Volume 505 Number 7482



Data sharing will pay dividends p.131

As public pressure builds for drug companies to make more results available from clinical trials, the industry should not forget that it relies on collective goodwill to test new therapies.

doi: 10.1038/505131a


Risk management p.131

Teams aimed at preventing violence on campus can offer a lifeline to those in crisis.

doi: 10.1038/505131b


Conflict of interest p.132

How two world wars affected scientific research, and vice versa.

doi: 10.1038/505132a



Leaked files slam stem-cell therapy p.139

Disclosures and resignations reveal scientific concerns over methods of Italy’s Stamina Foundation.

doi: 10.1038/505139a


Particle-physics papers set free p.141

Tensions as open-access initiative goes live — without the field’s leading journal.

doi: 10.1038/505141a


Projects set to tackle neglected diseases p.142

But they do little to alter the process of drug development.

doi: 10.1038/505142a


Many eyes on Earth p.143

Swarms of small satellites set to deliver close to real-time imagery of swathes of the planet.

doi: 10.1038/505143a


China tops Europe in R&D intensity p.144

Reforms to commercial and academic research systems still needed despite reaching spending milestone, say scientists.

doi: 10.1038/505144a

News Features


Computer science: The learning machines p.146

膨大な量の写真、音声データを用いて「深層学習(deep learning)」をさせることで、コンピューターが真の人工知能へと次第に近付いてきている。

doi: 10.1038/505146a


Workplace violence: Caught on campus p.150


doi: 10.1038/505150a

News & Views

フォーラム: 発生生物学:つながれたWntタンパク質

Developmental biology: Tethered wings p.162


doi: 10.1038/nature12848


Electrochemistry: Metal-free energy storage p.163


doi: 10.1038/505163a


Therapeutics: Detective work on drug dosage p.165


doi: 10.1038/505165a


Quantum physics: An atomic SQUID p.166


doi: 10.1038/nature12846


HIV: Ringside views p.167


doi: 10.1038/505167a



Diversity of ageing across the tree of life p.169

Examination of demographic age trajectories for species from a wide range of taxonomic groups shows that these species have very diverse life-history patterns; mortality and reproduction vary greatly with age for both long- and short-lived species, and the relationships between ageing, mortality and reproduction are clearly complex.

doi: 10.1038/nature12789


Elephant shark genome provides unique insights into gnathostome evolution OPEN p.174

Whole-genome analysis of the elephant shark, a cartilaginous fish, shows that it is the slowest evolving of all known vertebrates, lacks critical bone formation genes and has an unusual adaptive immune system.

doi: 10.1038/nature12826


Patterning and growth control by membrane-tethered Wingless p.180

Replacement of the wingless (wg) gene in Drosophila with one that expresses a membrane-tethered form of Wg results in viable flies with normally patterned appendages of nearly the right size; early wg transcription and memory of signalling ensure continued target-gene expression in the absence of Wg release, even though the spread of Wg could boost cell proliferation.

doi: 10.1038/nature12879



The rarity of dust in metal-poor galaxies p.186

Observations of local galaxy I Zw 18 imply that the dust mass in star-forming, metal-poor environments is much lower than expected, and, therefore, that the amount of dust in young galaxies of the early Universe, such as redshift-6.6 galaxy Himiko, is probably a factor of about 100 less than previously thought.

doi: 10.1038/nature12765


Face-to-face transfer of wafer-scale graphene films p.190

High-quality graphene is grown on copper and then transferred to the underlying substrate, typically silicon oxide or quartz, by simply etching away the copper; the graphene is held in place during etching by capillary bridges.

doi: 10.1038/nature12763


A metal-free organic–inorganic aqueous flow battery p.195

Flow batteries, in which the electro-active components are held in fluid form external to the battery itself, are attractive as a potential means for regulating the output of intermittent renewable sources of electricity; an aqueous flow battery based on inexpensive commodity chemicals is now reported that also has the virtue of enabling further improvement of battery performance through organic chemical design.

doi: 10.1038/nature12909


Merging allylic carbon–hydrogen and selective carbon–carbon bond activation p.199

A method of selectively activating both allylic carbon–hydrogen bonds and carbon–carbon bonds can furnish sophisticated molecular scaffolds with all-carbon quaternary stereogenic centres that can themselves be derivatized.

doi: 10.1038/nature12761


Primitive layered gabbros from fast-spreading lower oceanic crust p.204

Drilling by the Integrated Ocean Drilling Program has recovered primitive, modally layered, orthopyroxene-bearing cumulate rocks from the lower plutonic crust formed at a fast-spreading ridge, leading to a better-constrained estimate of the bulk composition of fast-spreading oceanic crust.

doi: 10.1038/nature12778


The effects of genetic variation on gene expression dynamics during development p.208

A comprehensive study into the effects of polymorphisms on gene expression dynamics during a 12-hour development period of Caenorhabditis elegans shows that both cis and trans expression quantitative trait loci (eQTLs) can increase and decrease gene expression, depending on the time point, and that trans eQTLs can act as modifiers of expression during a given period of development.

doi: 10.1038/nature12772


HMGA2 functions as a competing endogenous RNA to promote lung cancer progression p.212

HMGA2 promotes lung cancer progression in mice and humans; in mouse and human lung cancer cells, HMGA2 competes with mRNAs like TGFBR3 for the let-7 microRNA family, and in human non-small-cell lung cancer tissue, expression levels of HMGA2 and TGFBR3 are correlated, suggesting that HMGA2 functions both as a protein-coding gene and as a non-coding RNA.

doi: 10.1038/nature12785


Mycobacteria manipulate macrophage recruitment through coordinated use of membrane lipids p.218

The bacteria responsible for causing tuberculosis in mammals and zebrafish are shown to preferentially recruit and infect permissive macrophages while evading microbicidal ones.

doi: 10.1038/nature12799


Transcranial amelioration of inflammation and cell death after brain injury p.223

Using long-term intravital photography to explore the cellular changes after compression-induced traumatic brain injury in a murine model, it is shown that parenchymal and meningeal inflammation as well as cell death can be modulated by topical treatment with purinergic receptor antagonists and glutathione.

doi: 10.1038/nature12808

構造生物学:HIV-1 VifによるCBF-βおよびCUL5 E3リガーゼ複合体乗っ取りの構造的基盤

Structural basis for hijacking CBF-β and CUL5 E3 ligase complex by HIV-1 Vif p.229

This study provides a crystal structure of the Vif–CBF-β–CUL5–ELOB–ELOC complex, which shows that Vif mimics the action of SOCS2 to interact with CUL5 and ELOC.

doi: 10.1038/nature12884


Structural basis of lentiviral subversion of a cellular protein degradation pathway p.234

The crystal structure of a ternary complex of the lentiviral accessory protein Vpx with the E3 ligase substrate adaptor DCAF1 and the HIV-1 restriction factor SAMHD1 shows how Vpx recruits SAMHD1 to the cell’s ubiquitination machinery.

doi: 10.1038/nature12815


Efficient ethanol production from brown macroalgae sugars by a synthetic yeast platform p.239

Saccharomyces cerevisiae bearing engineered alginate and mannitol catabolic pathways can ferment sugars from brown macroalgae to produce ethanol, potentially allowing the use of brown macroalgae as a viable feedstock for the production of biofuels and renewable chemicals.

doi: 10.1038/nature12771

構造生物学:X線自由電子レーザーのデータによるタンパク質結晶のde novo構造決定

De novo protein crystal structure determination from X-ray free-electron laser data p.244

Femtosecond crystallography with an X-ray free-electron laser is used to analyse micrometre-sized protein crystals, generating a high-resolution structure of the protein without previous knowledge of what it looks like.

doi: 10.1038/nature12773

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