ-secretase p.166

The three-dimensional structure of intact human γ-secretase complex at 4.5 Å resolution is revealed by cryo-electron-microscopy single-particle analysis; the complex comprises a horseshoe-shaped transmembrane domain containing 19 transmembrane segments, and a large extracellular domain from nicastrin, which sits immediately above the hollow space formed by the horseshoe.

doi: 10.1038/nature13567

Letters

宇宙:電荷交換とホットバブルにおける局所的な1/4 keVのX線フラックスの起源

The origin of the local 1/4-keV X-ray flux in both charge exchange and a hot bubble p.171

The contribution of solar-wind ions exchanging electrons with helium and hydrogen near the Sun is shown to be only about 40 per cent of the 1/4-keV X-ray flux observed in the Galactic plane; this supports the existence of a local ‘hot bubble’ filled with X-ray-emitting gas, accounting for the rest of the flux.

doi: 10.1038/nature13525

宇宙:凝集力がラブルパイル小惑星(29075) 1950 DAの自転による分裂を妨げている

Cohesive forces prevent the rotational breakup of rubble-pile asteroid (29075) 1950 DA p.174

Space missions and ground-based observations have shown that some asteroids are loose collections of rubble rather than solid bodies. The physical behaviour of such ‘rubble-pile’ asteroids has been traditionally described using only gravitational and frictional forces within a granular material. Cohesive forces in the form of small van der Waals forces between constituent grains have recently been predicted to be important for small rubble piles (ten kilometres across or less), and could potentially explain fast rotation rates in the small-asteroid population. The strongest evidence so far has come from an analysis of the rotational breakup of the main-belt comet P/2013 R3 (ref. 7), although that was indirect and poorly constrained by observations. Here we report that the kilometre-sized asteroid (29075) 1950 DA (ref. 8) is a rubble pile that is rotating faster than is allowed by gravity and friction. We find that cohesive forces are required to prevent surface mass shedding and structural failure, and that the strengths of the forces are comparable to, though somewhat less than, the forces found between the grains of lunar regolith.

doi: 10.1038/nature13632

材料科学:超高速液体急冷による単原子金属ガラスの形成

Formation of monatomic metallic glasses through ultrafast liquid quenching p.177

Metallic liquids of single elements have been successfully vitrified to their glassy states by achieving an ultrafast quenching rate in a new experimental design, of which the process has been monitored and studied by a combination of in situ transmission electron microscopy and atoms-to-continuum computer modelling.

doi: 10.1038/nature13617

惑星科学:潮汐と自転による月の形状と極運動の証拠

The tidal–rotational shape of the Moon and evidence for polar wander p.181

Analysis of the Moon's topography reveals that when its largest basins are removed, the lunar shape is consistent with processes controlled by early Earth tides, and implies a reorientation of the Moon's principal shape axes.

doi: 10.1038/nature13639

神経科学:現時点および将来の青年期アルコール乱用者の神経心理社会学的側面

Neuropsychosocial profiles of current and future adolescent alcohol misusers p.185

Many factors have been proposed as contributors to risk of alcohol abuse, but quantifying their influence has been difficult; here a longitudinal study of a large sample of adolescents and machine learning are used to generate models of predictors of current and future alcohol abuse, assessing the relative contribution of many factors, including life history, individual personality differences, brain structure and genotype.

doi: 10.1038/nature13402

遺伝:グリーンランド人に多いTBC1D4多様体は筋肉のインスリン抵抗性および2型糖尿病に寄与する

A common Greenlandic TBC1D4 variant confers muscle insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes p.190

An association mapping study of type-2-diabetes-related quantitative traits in the Greenlandic population identified a common variant in TBC1D4 that increases plasma glucose levels and serum insulin levels after an oral glucose load and type 2 diabetes risk, with effect sizes several times larger than any previous findings of large-scale genome-wide association studies for these traits.

doi: 10.1038/nature13425

進化:デニソワ人様DNAの移入でもたらされたチベット人の高地適応

Altitude adaptation in Tibetans caused by introgression of Denisovan-like DNA p.194

Admixture with other hominin species helped humans to adapt to high-altitude environments; the EPAS1 gene in Tibetan individuals has an unusual haplotype structure that probably resulted from introgression of DNA from Denisovan or Denisovan-related individuals into humans, and this haplotype is only found in Denisovans and Tibetans, and at low frequency among Han Chinese.

doi: 10.1038/nature13408

老化:複製ストレスは老化した造血幹細胞の機能低下の強力な駆動因子である

Replication stress is a potent driver of functional decline in ageing haematopoietic stem cells p.198

Haematopoietic stem cell (HSC) function is known to degrade with age; here, replication stress is shown to be a potent driver of the functional decline of HSCs during physiological ageing in mice due to decreased expression of mini-chromosome maintenance helicase components and reduced activity of the DNA replication machinery.

doi: 10.1038/nature13619

分子生物学:グルココルチコイド受容体進化における歴史的偶然性と生物物理学的基盤

Historical contingency and its biophysical basis in glucocorticoid receptor evolution p.203

By characterizing a very large number of might-have-been evolutionary trajectories starting from a resurrected ancestral protein, the authors show that the evolution of an essential modern protein was contingent on extremely unlikely historical mutations.

doi: 10.1038/nature13410

分子生物学:DENR–MCT-1はuORF下流の翻訳再開始を促して組織増殖を制御する

DENR–MCT-1 promotes translation re-initiation downstream of uORFs to control tissue growth p.208

This study identifies the DENR–MCT-1 complex as the first factors in animals specific for translation re-initiation downstream of upstream Open Reading Frames (uORFs).

doi: 10.1038/nature13401

分子生物学:ヒストンH4尾部はリンカーDNAによるヌクレオソームリモデリングをアロステリックに調節する

Histone H4 tail mediates allosteric regulation of nucleosome remodelling by linker DNA p.213

A nucleosome-spacing mechanism for human ATP-dependent chromatin assembly and remodelling factor (ACF).

doi: 10.1038/nature13380

構造生物学:Gタンパク質共役受容体によるアレスチンの誘導の可視化

Visualization of arrestin recruitment by a G-protein-coupled receptor p.218

Single-particle electron microscopy and hydrogen–deuterium exchange mass spectrometry are used to characterize the structure and dynamics of a G-protein-coupled receptor–arrestin complex.

doi: 10.1038/nature13430

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