Source material p.437

Geneticists and historians need to work together on using DNA to explore the past.

doi: 10.1038/533437b

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Reality check on reproducibility p.437

A survey of Nature readers revealed a high level of concern about the problem of irreproducible results. Researchers, funders and journals need to work together to make research more reliable.

doi: 10.1038/533437a

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Crunch time p.438

Overtime pay for postdoctoral scientists is welcome — but could mean fewer positions.

doi: 10.1038/533438a

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Three-person embryos may fail to vanquish mutant mitochondria p.445

Technique to stop children inheriting mitochondrial diseases has potential to backfire.

doi: 10.1038/nature.2016.19948

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Next generation of carbon-monitoring satellites faces daunting hurdles p.446

Space agencies envisage system of probes to track whether countries are achieving emissions goals.

doi: 10.1038/533446a

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Silicon quantum computers take shape in Australia p.448

Two blueprints emerge from centre tasked with creating a practical quantum device.

doi: 10.1038/533448a

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Myriad Genetics embroiled in breast-cancer data fight — again p.449

Complaint to US government alleges that diagnostics company violated individuals' right to access health information.

doi: 10.1038/nature.2016.19953

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US reviews plan to infect mosquitoes with bacteria to stop disease p.450

Biotech firm seeks government approval to market mosquitoes as a pesticide to prevent spread of Zika and dengue viruses.

doi: 10.1038/533450a

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US law could increase postdoc pay — and shake up research system p.450

Labour law will change how many postdocs — long a troubled segment of the US research hierarchy — are paid.

doi: 10.1038/nature.2016.19949

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News Features


1,500 scientists lift the lid on reproducibility p.452


doi: 10.1038/533452a

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The secret history of ancient toilets p.456


doi: 10.1038/533456a

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News & Views


Cell biology: Choreography of protein synthesis p.472


doi: 10.1038/nature18436

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Astrophysics: How black holes restrain old galaxies p.473


doi: 10.1038/533473a

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Cell biology: Killer enzymes tethered p.474


doi: 10.1038/nature18439

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Evolution: The bigger, the better p.476


doi: 10.1038/533476a

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Depression: Ketamine steps out of the darkness p.477


doi: 10.1038/nature17897

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Atmospheric science: Unexpected player in particle formation p.478


doi: 10.1038/533478a

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NMDAR inhibition-independent antidepressant actions of ketamine metabolites p.481

The metabolism of ketamine to (2S,6S;2R,6R)-hydroxynorketamine (HNK) is essential for its antidepressant effects, and the (2R,6R)-HNK enantiomer lacks ketamine-related side effects but exerts rapid and sustained antidepressant actions in mice; these antidepressant effects are independent of NMDAR inhibition but require AMPAR activity.

doi: 10.1038/nature17998

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Tracing haematopoietic stem cell formation at single-cell resolution p.487

Successful identification of mouse embryonic pre-haematopoietic stem cells at single-cell resolution.

doi: 10.1038/nature17997

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Carcinoma–astrocyte gap junctions promote brain metastasis by cGAMP transfer p.493

A heterotypic cell interaction between astrocytes and tumour cells colonizing the brain is discovered; by establishing gap junctions, tumour cells trigger the activation of innate immune response signalling in astrocytes, which results in the secretion of factors that support growth and chemoresistance in brain metastatic cells.

doi: 10.1038/nature18268

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Synchronized mitochondrial and cytosolic translation programs p.499

The genes encoding the subunits of oxidative phosphorylation complexes are split between the nuclear and mitochondrial genomes, but their translation is synchronized by signalling from the cytosol to the mitochondria.

doi: 10.1038/nature18015

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Suppressing star formation in quiescent galaxies with supermassive black hole winds p.504

In order for quiescent galaxies to maintain their low-to-non-existent star formation, there must be a mechanism to remove or heat gas that would otherwise cool to form stars; now supermassive black hole winds that are sufficient to suppress star formation in such galaxies are reported.

doi: 10.1038/nature18006

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A resonant chain of four transiting, sub-Neptune planets p.509

Transit timing variations of the four-planet system Kepler-223 are used to compute the long-term stability of the system, which has a chain of resonances; the results suggest that inward planetary migration, rather than in situ assembly, is responsible for the formation of some close-in sub-Neptune systems.

doi: 10.1038/nature17445

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A high-temperature ferromagnetic topological insulating phase by proximity coupling p.513

Coupling a ferromagnetic insulator to a topological insulator induces a robust magnetic state at the interface, resulting from the large spin-orbit interaction and the spin-momentum locking property of Dirac fermions, and leads to an extraordinary enhancement of the magnetic ordering (Curie) temperature.

doi: 10.1038/nature17635

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Continuous probing of cold complex molecules with infrared frequency comb spectroscopy p.517

Combining cavity-enhanced direct frequency comb spectroscopy with buffer gas cooling enables rapid collection of well-resolved infrared spectra for molecules such as nitromethane, naphthalene and adamantane, confirming the value of the combined approach for studying much larger and more complex molecules than have been probed so far.

doi: 10.1038/nature17440

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Ion-induced nucleation of pure biogenic particles OPEN p.521

Aerosol particles can form in the atmosphere by nucleation of highly oxidized biogenic vapours in the absence of sulfuric acid, with ions from Galactic cosmic rays increasing the nucleation rate by one to two orders of magnitude compared with neutral nucleation.

doi: 10.1038/nature17953

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The role of low-volatility organic compounds in initial particle growth in the atmosphere OPEN p.527

The growth of nucleated organic particles has been investigated in controlled laboratory experiments under atmospheric conditions; initial growth is driven by organic vapours of extremely low volatility, and accelerated by more abundant vapours of slightly higher volatility, leading to markedly different modelled concentrations of atmospheric cloud condensation nuclei when this growth mechanism is taken into account.

doi: 10.1038/nature18271

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Competitive growth in a cooperative mammal p.532

In wild Kalahari meerkats (Suricata suricatta), subordinates of both sexes respond to experimentally induced increases in the growth of same-sex rivals by raising their own growth rate and food intake.

doi: 10.1038/nature17986

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How sexual selection can drive the evolution of costly sperm ornamentation p.535

The ‘big-sperm paradox’, the observed production of few, gigantic sperm by some fruit flies (seemingly at odds with fundamental theory addressing how sexual selection works) is shown to be a result of co-evolution driven by genetic and functional relationships between sperm length, design of the female reproductive tract and features of the mating system.

doi: 10.1038/nature18005

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Genome-wide association study identifies 74 loci associated with educational attainment p.539

A genome-wide association study in 293,723 individuals identifies 74 genetic variants associated with educational attainment, which, although only explaining a small proportion of the variation in educational attainment, highlights candidate genes and pathways for further study.

doi: 10.1038/nature17671

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Culturing of ‘unculturable’ human microbiota reveals novel taxa and extensive sporulation OPEN p.543

A novel approach is used to cultivate a substantial proportion of the human gut microbiota, representing an important step forward in characterizing the role of these bacteria in health and disease.

doi: 10.1038/nature17645

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Redirecting abiraterone metabolism to fine-tune prostate cancer anti-androgen therapy p.547

The prostate cancer drug abiraterone can be metabolized into several substances with different effects, and optimization of this process could be helpful for fine-tuning the treatment of prostate cancer.

doi: 10.1038/nature17954

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Access of protective antiviral antibody to neuronal tissues requires CD4 T-cell help p.552

Interferon-γ-secreting CD4+ helper T cells are required for antibody access to neuronal tissues in response to neurotropic virus infections.

doi: 10.1038/nature17979

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Structural insights into inhibition of lipid I production in bacterial cell wall synthesis p.557

The crystal structure of the MraY enzyme from Aquifex aeolicus in complex with the naturally occurring nucleoside inhibitor muraymycin D2 (MD2) reveals that MraY undergoes a large conformational rearrangement near the active site after the binding of MD2, leading to the generation of a nucleoside-binding pocket and a peptide-binding site.

doi: 10.1038/nature17636

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Crystal structure of the human sterol transporter ABCG5/ABCG8 p.561

The X-ray structure of human ABCG5/ABCG8 heterodimer in a nucleotide-free state, being the first atomic model of an ABC sterol transporter.

doi: 10.1038/nature17666

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