Volume 505 Number 7481



The greater good p.5

Governments, funding agencies and universities must all do their bit to ensure that research is appropriately assessed and rewarded.

doi: 10.1038/505005a



Triple-threat method sparks hope for fusion p.9

The secrets to its success are lasers, magnets and a big pinch.

doi: 10.1038/505009a


Water risk as world warms p.10

First comprehensive global-impact project shows that water scarcity is a major worry.

doi: 10.1038/505010a


X-ray source left without home p.11

No plans to build next-generation accelerator despite large investment by US agency.

doi: 10.1038/505011a


What to expect in 2014 p.13

Nature takes a look at what is in store for science in the new year.

doi: 10.1038/505013a

News Features


Behaviour and biology: The accidental epigeneticist p.14

心理学者Richard Tremblayは、子供たちの常習的な攻撃的行動の根が幼少期にあることを突き止め、さらにもっと深い原因を探っている。

doi: 10.1038/505014a

News & Views


Malaria: Resistance nailed p.30

in vitro、ゲノミクス、生態学的および疫学的な一連の研究によって、熱帯熱マラリア原虫(Plasmodium falciparum)の遺伝子に生じた変異で、アルテミシニンを使った抗マラリア薬への耐性に重要な役割を持つものが突き止められた。

doi: 10.1038/nature12845


Extrasolar planets: Cloudy with a chance of dustballs p.31


doi: 10.1038/505031a


Archaic humans: Four makes a party p.32


doi: 10.1038/nature12847


Climate science: Clouds of uncertainty p.34


doi: 10.1038/505034a


Cell biology: The beginning of the end p.35


doi: 10.1038/nature12844



Spread in model climate sensitivity traced to atmospheric convective mixing p.37

The change in global mean temperature in response to a change in external forcing is highly uncertain; here differences in the simulated strength of convective mixing between the lower and middle tropical troposphere are shown to explain about half of the variance in climate sensitivity, constraining the predicted equilibrium climate sensitivity to an increase of 3 to 5 degrees Celsius.

doi: 10.1038/nature12829


The complete genome sequence of a Neanderthal from the Altai Mountains p.43

A complete genome sequence is presented of a female Neanderthal from Siberia, providing information about interbreeding between close relatives and uncovering gene flow events among Neanderthals, Denisovans and early modern humans, as well as establishing substitutions that became fixed in modern humans after their separation from the ancestors of Neanderthals and Denisovans.

doi: 10.1038/nature12886


A molecular marker of artemisinin-resistant Plasmodium falciparum malaria p.50

A molecular marker is required to monitor artemisinin-resistant Plasmodium falciparum parasites in southeast Asia; here mutations in K13-propeller are associated with artemisinin resistance in vitro and in vivo and also cluster in Cambodian provinces where resistance is prevalent.

doi: 10.1038/nature12876


Structural basis for Ca2+ selectivity of a voltage-gated calcium channel p.56

X-ray crystal structures of a voltage-gated Na+ channel mutated to be highly Ca2+ selective provide a framework for understanding the mechanisms of ion selectivity and conductance in vertebrate voltage-gated Ca2+ channels.

doi: 10.1038/nature12775



Strong neutrino cooling by cycles of electron capture and β decay in neutron star crusts p.62

Cycles of electron capture and β decay involving neutron-rich nuclei at a typical depth of about 150 metres are found to cool the outer crust of a neutron star by emitting neutrinos while also thermally decoupling the surface layers from the deeper crust; this mechanism has been studied in other astrophysical environments, but has not hitherto been considered in neutron stars.

doi: 10.1038/nature12757

宇宙:海王星質量の系外惑星GJ 436bの特徴のない透過スペクトル

A featureless transmission spectrum for the Neptune-mass exoplanet GJ 436b p.66

The transmission spectrum of the Neptune-mass exoplanet GJ 436b is shown to be featureless, implying that the planet has either a hydrogen-poor atmosphere or a high cloud layer.

doi: 10.1038/nature12887

宇宙:スーパーアース系外惑星GJ 1214bの大気中にある雲

Clouds in the atmosphere of the super-Earth exoplanet GJ 1214b p.69

The transmission spectrum of the super-Earth exoplanet GJ 1214b is observed to be featureless at near-infrared wavelengths and its atmosphere must contain clouds to be consistent with the data.

doi: 10.1038/nature12888


DNA-mediated nanoparticle crystallization into Wulff polyhedra p.73

Very slow cooling, over several days, of solutions of complementary-DNA-modified nanoparticles through the melting temperature of the system produces nanoparticle assemblies with the Wulff equilibrium crystal structure, thus showing that DNA hybridization can direct nanoparticle assembly along a pathway that mimics atomic crystallization.

doi: 10.1038/nature12739


Increasing subtropical North Pacific Ocean nitrogen fixation since the Little Ice Age p.78

Despite a reduction in nutrient supply to the North Pacific subtropical gyre, it has undergone a recent increase in nitrogen fixation, and here records of nitrogen isotopes preserved in Hawaiian corals show that this is a trend that could be linked to climate change since the end of the Little Ice Age.

doi: 10.1038/nature12784


Low investment in sexual reproduction threatens plants adapted to phosphorus limitation p.82

Plant life-history traits, notably plant investments in growth versus reproduction, can explain the impact of nitrogen:phosphorus stoichiometry on plant species richness; compared with plants in nitrogen-limited communities, plants in phosphorus-limited communities (in which endangered plant species are more common) invest little in phosphorus-intense activity such as sexual reproduction and have conservative leaf traits.

doi: 10.1038/nature12733


Upper Palaeolithic Siberian genome reveals dual ancestry of Native Americans p.87

Draft genomes of two south-central Siberian individuals dating to 24,000 and 17,000 years ago show that they are genetically closely related to modern-day western Eurasians and Native Americans but not to east Asians; the results have implications for our understanding of the origins of Native Americans.

doi: 10.1038/nature12736


Prefrontal parvalbumin interneurons shape neuronal activity to drive fear expression p.92

Single-unit recordings and optogenetic manipulations in mice undergoing auditory fear conditioning show that fear expression is related to the phasic inhibition of prefrontal cortex (PFC) parvalbumin interneurons; inhibition disinhibits PFC projection neurons and synchronizes their firing, leading to fear expression.

doi: 10.1038/nature12755


Divergent angiocrine signals from vascular niche balance liver regeneration and fibrosis p.97

Divergent angiocrine signals from liver sinusoidal endothelial cells elicit regeneration after immediate injury and provoke fibrosis after chronic insult.

doi: 10.1038/nature12681


Antibacterial membrane attack by a pore-forming intestinal C-type lectin p.103

Secreted C-type lectins protect the intestinal epithelium from Gram-positive bacteria; this study shows that for the C-type lectin RegIIIα, bacterial killing occurs in a two-step process whereby the lectin first binds to bacterial peptidoglycans then oligomerizes on the bacterial membrane to form a permeabilizing pore.

doi: 10.1038/nature12729


Structural basis for recognition of synaptic vesicle protein 2C by botulinum neurotoxin A p.108

Botulinum neurotoxin A (BoNT/A) is considered the most toxic substance known but is also used as a therapeutic drug for a growing number of diseases and conditions; researchers have now obtained a high-resolution crystal structure of the receptor-binding domain of the BoNT/A in complex with the luminal domain of synaptic vesicle protein 2C (SV2C), one of its receptors, allowing the identification of a peptide that can inhibit complex formation.

doi: 10.1038/nature12732


Coupled GTPase and remodelling ATPase activities form a checkpoint for ribosome export p.112

Two proteins are identified in yeast that regulate the timing of pre-ribosome export from the nucleus; Nug2 binds pre-60S particles until they are ready for export, at which time Nug2 is replaced by the export adaptor Nmd3, enabling the export machinery to recognise the pre-ribosome that is ready to be transferred to the cytoplasm.

doi: 10.1038/nature12731


N6-methyladenosine-dependent regulation of messenger RNA stability p.117

The mRNAs of higher eukaryotes are extensively modified internally with N6-methyladenosine, but the specific functional role of this modification has been unclear; here this modification on mRNA is shown to be recognized by several proteins, the modification and its recognition serve to regulate the RNA’s lifetime.

doi: 10.1038/nature12730

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