Volume 499 Number 7457



In the dark p.125

Germany’s main funding agency must specify how it will deal with false charges of misconduct.

doi: 10.1038/499125b


Trial and error p.125

Italian officials should not go ahead with expensive clinical tests of an unproven stem-cell therapy that has no good scientific basis.

doi: 10.1038/499125a


Headline message p.126

Science communication is changing, but investigative reporting is still important.

doi: 10.1038/499126a



Teething troubles at huge telescope p.133

The Large Binocular Telescope gets off to a sluggish start.

doi: 10.1038/499133a


Deal boosts blind’s access to texts p.134

Global copyright agreement will increase availability of scientific texts in accessible formats.

doi: 10.1038/499134a


Imaging hits noise barrier p.135

Physical limits mean that electron microscopy may be nearing highest possible resolution.

doi: 10.1038/499135a


Outcry over plans for ‘Japanese NIH’ p.136

Researchers fear reforms will bring cuts to basic science.

doi: 10.1038/499136a


US research firms put under pressure to sell p.137

Commercialization rules threaten to curtail SBIR grants.

doi: 10.1038/499137a

News Features


Climate change: The forecast for 2018 is cloudy with record heat p.139


doi: 10.1038/499139a


Science media: Centre of attention p.142

科学報道をより良いものにしようとするFiona Foxとサイエンス・メディア・センターの試みが、世界に広まりつつある。

doi: 10.1038/499142a

News & Views


Malaria: Molecular secrets of a parasite p.156

マラリア原虫( Plasmodium falciparum )が自身のvar遺伝子の発現を操作して宿主免疫系による監視を回避する仕組みが明らかにされた。4人の専門家が、この結果が一般的な遺伝子調節の解明、また抗マラリアワクチンの開発にどのように関係してくるかを論じている。

doi: 10.1038/nature12407


Geophysics: A third way to rift continents p.157


doi: 10.1038/499157a


Optical physics: Trapping the light fantastic p.159


doi: 10.1038/499159a


Earth science: A holistic approach to climate targets p.160


doi: 10.1038/nature12406


Cell biology: Lipid switches and traffic control p.161


doi: 10.1038/nature12408



Oversimplifying quantum factoring p.163

doi: 10.1038/nature12290



Temporal regulation of EGF signalling networks by the scaffold protein Shc1 p.166

The Shc1 scaffold mediates a switch in the signaling output of the epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase over time through recruitment of successive waves of proteins with distinct biological functions.

doi: 10.1038/nature12308


A compendium of RNA-binding motifs for decoding gene regulation p.172

This study reports a global analysis of binding sites for over 200 RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) from 24 species; conserved RNA-binding motifs are identified, and their analysis allows prediction of interaction sites based on the sequence of the RNA-binding domain alone.

doi: 10.1038/nature12311


The Mycobacterium tuberculosis regulatory network and hypoxia p.178

Mycobacterium tuberculosis has the ability to survive within the host for months to decades in an asymptomatic state, and adaptations to hypoxia are thought to have an important role in pathogenesis; here a systems-wide reconstruction of the regulatory network provides a framework for understanding mycobacterial persistence in the host.

doi: 10.1038/nature12337



Formation of sharp eccentric rings in debris disks with gas but without planets p.184

The narrow rings seen in some debris disks, thought to be evidence for hidden exoplanets, might instead be caused by gas–dust interaction and a recently identified photoelectric instability.

doi: 10.1038/nature12281


Observation of trapped light within the radiation continuum p.188

Theoretical and experimental studies reveal that light can be confined within a planar dielectric photonic crystal slab even though the frequency of this optical bound state is inside the continuous spectrum of extended states from the same symmetry group.

doi: 10.1038/nature12289


Metal-free oxidation of aromatic carbon–hydrogen bonds through a reverse-rebound mechanism p.192

Phthaloyl peroxide functions as a selective oxidant of C–H bonds in the transformation of arenes to phenols under mild conditions, in a reaction that is compatible with a wide array of functional groups.

doi: 10.1038/nature12284


Allowable carbon emissions lowered by multiple climate targets p.197

The amount of greenhouse gas emissions that will limit the risks from such emissions has been set by the goal of keeping global warming below two degrees Celsius above preindustrial, but this study sets thresholds for sea level rise, ocean acidification and agricultural productivity as well as warming and shows that emissions need to be lowered even further.

doi: 10.1038/nature12269


Characterization and implications of intradecadal variations in length of day p.202

Variations in Earth's rotation show clear signals of a 5.9-year oscillation and jumps in Earth’s moment of inertia; correlation with the geomagnetic field suggests an origin in Earth’s core and constrains the conductivity and thus the composition and mineralogy of the deep mantle.

doi: 10.1038/nature12282


Gene expression in the deep biosphere p.205

Gene expression of microbes in anaerobic sediment from the Peru Margin at depths up to 159 metres below the sea floor is analysed: anaerobic metabolism of amino acids, carbohydrates and lipids are seen to be the dominant metabolic processes, and genes associated with cell division are found to be correlated with microbial cell concentration, suggesting that ongoing cell division contributes to biomass turnover.

doi: 10.1038/nature12230


Pan genome of the phytoplankton Emiliania underpins its global distribution OPEN p.209

A reference genome from the coccolithophore Emiliania huxleyi is presented, along with sequences from 13 additional isolates, revealing a pan genome comprising core genes and genes variably distributed between strains: E. huxleyi is found to harbour extensive genetic variability under different metabolic repertoires, explaining its ability to thrive under a diverse range of environmental conditions.

doi: 10.1038/nature12221


Mutational heterogeneity in cancer and the search for new cancer-associated genes p.214

As the sample size in cancer genome studies increases, the list of genes identified as significantly mutated is likely to include more false positives; here, this problem is identified as stemming largely from mutation heterogeneity, and a new analytical methodology designed to overcome this problem is described.

doi: 10.1038/nature12213


Antibiotic treatment expands the resistance reservoir and ecological network of the phage metagenome p.219

By exploring the phageome in mice, antibiotic treatment is shown to lead to enrichment of phage-encoded genes that are related to antibiotic resistance.

doi: 10.1038/nature12212


PfSETvs methylation of histone H3K36 represses virulence genes in Plasmodium falciparum p.223

The malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum escapes immune detection by expressing one of 60 antigenically distinct var genes at any one time during the course of infection: here it is shown that the P. falciparum protein PfSETvs has a key role in var gene silencing through the trimethylation of histone H3K36.

doi: 10.1038/nature12361


Wnt activation in nail epithelium couples nail growth to digit regeneration p.228

Nail stem cells (NSCs) reside in the proximal nail matrix, and early nail progenitors undergo Wnt-dependent differentiation into the nail; after amputation, Wnt activation is required for nail and digit regeneration, and amputations proximal to the Wnt-active nail progenitors fail to regenerate, but β-catenin stabilization in the NSC region induces regeneration.

doi: 10.1038/nature12214


Spatiotemporal control of endocytosis by phosphatidylinositol-3,4-bisphosphate p.233

Phosphoinositides are important regulators of intracellular membrane traffic, and although the role of PI(4,5)P2 has been well characterised, the function of PI(3,4)P2 remains unclear; here the formation of PI(3,4)P2 by the class II phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase C2α enzyme is shown to control clathrin-mediated endocytosis.

doi: 10.1038/nature12360


An siRNA screen for NFAT activation identifies septins as coordinators of store-operated Ca2+ entry p.238

A genome-wide RNA interference analysis identifies the septin family of cytoskeletal filaments as important regulators of store-operated Ca2+ entry into the cell; septins are shown to organize plasma membrane microdomains important in STIM1 and ORAI1 signalling, and may also be relevant in membrane microdomains underlying other signalling processes.

doi: 10.1038/nature12229

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