Reform regulations to make pet clinical trials easier p.169

Trials in animals can aid both veterinary and human medicine, but complicated rules can stifle them.

doi: 10.1038/540169a

Full Text


Get water governance on the global agenda p.169

Human activity causes most changes in Earth’s surface water, so policies for its governance must become a priority.

doi: 10.1038/540169b

Full Text


Turn children on to science through reading p.170

Books have the power to trigger a lifelong urge to know more about the world and its environs.

doi: 10.1038/540170a

Full Text



Europe’s first Mars rover gets funding — despite crash of test craft p.177

But the European Space Agency's participation in a mission to deflect an asteroid moon is now cancelled.

doi: 10.1038/nature.2016.21091

Full Text


North America’s oldest mummy returned to US tribe after genome sequencing p.178

DNA proves Native American roots of 10,600-year-old skeleton.

doi: 10.1038/540178a

Full Text


Mexico proposal to ban human-embryo research would stifle science p.180

Researchers in the country have only just started using homegrown human embryonic stem cells

doi: 10.1038/540180a

Full Text


Battle over US overtime pay rules leaves many postdocs in limbo p.181

Institutions struggle to respond after court blocks regulations that would have increased wages for junior researchers.

doi: 10.1038/nature.2016.21084

Full Text


Researchers baffled by nationalist surge p.182

Economic woes wrought by globalization are only part of the cause.

doi: 10.1038/540182a

Full Text


Deforestation spikes in Brazilian Amazon p.182

Illegal land clearing hits highest levels since 2008 as environmental policies come under attack.

doi: 10.1038/nature.2016.21083

Full Text

News Features


What DNA reveals about St Helena’s freed slaves p.184


doi: 10.1038/540184a

Full Text

News & Views


Climate science: The history of Greenland's ice p.202


doi: 10.1038/540202a

Full Text


Virology: A parasite's parasite saves host's neighbours p.204


doi: 10.1038/540204a

Full Text


Astrophysics: Elemental abundances across cosmic time p.205


doi: 10.1038/540205a

Full Text


Neurodegenerative Disorders: Neural synchronization in Alzheimer's disease p.207


doi: 10.1038/540207a

Full Text


In Retrospect: Forty years of linking orbits to ice ages p.208


doi: 10.1038/540208a

Full Text


Biomedicine: Replacing the cell's power plants p.210


doi: 10.1038/nature20483

Full Text


Stem cells: Aspiring to naivety p.211

ヒト体内のあらゆる種類の細胞を生じることができる幹細胞は、生物医学研究の主役の1つである。ヒト胚の分子レベルでの解析は、培養幹細胞をin vivoの幹細胞の信頼のおける模造品とするのに役立ちそうだ。

doi: 10.1038/nature20484

Full Text



Certified randomness in quantum physics p.213

Quantum technology enables new methods for generating of randomness with minimal assumptions, certified by the violation of a Bell inequality, which opens up new theoretical and experimental research directions and leads to new challenges.

doi: 10.1038/nature20119

日本語要約 | Full Text | PDF


Safeguarding pollinators and their values to human well-being p.220

Wild and managed pollinators are threatened by pressures such as environmental changes and pesticides, leading to risks for pollinator-dependent crop production, meaning more research and better policies are needed to safeguard pollinators and their services.

doi: 10.1038/nature20588

日本語要約 | Full Text | PDF



Gamma frequency entrainment attenuates amyloid load and modifies microglia p.230

Mouse models of Alzheimer’s disease show reduced, behaviourally driven gamma oscillations before the onset of plaque formation or cognitive decline; driving neurons to oscillate at gamma frequency (40 Hz) reduces levels of amyloid-β peptides.

doi: 10.1038/nature20587

日本語要約 | Full Text | PDF

免疫学:S-2-ヒドロキシグルタル酸はCD8+ Tリンパ球の運命を調節する

S-2-hydroxyglutarate regulates CD8+ T-lymphocyte fate p.236

S-2-hydroxyglutarate produced by CD8+ T cells under hypoxic conditions affects locus-specific histone and DNA methylation patterns, which enhances T-cell proliferation, survival and recall responses.

doi: 10.1038/nature20165

日本語要約 | Full Text | PDF


m6A modulates neuronal functions and sex determination in Drosophila p.242

One of the most abundant modifications found in messenger RNAs is N6-methyladenosine (m6A); here, this modification is shown to alter gene expression during sex determination and affect neuronal functions and behaviour in Drosophila via the m6A reader protein YT521-B.

doi: 10.1038/nature20568

日本語要約 | Full Text | PDF



A massive, quiescent, population II galaxy at a redshift of 2.1 p.248

The ratio of magnesium to iron abundance is measured for a massive quiescent galaxy at a redshift of 2.1, corresponding to when the Universe was three billion years old.

doi: 10.1038/nature20570

日本語要約 | Full Text | PDF


Greenland was nearly ice-free for extended periods during the Pleistocene p.252

Measurements of cosmic-ray-produced 10Be and 26Al in a bedrock core from beneath the summit of the Greenland Ice Sheet show that Greenland was nearly ice-free for extended periods under Pleistocene climate forcing.

doi: 10.1038/nature20146

日本語要約 | Full Text | PDF


A persistent and dynamic East Greenland Ice Sheet over the past 7.5 million years p.256

10Be and 26Al isotopic evidence in quartz sand from the seafloor shows that a dynamic East Greenland Ice Sheet has existed for the past 7.5 million years.

doi: 10.1038/nature20147

日本語要約 | Full Text | PDF


Dynamics of a seafloor-spreading episode at the East Pacific Rise p.261

Seismic observations clarify the roles of magma pressure and tectonic stress in the development of seafloor spreading during the most recent eruption at the East Pacific Rise.

doi: 10.1038/nature20116

日本語要約 | Full Text | PDF


Land-use intensification causes multitrophic homogenization of grassland communities p.266

Analysis of a large grassland biodiversity dataset shows that increases in local land-use intensity cause biotic homogenization at landscape scale across microbial, plant and animal groups, both above- and belowground, that is largely independent of changes in local diversity.

doi: 10.1038/nature20575

日本語要約 | Full Text | PDF


Mitochondrial replacement in human oocytes carrying pathogenic mitochondrial DNA mutations p.270

Analysis of mitochondrial replacement therapy shows, even with efficient mutant mitochondrial DNA replacement and maintenance in embryonic stem cells, a gradual loss of donor mitochondrial DNA in some lines owing to a polymorphism in the D-loop, potentially causing preferential replication of specific mitochondrial DNA haplotypes.

doi: 10.1038/nature20592

日本語要約 | Full Text | PDF


Intronic polyadenylation of PDGFRα in resident stem cells attenuates muscle fibrosis p.276

Platelet-derived growth factor receptor α (PDGFRα) exhibits divergent effects in skeletal muscle. At physiological levels, signalling through this receptor promotes muscle development in growing embryos and angiogenesis in regenerating adult muscle. However, both increased PDGF ligand abundance and enhanced PDGFRα pathway activity cause pathological fibrosis. This excessive collagen deposition, which is seen in aged and diseased muscle, interferes with muscle function and limits the effectiveness of gene- and cell-based therapies for muscle disorders. Although compelling evidence exists for the role of PDGFRα in fibrosis, little is known about the cells through which this pathway acts. Here we show in mice that PDGFRα signalling regulates a population of muscle-resident fibro/adipogenic progenitors (FAPs) that play a supportive role in muscle regeneration but may also cause fibrosis when aberrantly regulated. We found that FAPs produce multiple transcriptional variants of Pdgfra with different polyadenylation sites, including an intronic variant that codes for a protein isoform containing a truncated kinase domain. This variant, upregulated during regeneration, acts as a decoy to inhibit PDGF signalling and to prevent FAP over-activation. Moreover, increasing the expression of this isoform limits fibrosis in vivo in mice, suggesting both biological relevance and therapeutic potential of modulating polyadenylation patterns in stem-cell populations.

doi: 10.1038/nature20160

日本語要約 | Full Text | PDF


Microcins mediate competition among Enterobacteriaceae in the inflamed gut p.280

Certain commensal enterobacteria secrete small proteins called microcins that suppress the growth of other bacteria in the inflamed gut, conferring an intra- and interspecies competitive advantage.

doi: 10.1038/nature20557

日本語要約 | Full Text | PDF


Ad26/MVA therapeutic vaccination with TLR7 stimulation in SIV-infected rhesus monkeys p.284

The development of immunologic interventions that can target the viral reservoir in HIV-1-infected individuals is a major goal of HIV-1 research. However, little evidence exists that the viral reservoir can be sufficiently targeted to improve virologic control following discontinuation of antiretroviral therapy. Here we show that therapeutic vaccination with Ad26/MVA (recombinant adenovirus serotype 26 (Ad26) prime, modified vaccinia Ankara (MVA) boost) and stimulation of TLR7 (Toll-like receptor 7) improves virologic control and delays viral rebound following discontinuation of antiretroviral therapy in SIV-infected rhesus monkeys that began antiretroviral therapy during acute infection. Therapeutic vaccination with Ad26/MVA resulted in a marked increase in the magnitude and breadth of SIV-specific cellular immune responses in virologically suppressed, SIV-infected monkeys. TLR7 agonist administration led to innate immune stimulation and cellular immune activation. The combination of Ad26/MVA vaccination and TLR7 stimulation resulted in decreased levels of viral DNA in lymph nodes and peripheral blood, and improved virologic control and delayed viral rebound following discontinuation of antiretroviral therapy. The breadth of cellular immune responses correlated inversely with set point viral loads and correlated directly with time to viral rebound. These data demonstrate the potential of therapeutic vaccination combined with innate immune stimulation as a strategy aimed at a functional cure for HIV-1 infection.

doi: 10.1038/nature20583

日本語要約 | Full Text | PDF


Host genome integration and giant virus-induced reactivation of the virophage mavirus p.288

Endogenous viral elements found in a marine protozoan have a function in defence against infection by giant viruses.

doi: 10.1038/nature20593

日本語要約 | Full Text | PDF


Designed proteins induce the formation of nanocage-containing extracellular vesicles p.292

Autonomously produced hybrid biological nanomaterials termed ‘enveloped protein nanocages’ incorporate features for membrane binding, self-assembly, and ESCRT recruitment for cellular release.

doi: 10.1038/nature20607

日本語要約 | Full Text | PDF


Capturing pairwise and multi-way chromosomal conformations using chromosomal walks p.296

A conformation capture sequencing method is developed to link multiple genomic loci into three-dimensional proximity chains called chromosomal walks (C-walks), adding to our understanding of how higher-order chromosomal structures participate in genome regulation.

doi: 10.1038/nature20158

日本語要約 | Full Text | PDF

分子生物学:m6A はショウジョウバエのロバストな性決定のためにSxl mRNA前駆体の選択的スプライシングを促進する

m6A potentiates Sxl alternative pre-mRNA splicing for robust Drosophila sex determination p.301

N6-methyladenosine (m6A) is the most common internal modification of eukaryotic messenger RNA (mRNA) and is decoded by YTH domain proteins. The mammalian mRNA m6A methylosome is a complex of nuclear proteins that includes METTL3 (methyltransferase-like 3), METTL14, WTAP (Wilms tumour 1-associated protein) and KIAA1429. Drosophila has corresponding homologues named Ime4 and KAR4 (Inducer of meiosis 4 and Karyogamy protein 4), and Female-lethal (2)d (Fl(2)d) and Virilizer (Vir). In Drosophila, fl(2)d and vir are required for sex-dependent regulation of alternative splicing of the sex determination factor Sex lethal (Sxl). However, the functions of m6A in introns in the regulation of alternative splicing remain uncertain. Here we show that m6A is absent in the mRNA of Drosophila lacking Ime4. In contrast to mouse and plant knockout models, Drosophila Ime4-null mutants remain viable, though flightless, and show a sex bias towards maleness. This is because m6A is required for female-specific alternative splicing of Sxl, which determines female physiognomy, but also translationally represses male-specific lethal 2 (msl-2) to prevent dosage compensation in females. We further show that the m6A reader protein YT521-B decodes m6A in the sex-specifically spliced intron of Sxl, as its absence phenocopies Ime4 mutants. Loss of m6A also affects alternative splicing of additional genes, predominantly in the 5′ untranslated region, and has global effects on the expression of metabolic genes. The requirement of m6A and its reader YT521-B for female-specific Sxl alternative splicing reveals that this hitherto enigmatic mRNA modification constitutes an ancient and specific mechanism to adjust levels of gene expression.

doi: 10.1038/nature20577

日本語要約 | Full Text | PDF

「Journal home」に戻る