Volume 540 Number 7631



Academia must resist political confirmation bias p.7

It is crucial to fight discrimination in all its forms, but it is unhelpful to exclude conservative voices from debate.

doi: 10.1038/540007a


Post-publication criticism is crucial, but should be constructive p.7

In an era of online discussion, debate must remain nuanced and courteous.

doi: 10.1038/540007b


Researchers serve up suggestions to reduce food waste p.8

A change in cultural and social factors — such as overcoming a distaste for doggy bags — will be required to shift people’s behaviour.

doi: 10.1038/540008a



Failed Alzheimer’s trial does not kill leading theory of disease p.15

The drug, and others based on the ‘amyloid hypothesis’, are still being tested in other, different trials.

doi: 10.1038/nature.2016.21045


UK scientists excited by surprise £2-billion government windfall p.16

Cash to include fund modelled on DARPA, the US defence department’s research arm — but how much will go to basic research is unclear.

doi: 10.1038/nature.2016.21038


Experimental treatments aim to prevent brain damage in babies p.17

Advances in neuroscience are driving the development of therapies that could save thousands of the most vulnerable patients.

doi: 10.1038/540017a


Speedy Antarctic drills start hunt for Earth’s oldest ice p.18

British team is first to seek site of 1.5-million-year-old sample.

doi: 10.1038/540018a


Weaponized antibodies use new tricks to fight cancer p.19

Next generation of Trojan-horse drugs designed to minimize damage to healthy cells.

doi: 10.1038/540019a


Updated: NgAgo gene-editing controversy escalates in peer-reviewed papers p.20

String of publications describes attempts — mostly unsuccessful — to use proposed CRISPR rival.

doi: 10.1038/nature.2016.21023

News Features


Can old computers bring Palestinians and Israelis together? p.22


doi: 10.1038/540022a

News & Views


Planetary science: Pluto's telltale heart p.42


doi: 10.1038/540042a


Cell biology: Double agents for mitochondrial division p.43


doi: 10.1038/nature20482


Quantum computing: Efficient fault tolerance p.44


doi: 10.1038/nature20479


Cell Biology: Sort of unexpected p.45


doi: 10.1038/540045a


Biogeochemistry: Projections of the soil-carbon deficit p.47


doi: 10.1038/540047a


Astronomy: A black hole changes its feeding habits p.48


doi: 10.1038/nature20480


Biological rhythms: Wild times p.49


doi: 10.1038/nature20481



Stem cells and interspecies chimaeras p.51

A comprehensive review into mammalian interspecies chimaeras, documenting the advances that have occurred alongside developments in stem-cell biology and assessing the future of the field, including any possible ethical and legal issues.

doi: 10.1038/nature20573


Organization and functions of mGlu and GABAB receptor complexes p.60

This Review discusses current knowledge of the structure, function and interactions of the metabotropic glutamate and GABAB receptors and the potential to target receptor subunits for future therapeutic intervention in neurological and mental health disorders.

doi: 10.1038/nature20566



The genomic basis of circadian and circalunar timing adaptations in a midge OPEN p.69

Genomic and molecular analyses of Clunio marinus timing strains suggest that modulation of alternative splicing of Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent kinase II represents a mechanism for evolutionary adaptation of circadian timing.

doi: 10.1038/nature20151


Correcting mitochondrial fusion by manipulating mitofusin conformations p.74

Specific intramolecular interactions of mitofusin 2 amino acid sequences either constrain or permit mitochondrial fusion and the addition of short peptides matching these sequences stabilize the fusion-constrained or fusion-permissive form, thus inhibiting or promoting mitochondrial fusion.

doi: 10.1038/nature20156


The pathway to GTPase activation of elongation factor SelB on the ribosome p.80

The structures of several states on the pathway of SelB-mediated delivery of selenocysteine-specific tRNA to the ribosome in Escherichia coli reveal the mechanism of UGA stop codon recoding to selenocysteine and show how codon recognition triggers activation of translational GTPases.

doi: 10.1038/nature20560



Observed glacier and volatile distribution on Pluto from atmosphere–topography processes p.86

Simulations of the levels of nitrogen, methane and carbon monoxide over thousands of years confirm the existence of a nitrogen glacier in Sputnik Planitia, Pluto’s deepest basin.

doi: 10.1038/nature19337


Reorientation and faulting of Pluto due to volatile loading within Sputnik Planitia p.90

The location of Sputnik Planitia on Pluto is shown to result from volatiles sequestered within the basin forcing the reorientation of the dwarf planet, as supported by the planet-wide fault network.

doi: 10.1038/nature20120


Reorientation of Sputnik Planitia implies a subsurface ocean on Pluto p.94

To explain the position of the Sputnik Planitia basin on Pluto, the feature would need to have formed via impact and Pluto would need to have a subsurface ocean.

doi: 10.1038/nature20148


The rapid formation of Sputnik Planitia early in Pluto’s history p.97

Modelling suggests that the icy region on Pluto known as Sputnik Planitia formed shortly after Charon did and has since been stable, with its latitude corresponding to a minimum in annual solar illumination and its longitude determined by tidal forces from Charon.

doi: 10.1038/nature20586


Ghost imaging with atoms p.100

Ghost imaging is demonstrated using beams of correlated pairs of ultracold helium atoms, rather than photons, yielding a reconstructed image with submillimetre resolution.

doi: 10.1038/nature20154


Quantifying global soil carbon losses in response to warming p.104

A compilation of global soil carbon data from field experiments provides empirical evidence that warming-induced net losses of soil carbon could accelerate climate change.

doi: 10.1038/nature20150


Unexpected diversity in socially synchronized rhythms of shorebirds p.109

Socially synchronized rhythms in shorebirds were assessed during biparental incubation under natural circumstances and were exceptionally diverse, often not following the 24-h day, whereby risk of predation, not starvation, determined some of the variation in incubation rhythms.

doi: 10.1038/nature20563


Genomic evolution and chemoresistance in germ-cell tumours p.114

Genomic analyses show that primary germ-cell tumours are highly enriched for chromosomal reciprocal loss of heterozygosity, mutations in KRAS and have high mitochondrial priming, providing insight into chemosensitivity and the evolution of chemoresistance in this disease.

doi: 10.1038/nature20596


Inhibition of mTOR induces a paused pluripotent state p.119

Inhibition of mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) suspends mouse blastocyst development and the cells remain ‘paused’ in a reversible pluripotent state, allowing prolonged culture.

doi: 10.1038/nature20578


RIPK1 counteracts ZBP1-mediated necroptosis to inhibit inflammation p.124

The enzyme RIPK1 functions through its RHIM domain to prevent ZBP1-mediated activation of RIPK3–MLKL-dependent necroptosis, thus preventing perinatal lethality and skin inflammation in adult mice.

doi: 10.1038/nature20558


RIPK1 inhibits ZBP1-driven necroptosis during development p.129

In the absence of RIPK1, ZBP1 engages RIPK3 in a RHIM-dependent manner and acts as a critical activator of RIPK3/MLKL-dependent necroptosis.

doi: 10.1038/nature20559


The SND proteins constitute an alternative targeting route to the endoplasmic reticulum p.134

Experiments in yeast cells show that three proteins—Snd1, Snd2 and Snd3—provide an alternative pathway for targeting of cellular proteins to the endoplasmic reticulum.

doi: 10.1038/nature20169


Multiple dynamin family members collaborate to drive mitochondrial division p.139

The classical dynamin Dyn2 is required for mitochondrial division.

doi: 10.1038/nature20555

遺伝学:CRISPR/Cas9を使ったHITI(homology-independent targeted integration)法によるin vivoゲノム編集

In vivo genome editing via CRISPR/Cas9 mediated homology-independent targeted integration p.144

A method for CRISPR-based genome editing that harnesses cellular non-homologous end joining activity to achieve targeted DNA knock-in in non-dividing tissues.

doi: 10.1038/nature20565

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