Volume 500 Number 7463



Subject to question p.377

Even when conducting clinical trials to study widely used therapies, researchers must ensure that they disclose the full risks to patients.

doi: 10.1038/500377a



Forecasts turn tide on silt p.385

New York pioneers system to protect drinking water from adverse weather events.

doi: 10.1038/500385a


Half of 2011 papers now free to read p.386

Boost for advocates of open-access research articles.

doi: 10.1038/500386a


Big horns clash with longevity in sheep p.387

Gene for small horns lowers sexual fitness but boosts lifespan.

doi: 10.1038/500387a


Romanian science in free fall p.388

Researchers rue the reversal of positive reforms.

doi: 10.1038/500388a


US regulation misses some GM crops p.389

Gaps in oversight of transgenic technologies allow scientists to test the waters for speciality varieties.

doi: 10.1038/500389a

News Features


Stem cells: Egg engineers p.392


doi: 10.1038/500392a

News & Views


Plant biology: Electric defence p.404


doi: 10.1038/500404a


Astrophysics: Twinkling stars p.405


doi: 10.1038/500405a


Biotechnology: Programming genomes with light p.406


doi: 10.1038/500406a


Condensed-matter physics: A solid triple point p.408


doi: 10.1038/500408a


Metabolism: Sweet enticements to move p.409


doi: 10.1038/nature12549


Ecology: Abundant equals nested p.411


doi: 10.1038/500411a


Evolutionary biology: A gut feeling for isolation p.412


doi: 10.1038/500412a



Signatures of mutational processes in human cancer p.415

An analysis of mutations from over 7,000 cancers of diverse origins reveals the diversity of mutational processes underlying the development of cancer; more than 20 distinct mutational signatures are described, some of which are present in many cancer types, notably a signature attributed to the APOBEC family of cytidine deaminases, whereas others are specific to individual tumour types.

doi: 10.1038/nature12477

植物科学:GLUTAMATE RECEPTOR-LIKE遺伝子は葉から葉への傷害シグナル伝達を仲介する

GLUTAMATE RECEPTOR-LIKE genes mediate leaf-to-leaf wound signalling p.422

Upon wounding, plants mount a systemic response resulting in the production of jasmonates, hormones that confer resistance to herbivores; here we identify genes necessary for the electrical activity that leads to jasmonate synthesis far from the wound itself.

doi: 10.1038/nature12478



An observational correlation between stellar brightness variations and surface gravity p.427

An analysis of archival data reveals an observational correlation between stellar brightness variations and surface gravity, allowing a determination of surface gravity with a precision of better than 25 per cent for inactive Sun-like stars at main-sequence to giant stages of evolution.

doi: 10.1038/nature12419


Measurement of a solid-state triple point at the metal–insulator transition in VO2 p.431

The precise location of a solid-state triple point, at which three solid phases coexist in thermal equilibrium, has been determined by controlling the stress and temperature in a nanobeam of vanadium dioxide near its metal–insulator transition.

doi: 10.1038/nature12425


The role of spin in the kinetic control of recombination in organic photovoltaics p.435

The interplay of spin, energetics and delocalization of the electronic excitations are shown to create a spin blockade of electron–hole recombination in organic photovoltaic cells, resulting in high quantum efficiencies.

doi: 10.1038/nature12339


Onset of deglacial warming in West Antarctica driven by local orbital forcing p.440

An annually resolved ice-core record from West Antarctica indicates that warming driven by local insolation resulting from sea-ice decline began in that region about 2,000 years before warming in East Antarctica, reconciling two alternative explanations for deglacial warming in the Southern Hemisphere.

doi: 10.1038/nature12376


Digit loss in archosaur evolution and the interplay between selection and constraints p.445

Research on the Nile crocodile and five birds shows that limb evolution is shaped by an interplay between natural selection and developmental constraints, the outcome varying between different digits, and between embryos and adults.

doi: 10.1038/nature12336


Emergence of structural and dynamical properties of ecological mutualistic networks p.449

Cooperation among species tends to result in mutualistic networks with a nested structure, which is thought to increase biodiversity and persistence but may be less stable than unstructured networks: here nested networks are shown to result from a mechanism that maximizes species abundances in mutualistic communities, and the abundance of nested species is found to be directly linked to the resilience of the community.

doi: 10.1038/nature12438

進化遺伝学:ヒルガタワムシ類Adineta vagaでの非減数分裂的な進化を裏付ける、ゲノミクスから得られた証拠

Genomic evidence for ameiotic evolution in the bdelloid rotifer Adineta vaga OPEN p.453

The genome of the asexual rotifer Adineta vaga lacks homologous chromosomes; instead, its allelic regions are rearranged and sometimes found on the same chromosome in a palindromic fashion, a structure reminiscent of the primate Y chromosome and of other mitotic lineages such as cancer cells.

doi: 10.1038/nature12326


Oxytocin enhances hippocampal spike transmission by modulating fast-spiking interneurons p.458

Oxytocin is shown to sharpen neuronal network activity by increasing fast-spiking interneuron activity.

doi: 10.1038/nature12330


Non-vesicular trafficking by a ceramide-1-phosphate transfer protein regulates eicosanoids p.463

A human lipid transfer protein (GLTPD1, named here CPTP) is shown to regulate eicosanoid production by mediating the intermembrane transfer of the phosphorylated sphingolipid ceramide-1-phosphate through a non-vesicular transport mechanism elucidated by structural, functional and biological data.

doi: 10.1038/nature12332


The histone H4 lysine 16 acetyltransferase hMOF regulates the outcome of autophagy p.468

Induction of autophagy is coupled to reduction of histone H4 lysine 16 acetylation through downregulation of the histone acetyltransferase hMOF, showing that histone modifications regulate the outcome of autophagy.

doi: 10.1038/nature12313


Optical control of mammalian endogenous transcription and epigenetic states p.472

Here the customizable TALE DNA-binding domain was integrated with the light-sensitive cryptochrome 2 protein and its interacting partner (CIB1) from Arabidopsis thaliana, thereby creating an optogenetic two-hybrid system called light-inducible transcriptional effectors (LITEs); the LITE system establishes a novel mode of optogenetic control of endogenous transcription and epigenetic states.

doi: 10.1038/nature12466


Charting a dynamic DNA methylation landscape of the human genome p.477

Whole-genome bisulphite sequencing data from diverse human cell and tissue types shows that only about 22% of CpGs change their methylation state across these cell types; most of these CpGs are located at gene regulatory elements, particularly enhancers and transcription-factor-binding sites, and these selected regions with dynamic DNA methylation patterns could help to define putative regulatory elements further.

doi: 10.1038/nature12433


DNA unwinding heterogeneity by RecBCD results from static molecules able to equilibrate p.482

The bacterial RecBCD helicase/nuclease shows broad, and apparently static, heterogeneity in the unwinding rate manifest by individual molecules: here it is shown that transiently halting an enzyme during processive translocation allows for a change, most likely conformational, such that the velocity of the molecule after pausing can fall anywhere within the spectrum of rates seen for a population.

doi: 10.1038/nature12333


Structural basis for molecular recognition of folic acid by folate receptors p.486

Folate receptor-α (FRα) is overexpressed in many cancer cells and is therefore an important therapeutic target: here the X-ray crystal structure of folate-bound FRα is presented, revealing details of the ligand-binding pocket that may be useful in the development of small-molecule inhibitors for anticancer therapy.

doi: 10.1038/nature12327

「Journal home」に戻る