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Editorials

危険な病原体の研究にはリスクが伴うものであり、研究による恩恵とリスクの厳しい見極めが必要だ。

Biosafety in the balance p.443

An accident with anthrax demonstrates that pathogen research always carries a risk of release — and highlights the need for rigorous scrutiny of gain-of-function flu studies.

doi: 10.1038/510443a

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気候問題について環境保護論者の間でも意見は割れるが、もっと現実的な姿勢が重要だ。

Storm warning p.444

Environmentalists are divided over whether it is possible to have a ‘good’ Anthropocene.

doi: 10.1038/510444b

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研究の評価基準は改善されてきているが、数値化による評価には限界があることに注意すべきだ。

Metrics market p.444

Measures of research impact are improving, but universities should be wary of their limits.

doi: 10.1038/510444a

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News

地球上の二酸化炭素排出源・吸収源をかつてない精度でマッピングするNASAの軌道上炭素観測衛星OCO-2が、間もなく打ち上げへ。

NASA carbon-monitoring orbiter readies for launch p.451

Satellite will map sources and sinks of greenhouse gas in unprecedented detail.

doi: 10.1038/510451a

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アフリカ連合(AU)の科学技術改革計画は、詳細や政府の責務が不明確だと、批判が。

Africa science plan attacked p.452

Proposed innovation strategy is low on detail and commitments from governments.

doi: 10.1038/510452a

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紆余曲折を経てよみがえった抗がん剤オラパリブ(PARP阻害剤)が、いよいよFDAの審査へ。

Resurrected cancer drug faces regulators p.454

Despite a chequered history, olaparib is finally before the US Food and Drug Administration.

doi: 10.1038/510454a

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世界の生態系保護を目指す「生物多様性及び生態系サービスに関する政府間科学政策プラットフォーム(IPBES)」が、初めての生物多様性評価を実施へ。

‘Life on Earth’ project gets under way p.455

Assessments by international biodiversity group aim to halt damage to world’s ecosystems.

doi: 10.1038/510455a

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米国カリフォルニア州が、米国政府の脳研究推進策とは別に、州独自の意欲的な脳研究計画を。

Brain wave hits California p.456

State creates programme to boost neuroscience innovation.

doi: 10.1038/510456a

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News Features

研究室での恋愛:親密な共同研究者

Love in the lab: Close collaborators p.458

恋愛と研究をどのように両立させているかについて、職場で愛を育む4組の科学者に話を聞いた。

doi: 10.1038/510458a

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栄養:まだ試験段階にあるビタミン剤の効果

Nutrition: Vitamins on trial p.462

栄養素を補給するサプリメントが健康改善に本当に役立つかどうかは、もう何十年も研究されているものの、まだ結論は出ていない。

doi: 10.1038/510462a

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News & Views

フォーラム:核兵器解体:隠された核弾頭が本物であることを識別する方法

Nuclear-weapons dismantlement: Identifying a hidden warhead p.476

解体すべき核弾頭について、査察官に設計情報を一切漏らすことなく、本物かどうかを確認する方法が提案された。2人の専門家がこの方法を詳細に説明し、軍縮政策への関わりについて論じている。

doi: 10.1038/510476a

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抗生物質耐性:古い薬に助っ人現る

Antibiotic resistance: To the rescue of old drugs p.477

自然界に存在する真菌が作る化合物が、ある種の抗生物質に対する細菌の感受性を回復させることが分かった。このような抗生物質は現在、重篤な感染症に対する最後の防御対策と見なされているものである。

doi: 10.1038/510477a

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基礎定数:重力定数Gを測定するクールな方法

Fundamental constants: A cool way to measure big G p.478

重力の強さの基準となる重力定数として公表されている測定結果は一致していない。低温原子を用いる方法によって、この基礎定数を決定しようという試みに新たなデータポイントが付け加わった。

doi: 10.1038/nature13507

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構造生物学:RNAは変則的塩基対の働きによって標的に結合する

Structural biology: Wobble puts RNA on target p.480

タンパク質合成の際に転移RNAにアミノ酸を付加する酵素は、基質の両方を特異的に認識しなくてはならない。このような系の1つで、RNAに対する特異性を説明するような機構が、結晶構造から明らかになった。

doi: 10.1038/nature13502

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応用物理:表面をさらって調べる

Applied physics: Trawling for complements p.481

表面の電荷分布のナノスケール変動を測定する方法が考案された。この方法はこれまで特定の無機材料を調べるのに使われてきたが、画像化にも広く応用できる可能性がある。

doi: 10.1038/510481a

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構造生物学:酵素の生産ラインを「見てきたように」描く

Structural biology: Enzyme assembly line pictured p.482

多くの酵素は、一連の触媒モジュールが含む「生産ライン」を形成している。触媒作用の間にモジュールの構造が変化していく様子が画像化されたことで、このような酵素が機能する仕組みが明確になってきた。

doi: 10.1038/nature13505

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Review

有機化学:N-ヘテロ環カルベンの概要

An overview of N-heterocyclic carbenes p.485

N-heterocyclic carbenes are powerful tools in organic chemistry, with many commercially important applications; this overview describes their properties and potential uses.

doi: 10.1038/nature13384

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Articles

核物理学:核弾頭を確認するゼロ知識プロトコル

A zero-knowledge protocol for nuclear warhead verification p.497

Future rounds of nuclear arms control would ideally involve direct inspection of nuclear warheads using procedures that give inspectors high confidence about the authenticity of submitted nuclear items yet give no information about their design; this is now shown to be achievable using zero-knowledge protocols in neutron imaging of nuclear warheads.

doi: 10.1038/nature13457

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天然物創薬:アスペルギロマラスミンAはメタロ-β-ラクタマーゼによる抗生物質耐性を克服する

Aspergillomarasmine A overcomes metallo-β-lactamase antibiotic resistance p.503

The emergence of Gram-negative pathogens resistant to carbapenem antibiotics is a global health concern and carbapenem resistance often arises through acquisition of β-lactamase enzymes; this study identifies the natural fungal product aspergillomarasmine A as a metallo-β-lactamase inhibitor and a potential treatment to tackle carbapenem resistance.

doi: 10.1038/nature13445

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構造生物学:たった1つのG•U塩基対に基づくtRNAの選択的アミノアシル化機構

The selective tRNA aminoacylation mechanism based on a single G•U pair p.507

X-ray crystal structures of a tRNA synthetase bound to wild-type and mutant alanine tRNAs reveal the structural basis for selectivity.

doi: 10.1038/nature13440

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構造生物学:モジュール型ポリケチド合成酵素の構造

Structure of a modular polyketide synthase p.512

Polyketide synthases are multidomain enzymes that produce polyketides, which form the basis of many therapeutic agents; here, electron cryo-microscopy is used to establish the structure of a bacterial full-length module, and to elucidate the structural basis of both intramodule and intermodule substrate transfer.

doi: 10.1038/nature13423

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Letters

物理学:低温原子を使ったニュートン重力定数の高精度測定

Precision measurement of the Newtonian gravitational constant using cold atoms p.518

Determination of the gravitational constant G using laser-cooled atoms and quantum interferometry, a technique that gives new insight into the systematic errors that have proved elusive in previous experiments, yields a value that has a relative uncertainty of 150 parts per million and which differs from the current recommended value by 1.5 combined standard deviations.

doi: 10.1038/nature13433

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ナノ材料:固体合金触媒上における単層カーボンナノチューブのカイラリティー特異的成長

Chirality-specific growth of single-walled carbon nanotubes on solid alloy catalysts p.522

Single-walled carbon nanotubes of a single chirality can be produced with an abundance of more than 92 per cent when using tungsten-based bimetallic alloy nanocrystals as catalysts.

doi: 10.1038/nature13434

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気候科学:海洋同位体ステージ11におけるグリーンランド南部氷床崩壊

South Greenland ice-sheet collapse during Marine Isotope Stage 11 p.525

The isotopic composition of glacial sediment discharged into the ocean from south Greenland is used to identify a major reduction in the amount of that sediment derived from erosion of Greenland’s Precambrian bedrock, probably indicating the cessation of subglacial erosion and sediment transport during Marine Isotope Stage 11 as a result of the almost complete deglaciation of south Greenland.

doi: 10.1038/nature13456

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神経科学:プルキンエ細胞の可塑性と小脳運動学習は複雑スパイクの持続時間によって段階的に変化する

Purkinje-cell plasticity and cerebellar motor learning are graded by complex-spike duration p.529

Recordings from monkeys during motor learning suggest that durations of complex-spike (CS) responses to climbing-fibre inputs are meaningful signals correlated across the Purkinje-cell population during motor learning; longer climbing-fibre bursts lead to longer-duration CS responses, larger synaptic depression and stronger learning, thus forming a graded instruction.

doi: 10.1038/nature13282

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幹細胞:ヒト卵母細胞は1型糖尿病成人患者の体細胞核を再プログラム化して二倍体の多能性幹細胞を生じる

Human oocytes reprogram adult somatic nuclei of a type 1 diabetic to diploid pluripotent stem cells p.533

Here human embryonic stem cell lines are derived by somatic cell nuclear transfer from cells of a newborn and from skin cells of an adult, a female with type 1 diabetes; the stem cells produced are pluripotent and can be differentiated into insulin-producing beta cells.

doi: 10.1038/nature13287

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がん:DNAメチル化塩基配列解読を用いて髄芽腫の調節性の全体像を明らかにする

Decoding the regulatory landscape of medulloblastoma using DNA methylation sequencing p.537

Medulloblastoma is a malignant childhood brain tumour presenting major clinical challenges; here, a comprehensive genome-wide DNA methylation data set from human and mouse tumours, coupled with analysis of histone modifications, RNA transcripts and genome sequencing, uncovers a wealth of alterations that provide insights into the epigenetic regulation of transcription and genome organization in medulloblastoma pathogenesis.

doi: 10.1038/nature13268

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医学:メトフォルミンはミトコンドリアのグリセロリン酸デヒドロゲナーゼの阻害により糖新生を抑制する

Metformin suppresses gluconeogenesis by inhibiting mitochondrial glycerophosphate dehydrogenase p.542

Metformin treatment of rats at physiologically relevant doses inhibits the redox shuttle enzyme mitochondrial glycerophosphate dehydrogenase.

doi: 10.1038/nature13270

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細胞生物学:サイクリンD1–Cdk4は細胞周期進行とは無関係にグルコース代謝を制御する

Cyclin D1–Cdk4 controls glucose metabolism independently of cell cycle progression p.547

Formation of an active cyclin D1–Cdk4 complex suppresses glucose metabolism independently of cell division.

doi: 10.1038/nature13267

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細胞生物学:脂質が結合した伸長型シナプトタグミンの構造から示唆される、脂質輸送における役割

Structure of a lipid-bound extended synaptotagmin indicates a role in lipid transfer p.552

Several proteins localized at membrane contact sites contain an SMP domain, which has been proposed to act as a lipid-binding module; here, the crystal structure of a fragment of the extended synaptotagmin 2 protein, including its SMP, is presented, and indicates that this protein may have a direct role in lipid transport.

doi: 10.1038/nature13269

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がん:BRCA1はTus/Terで停止した哺乳類の複製フォークにおける相同組換えを制御する

BRCA1 controls homologous recombination at Tus/Ter-stalled mammalian replication forks p.556

Direct evidence for the role of BRCA1 in controlling homologous recombination at stalled replication forks has been obtained in mammalian cells using the bacterial Tus/Ter system.

doi: 10.1038/nature13295

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構造生物学:モジュール型ポリケチド合成酵素で触媒反応サイクル中に起こる構造再編成

Structural rearrangements of a polyketide synthase module during its catalytic cycle p.560

The polyketide synthase (PKS) mega-enzyme assembly line uses a modular architecture to synthesize diverse and bioactive natural products that often constitute the core structures or complete chemical entities for many clinically approved therapeutic agents. The architecture of a full-length PKS module from the pikromycin pathway of Streptomyces venezuelae creates a reaction chamber for the intramodule acyl carrier protein (ACP) domain that carries building blocks and intermediates between acyltransferase, ketosynthase and ketoreductase active sites (see accompanying paper). Here we determine electron cryo-microscopy structures of a full-length pikromycin PKS module in three key biochemical states of its catalytic cycle. Each biochemical state was confirmed by bottom-up liquid chromatography/Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry. The ACP domain is differentially and precisely positioned after polyketide chain substrate loading on the active site of the ketosynthase, after extension to the β-keto intermediate, and after β-hydroxy product generation. The structures reveal the ACP dynamics for sequential interactions with catalytic domains within the reaction chamber, and for transferring the elongated and processed polyketide substrate to the next module in the PKS pathway. During the enzymatic cycle the ketoreductase domain undergoes dramatic conformational rearrangements that enable optimal positioning for reductive processing of the ACP-bound polyketide chain elongation intermediate. These findings have crucial implications for the design of functional PKS modules, and for the engineering of pathways to generate pharmacologically relevant molecules.

doi: 10.1038/nature13409

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