目次

Editorials

難民が社会にうまく溶け込めるようにするために、受け入れる国々はメンタルヘルスへの取り組みを強化すべきだ。

Healing the traumatized minds of refugees p.139

Host countries need to deal with the raised levels of mental-health disorders in migrants if they expect them to integrate well, and that could mean benefits for psychological care in rich countries too.

doi: 10.1038/538139a

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疾患と関連すると認知されている遺伝的変異について、証拠が十分かをもう一度見直す必要がある。

Rethink the links between genes and disease p.140

The ExAC database has shown that many mutations thought to be harmful are benign.

doi: 10.1038/538140a

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新たに流行する専門用語が正確には何を意味するのかなど、言葉の選択には慎重になるべきだ。

Scientific buzzwords obscure meaning p.140

‘Nexus’ is enjoying new-found popularity. But what does it actually mean?

doi: 10.1038/538140b

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News

英国政府が移民を制限する姿勢を示したことで、科学界に懸念が。

Brexit government’s anti-immigration stance spooks UK scientists p.147

Plans to restrict freedom of movement intensify researchers’ fears over June vote.

doi: 10.1038/nature.2016.20755

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南アフリカが、収入・教育・健康状態を調べる50万人規模の人口統計調査計画を。

South Africa plans health study to track half a million people p.148

Network would be Africa's largest demographics project if it can sustain long-term funding.

doi: 10.1038/nature.2016.20754

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NASAが、今後の火星探査について、自己完結型から他の国や組織とのコラボ型へ方向転換を。

NASA rethinks approach to Mars exploration p.149

Agency looks to time-allocation model in an era of shifting commercial and international interests.

doi: 10.1038/nature.2016.20758

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がん初のT細胞治療が米国で近く認可される見込みで、さらに毒性を軽減しようと、盛んに研究が。

Safety concerns blight promising cancer therapy p.150

As the first T-cell therapies for tumours near US approval, researchers race to engineer less-toxic alternatives.

doi: 10.1038/538150a

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2016年のノーベル化学賞は、分子マシンの設計・合成で新たな分野を切り開いた、ヨーロッパの3氏に。

World’s tiniest machines win chemistry Nobel p.152

Jean-Pierre Sauvage, Fraser Stoddart and Bernard Feringa share 2016 award.

doi: 10.1038/nature.2016.20734

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多くのノーベル賞受賞者の研究生活の出発点となったのは、どこなのだろうか?

Where Nobel winners get their start p.152

Undergraduates from small, elite institutions have the best chance of winning a Nobel prize.

doi: 10.1038/nature.2016.20757

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News Features

遺伝学:「命に関わる変異」の真の姿

A radical revision of human genetics p.154

世界最大規模のエキソーム解析データによって、ヒトの疾患リスクに関するこれまでの見方が変わってきている。

doi: 10.1038/538154a

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精神疾患:移住者の傷ついた心

The mental-health crisis among migrants p.158

ヨーロッパに押し寄せる難民・移民たちは精神疾患を抱える割合が非常に高く、科学者たちはこの状況を改善しようと奮闘している。

doi: 10.1038/538158a

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News & Views

地球科学:巨大洪水の規模はもっと小さかった

Earth science: Megafloods downsized p.174

北米のチャネルド・スキャブランドの地形について見直しが行われ、この景観を作り出した古代の洪水は一般に仮定されているより小規模だったことが明らかになった。今回の結果によって、火星で起こったとされる同じような洪水の見積もりも修正される可能性が出てきた。

doi: 10.1038/538174a

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老化:我らの限りある命を計る

Ageing: Measuring our narrow strip of life p.175

人口統計学的解析から、ヒトの寿命には限界があることが今回確証された。これは以前に得られた結果と一致しており、平均余命の延びが近い将来に減速あるいは停止する可能性を示している。

doi: 10.1038/nature19475

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惑星科学:月での攪拌

Planetary science: Moon churn p.177

月周回衛星によって撮影された画像の分析から、観測期間中に新たに222個のクレーターが生成したことが明らかになった。現在の月面のクレーター生成率は、これまでの予想よりもはるかに高いらしい。

doi: 10.1038/538177a

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回顧:C4光合成の50年

In retrospect: Fifty years of C4 photosynthesis p.177

C4回路と命名された、植物の光合成に関わる経路が見つかってから50年がたち、この効率の良い回路をイネなどの農作物に導入して食料安全保障を維持する試みが続けられている。

doi: 10.1038/538177b

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集団遺伝学:人類の放浪癖を地図にする

Population genetics: A map of human wanderlust p.179

世界のさまざまな地域に存在する多様なヒト集団についての遺伝学的研究から、現生人類が地球全体へ広がっていった分散について、また地形がゲノムの多様性をどのように形作るのかについての手掛かりが得られた。

doi: 10.1038/nature19472

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動物行動学:致死的暴力行為はヒト系統の深くに根差している

Animal behaviour: Lethal violence deep in the human lineage p.180

ヒトという種が生じた初期における致死的暴力の発生率は、哺乳類での平均値のほぼ6倍であったと推定されることが今回明らかになったが、これは我々の祖先が大型類人猿であることを考えれば、ほぼ予測される程度の値といえる。

doi: 10.1038/nature19474

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Reviews

ナノテクノロジー:細胞内送達のためのin vitroおよびex vivo戦略

In vitro and ex vivo strategies for intracellular delivery p.183

Intracellular delivery methods, which are critical to both fundamental research applications and cell-based therapies, are reviewed, concentrating on membrane-disruption-based methods and the use of nanotechnology, microfluidics and laboratory-on-chip technology.

doi: 10.1038/nature19764

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ウイルス学:エボラウイルスの進化:2013~2016年の流行からの考察

The evolution of Ebola virus: Insights from the 2013–2016 epidemic p.193

A comprehensive review of how analysis of genome sequences provided insights into the origins, evolution and spread of Ebola virus during the 2013–2016 epidemic in West Africa.

doi: 10.1038/nature19790

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Articles

集団遺伝学:サイモンズゲノム多様性プロジェクト:142の多様な集団からの300人のゲノム

The Simons Genome Diversity Project: 300 genomes from 142 diverse populations p.201

Deep whole-genome sequencing of 300 individuals from 142 diverse populations provides insights into key population genetic parameters, shows that all modern human ancestry outside of Africa including in Australasians is consistent with descending from a single founding population, and suggests a higher rate of accumulation of mutations in non-Africans compared to Africans since divergence.

doi: 10.1038/nature18964

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集団遺伝学:オーストラリア・アボリジニのゲノム史

A genomic history of Aboriginal Australia p.207

Whole-genome sequence data for 108 individuals representing 28 language groups across Australia and five language groups for Papua New Guinea suggests that Aboriginal Australians and Papuans diverged from Eurasian populations approximately 60–100 thousand years ago, following a single out-of-Africa dispersal and subsequent admixture with archaic populations.

doi: 10.1038/nature18299

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Letters

惑星科学:時系列画像による月面上のクレーター生成とレゴリス攪拌の定量化

Quantifying crater production and regolith overturn on the Moon with temporal imaging p.215

High-resolution ‘before and after’ imaging of the Moon is used to quantify the rate of crater production and provide insights into the cratering process.

doi: 10.1038/nature19829

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材料学:酸化物半導体における増強された撓電性に似た応答

Enhanced flexoelectric-like response in oxide semiconductors p.219

Semiconducting single crystals of doped barium titanate and titanium dioxide exhibit a flexoelectric-like response upon bending that is much larger than in their undoped, insulating counterparts, reaching unprecedentedly large effective flexoelectric coefficients.

doi: 10.1038/nature19761

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材料学:原子スケールの精度で作製された毛細管による分子輸送

Molecular transport through capillaries made with atomic-scale precision p.222

Nanometre-scale graphitic capillaries with atomically flat walls are engineered and studied, revealing unexpectedly fast transport of liquid water through channels that accommodate only a few layers of water.

doi: 10.1038/nature19363

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古気候学:過去200万年間にわたる全球気温の変化

Evolution of global temperature over the past two million years p.226

Reconstruction of global average surface temperature for the past two million years shows continuous cooling until about 1.2 million years ago, followed by a general flattening, with close coupling of global temperature and atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations over the past 800,000 years.

doi: 10.1038/nature19798

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地形学:決壊洪水によるチャネルド・スキャブランドの漸進的な下刻

Progressive incision of the Channeled Scablands by outburst floods p.229

Simulations of water flow and erosion in Moses Coulee suggest that the floods that carved this canyon only partially filled it, implying much lower flood discharges than previously thought.

doi: 10.1038/nature19817

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人類学:ヒトの致死的暴力の系統発生学的ルーツ

The phylogenetic roots of human lethal violence p.233

The percentage of human deaths caused by interpersonal violence reflects our membership of a particularly violent clade of mammals, although changes in socio-political organization have led to marked variations in this proportion.

doi: 10.1038/nature19758

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集団遺伝学:ゲノム解析で明らかになった、人類のユーラシア定住の際の移動事象

Genomic analyses inform on migration events during the peopling of Eurasia p.238

Whole-genome sequencing of individuals from 125 populations provides insight into patterns of genetic diversity, natural selection and human demographic history during the peopling of Eurasia and finds evidence for genetic vestiges of an early expansion of modern humans out of Africa in Papuans.

doi: 10.1038/nature19792

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遺伝学:韓国人のゲノムのde novoアセンブリとフェージング解析

De novo assembly and phasing of a Korean human genome OPEN p.243

De novo assembly and phasing of the genome of an individual from Korea using a combination of different sequencing approaches provides a useful population-specific reference genome and represents the most contiguous human genome assembly so far.

doi: 10.1038/nature20098

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心血管疾患:出生時体重と、その成人病との相関についてのゲノム規模関連研究

Genome-wide associations for birth weight and correlations with adult disease p.248

Multi-ancestry genome-wide association analyses for birth weight in 153,781 individuals identified 60 genomic loci in which birth weight and fetal genotype were associated and found an inverse genetic correlation between birth weight and cardiometabolic risk.

doi: 10.1038/nature19806

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神経科学:前脳基底部のコリン作動性摂食回路は食欲抑制を調節する

A cholinergic basal forebrain feeding circuit modulates appetite suppression p.253

A mouse study reveals that acetylcholine signalling networks have a role in the regulation of body weight homeostasis, with increased activity of cholinergic neurons decreasing food consumption through downstream hypothalamic targets.

doi: 10.1038/nature19789

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老化:ヒトの寿命の限界を示す証拠

Evidence for a limit to human lifespan p.257

Demographic analysis of life expectancy and maximum reported age at death provides evidence that human lifespan has reached its natural limit.

doi: 10.1038/nature19793

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がんゲノミクス:ヒト成体幹細胞で一生の間に起こる組織特異的変異の蓄積

Tissue-specific mutation accumulation in human adult stem cells during life p.260

Stem cells of the liver, colon and small intestine gradually accumulate mutations throughout life at a similar rate even though cancer incidence varies greatly among these tissues.

doi: 10.1038/nature19768

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病態学:新しいクロマチンドメインの形成がゲノム重複の病原性を決定する

Formation of new chromatin domains determines pathogenicity of genomic duplications p.265

Genomic duplications in the SOX9 region are associated with human disease phenotypes; a study using human cells and mouse models reveals that the duplications can cause the formation of new higher-order chromatin structures called topologically associated domains (TADs) thereby resulting in changes in gene expression.

doi: 10.1038/nature19800

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RNA代謝:CRISPR-C2c2の2種類の異なるRNアーゼ活性はガイドRNAのプロセシングとRNA検出を可能にしている

Two distinct RNase activities of CRISPR-C2c2 enable guide-RNA processing and RNA detection p.270

The CRISPR-associated bacterial enzyme C2c2 is shown to contain two separable, distinct sites for the highly sensitive detection and cleavage of single-stranded RNA.

doi: 10.1038/nature19802

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