Volume 510 Number 7505



Present danger p.311

There is much hype about predicting and preventing future pandemics, but not enough is being done about a threat sitting under our noses.

doi: 10.1038/510311a


Summer skills p.312

A fledgling neuroscience programme is a rare beacon of research excellence in Romania.

doi: 10.1038/510312b


Quanundrum p.312

Does reality exist? Fifty years on, Bell’s theorem still divides (and confuses) physicists.

doi: 10.1038/510312a



3D images remodel history p.319

Digital-photo software promises to offer unprecedented access to artefacts and sites.

doi: 10.1038/510319a


Tree hitched a ride to island p.320

Acacia analysis reveals globetrotting seed trekked 18,000 kilometres from Hawaii to Réunion.

doi: 10.1038/510320a


US child study hits buffers p.323

Launch date for cohort study set to be delayed as data problems are identified.

doi: 10.1038/510323a


HIV trial attacked p.324

Critics question ethics of allowing pregnant women to receive treatment that falls below the standard in their country.

doi: 10.1038/510324a


Irish university labs face external audits p.325

Funding agency aims to affirm best practice with independent checks on research methods.

doi: 10.1038/510325a

News Features


The parched planet: Water on tap p.326


doi: 10.1038/510326a


Scientific publishing: The inside track p.330

米国科学アカデミーのメンバーは、その機関誌Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciencesへの掲載について、特権を享受してきた。

doi: 10.1038/510330a

News & Views


Cancer: Natural-born killers unleashed p.342

ホスホイノシチド 3-OHキナーゼδは、抑制性免疫細胞の働きの促進により抗腫瘍免疫応答を制限していることが分かった。この結果は、このキナーゼを標的とする薬剤の適用範囲をもっと多くのがんに広げるのにつながるかもしれない。

doi: 10.1038/nature13503


Applied mathematics: How chaos forgets and remembers p.343


doi: 10.1038/510343a


Population health: Immaturity in the gut microbial community p.344


doi: 10.1038/nature13347


Quantum computing: Powered by magic p.345


doi: 10.1038/nature13504


Cell biology: Balancing act p.347


doi: 10.1038/nature13500


Quantum physics: Feel the force p.349


doi: 10.1038/510349a



Contextuality supplies the ‘magic’ for quantum computation p.351

Quantum computing promises advantages over classical computing for certain problems; now ‘quantum contextuality’ — a generalization of the concept of quantum non-locality — is shown to be a critical resource that gives the most promising class of quantum computers their power.

doi: 10.1038/nature13460

植物科学:ユーカリの一種であるEucalyptus grandisのゲノム

The genome of Eucalyptus grandis OPEN p.356

The Eucalyptus grandis genome has been sequenced, revealing the greatest number of tandem duplications of any plant genome sequenced so far, and the highest diversity of genes for specialized metabolites that act as chemical defence and provide unique pharmaceutical oils; genome sequencing of the sister species E. globules and a set of inbred E. grand is tree genomes reveals dynamic genome evolution and hotspots of inbreeding depression.

doi: 10.1038/nature13308


Single-cell RNA-seq reveals dynamic paracrine control of cellular variation p.363

Large-scale single-cell RNA-seq of stimulated primary mouse bone-marrow-derived dendritic cells highlights positive and negative intercellular signalling pathways that promote and restrain cellular variation.

doi: 10.1038/nature13437


The mitochondrial deubiquitinase USP30 opposes parkin-mediated mitophagy p.370

Damaged mitochondria are removed by mitophagy, and defects in mitophagy are linked to Parkinson’s disease; here it is shown that USP30, a deubiquitinase localized to mitochondria, antagonizes mitophagy by removing the ubiquitin tags put in place by Parkin, USP30 inhibition is therefore potentially beneficial for Parkinson’s disease by promoting mitochondrial clearance and quality control.

doi: 10.1038/nature13418



Measurement of the magnetic interaction between two bound electrons of two separate ions p.376

The magnetic interaction between two electrons is measured at the micrometre scale, exhibiting spin entanglement generation over 15 seconds of coherent evolution; varying the inter-electron separation shows a distance dependence consistent with the inverse-cube law.

doi: 10.1038/nature13403


Ultrafast X-ray probing of water structure below the homogeneous ice nucleation temperature p.381

Femtosecond X-ray laser pulses are used to probe the structure of liquid water in micrometre-sized droplets that have been cooled below the homogeneous ice nucleation temperature, revealing the existence of metastable bulk liquid water down to temperatures of 227 kelvin.

doi: 10.1038/nature13266


Metastable liquid–liquid transition in a molecular model of water p.385

A stable crystal phase and two metastable liquid phases of the ST2 model of water exist at the same deeply supercooled condition, and the two liquids undergo a first-order liquid–liquid transition that meets stringent thermodynamic criteria.

doi: 10.1038/nature13405


Possible control of subduction zone slow-earthquake periodicity by silica enrichment p.389

Seismic data from subduction zones that exhibit slow earthquakes reveal that the ratio of compressional-wave to shear-wave velocity of the overriding forearc crust is linearly related to the average recurrence time of slow earthquakes and that this may be associated with quartz enrichment within the forearc crust.

doi: 10.1038/nature13391


mTORC1 controls the adaptive transition of quiescent stem cells from G0 to GAlert p.393

A mouse study reveals that the stem cell quiescent state is composed of two distinct phases, G0 and GAlert; stem cells reversibly transition between these two phases in response to systemic environmental stimuli acting through the mTORC1 pathway.

doi: 10.1038/nature13255


The metabolite α-ketoglutarate extends lifespan by inhibiting ATP synthase and TOR p.397

Ageing in the worm Caenorhabditis elegant is shown to be delayed by supplementation with α-ketoglutarate, an effect that is probably mediated by ATP synthase—which is identified as a direct target of α-ketoglutarate—and target of rapamycin (TOR).

doi: 10.1038/nature13264


PTEN action in leukaemia dictated by the tissue microenvironment p.402

A mouse model of T-cell leukaemia is used to test whether PTEN loss is required for tumour maintenance as well as initiation; although it had little effect on tumour load in haematopoietic organs, PTEN reactivation reduced the CCR9-dependent tumour dissemination to the intestine that was amplified on PTEN loss, exposing the importance of tumour microenvironment in PTEN-deficient settings.

doi: 10.1038/nature13239

免疫:PI(3)K p110δの不活化は、がんに対する制御性T細胞を介した免疫寛容を終わらせる

Inactivation of PI(3)K p110δ breaks regulatory T-cell-mediated immune tolerance to cancer p.407

The kinase PI(3)Kδ is shown to be required for the immunosuppressive function of regulatory T cells; inactivation of PI(3)Kδ in these cells leads to enhanced cytotoxic T-cell function and restricts tumour growth and metastasis in a variety of mouse tumour models.

doi: 10.1038/nature13444


CFIm25 links alternative polyadenylation to glioblastoma tumour suppression p.412

CFIm25 is identified as a factor that prevents messenger RNAs being shortened due to altered 3′ polyadenylation, which typically occurs when cells undergo high proliferation and correlates with increased tumorigenic activity in glioblastoma tumours.

doi: 10.1038/nature13261


Persistent gut microbiota immaturity in malnourished Bangladeshi children p.417

Bacterial species whose representation defines healthy postnatal assembly of the gut microbiota in Bangladeshi children during their first 2 years are identified, and a model is constructed to compare healthy children to those with severe acute malnutrition (SAM); results show that SAM is associated with microbiota immaturity that is only partially ameliorated by existing nutritional interventions.

doi: 10.1038/nature13421


Ribosomal oxygenases are structurally conserved from prokaryotes to humans p.422

Crystal structures of human and prokaryotic ribosomal oxygenases reported here, with and without their ribosomal protein substrates, support their assignments as hydroxylases, and provide insights into the evolution of the JmjC-domain-containing hydroxylases and demethylases.

doi: 10.1038/nature13263


Co-opting sulphur-carrier proteins from primary metabolic pathways for 2-thiosugar biosynthesis p.427

How sulphur is incorporated into sulphur-containing secondary metabolites is poorly understood; here, the bacterium Amycolatopsis orientalis is shown to co-opt sulphur-carrier proteins from primary metabolic pathways to facilitate the biosynthesis of sulphur-containing natural products.

doi: 10.1038/nature13256

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