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Editorials

学際的な科学研究を成功させるには、時間はかかるが、分野間の隔たりをなくして共通の地盤を作っていく必要がある。

Mind meld p.289

Interdisciplinary science must break down barriers between fields to build common ground.

doi: 10.1038/525289b

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産業界と研究者との関係をどう捉えるかは難しいが、大学や研究機関は「利益相反」を精査するためにまだまだ取り組むべきことがある。

Too close for comfort? p.289

Relationships between industry and researchers can be hard to define, but universities and other institutions must do more to scrutinize the work of their scientists for conflicts of interest.

doi: 10.1038/525289a

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動物実験に関わる科学者、研究機関、助成機関は、実験の倫理指針を順守しなくてはならない。

Protection priority p.290

All involved in animal research must ensure that rules for ethical experiments are observed.

doi: 10.1038/525290a

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News

ソーシャルメディア上で「痩せ型で背の小さな発掘者」を募集するなどしたプロジェクトが、南アフリカの洞窟から新種のヒト属化石を。

Crowdsourcing digs up an early human species p.297

Palaeoanthropologist invites excavators and anatomists to study richest fossil trove in Africa.

doi: 10.1038/nature.2015.18305

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アフリカ諸国が、抗ヘビ毒血清の不足という危機的状況に陥る恐れが。

Africa braced for snakebite crisis p.299

Health specialists warn that stocks of antivenom will run out in 2016.

doi: 10.1038/525299a

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米国立衛生研究所(NIH)の「利益相反」の開示規定に問題点が。

NIH disclosure rules falter p.300

Regulations that require researchers to disclose conflicts of interest yield questionable data and cost universities millions.

doi: 10.1038/525300a

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改修で性能の高まったLIGO(レーザー干渉計重力波天文台)に、重力波検出の期待が。

Hunt for gravitational waves to resume after massive upgrade p.301

LIGO experiment now has better chance of detecting ripples in space-time.

doi: 10.1038/525301a

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防犯カメラを天空観察用へと転用した研究で、これまで知られていなかった流星群が多数明らかに。

Newfound meteor showers expand astronomical calendar p.302

Sky-watching cameras spot 86 previously unknown events.

doi: 10.1038/525302a

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News Features

学際研究:学際性

Why interdisciplinary research matters p.305

世界を救うために科学者は力を合わせる必要があるが、分野間の壁を越えるにはどうすればよいのだろうか。

doi: 10.1038/525305a

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学際研究:数字で見る学際研究

Interdisciplinary research by the numbers p.306

異分野にまたがる研究が、成果を挙げている。

doi: 10.1038/525306a

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学際研究:チーム・サイエンス

How to solve the world's biggest problems p.308

大きな社会問題に取り組むために学際的な科学研究が盛んに行われているが、難しさもある。

doi: 10.1038/525308a

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News & Views

神経科学:忘れっぽさに光を当てる

Neuroscience: Forgetfulness illuminated p.324

記憶は脳でニューロンが作り出す複雑なネットワーク中に蓄えられる。ニューロン間の接続を操作する革新的な手法を使うことで、マウスの記憶を光ビームを使って消去できるようになった。

doi: 10.1038/nature15211

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触媒反応:数万の原子を1個で置き換える

Catalysis: Tens of thousands of atoms replaced by one p.325

触媒の多くは固体担体上に置かれた金属ナノ粒子で構成されている。固体担体に固定された1個のパラジウム原子も高い触媒活性を示すことが分かったことは、パラジウムやそれに近縁の金属の資源を節約するのに役立ちそうだ。

doi: 10.1038/525325a

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進化生物学:表現型可塑性の込み入った影響

Evolutionary biology: Perplexing effects of phenotypic plasticity p.326

グッピーを使った研究で、表現型可塑性、つまり生物が環境内の変化に応じて特性を変化させる能力は、適応進化を制限する場合も、促進する場合もあり得ることが立証された。

doi: 10.1038/nature15214

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がん:ドラッグ・リポジショニングで幹細胞を殺す

Cancer: Repositioned to kill stem cells p.328

化学療法耐性のがん幹細胞は多数の形態のがんの治癒を難しいものにしている。既存の薬剤の新規な薬効を見つけ出し、新たな治療薬として再生させるドラッグ・リポジショニングによってこの問題に取り組むことは、ある種の白血病に対する治療法を大幅に改善しそうだ。

doi: 10.1038/nature15213

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物性物理学:超伝導体での電荷のトポロジー

Condensed-matter physics: Charge topology in superconductors p.329

銅酸化物超伝導体のX線画像から、超伝導が発生するバックボーンが複雑に割れ、穴だらけであることが分かった。この結果によって、超伝導電流が小さな空間スケールで流れる仕組みの解明に一歩近づいた。

doi: 10.1038/525329a

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大気科学:大気汚染排出源から響く弔鐘

Atmospheric science: The death toll from air-pollution sources p.330

汚染大気中の微粒子への曝露と関連する全世界の死亡者数の見積もりは、驚くべきものである。この知見は、今後の研究の指針となるとともに、政策立案者にとっての警鐘ともなる。

doi: 10.1038/525330a

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Articles

神経科学:運動野で記憶痕跡形成を担うシナプスの標識とその光学的消去

Labelling and optical erasure of synaptic memory traces in the motor cortex p.333

A new light-activated probe that targets recently active neuronal spines for manipulation induces shrinkage of recently potentiated spines following a motor learning task; spine shrinkage disrupted learning, suggesting a causal relationship between the specific subset of targeted spines and the learned behaviour.

doi: 10.1038/nature15257

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プロテオミクス:後生動物に古くからある高分子複合体の概観

Panorama of ancient metazoan macromolecular complexes p.339

Using biochemical fractionation and mass spectrometry, animal protein complexes are identified from nine species in parallel, and, along with genome sequence information, complex conservation is investigated and over one million protein–protein interactions are predicted in 122 eukaryotes.

doi: 10.1038/nature14877

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分子生物学:脊椎動物におけるDNA複製終結機構

The mechanism of DNA replication termination in vertebrates p.345

This study describes a new model of eukaryotic replication termination in which converging leading strands pass each other unhindered and the replicative DNA helicase is unloaded late, after all strands have been ligated.

doi: 10.1038/nature14887

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Letters

宇宙物理学:大質量ブラックホール連星系の候補天体における相対論的なブーストに起因する周期性

Relativistic boost as the cause of periodicity in a massive black-hole binary candidate p.351

The amplitude and sinusoid-like shape of the optical variability of the light curve of PG 1302-102 is best fitted by relativistic Doppler boosting of emission from a compact, steadily accreting, unequal-mass binary, which is consistent with archival ultraviolet data, and suggests the existence of a binary black hole in the relativistic regime.

doi: 10.1038/nature15262

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光物理学:ディラックコーンから生じる除外点のリング

Spawning rings of exceptional points out of Dirac cones p.354

Exceptional points are singularities in non-Hermitian systems that can produce unusual effects, and it is shown that a Dirac cone in a photonic crystal can generate a continuous ring of exceptional points through flattening the tip of the cone.

doi: 10.1038/nature14889

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材料科学:高Tc超伝導体における電荷密度波秩序とクエンチされた無秩序の不均一性

Inhomogeneity of charge-density-wave order and quenched disorder in a high-Tc superconductor p.359

Micro X-ray diffraction imaging of the spatial distribution of charge-density-wave puddles and quenched disorder in HgBa2CuO4 + y reveals a complex, inhomogeneous spatial landscape due to the interplay between charge and dopant order.

doi: 10.1038/nature14987

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材料化学:酸化物において室温でスイッチング可能な分極と磁化を設計する

Designing switchable polarization and magnetization at room temperature in an oxide p.363

Ferroelectricity and ferromagnetism are combined in a bulk perovskite oxide at room temperature by constructing a percolating network of interacting magnetic ions within a complex polar solid.

doi: 10.1038/nature14881

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環境科学:若年死亡率に対する屋外の大気汚染源の全球規模の寄与

The contribution of outdoor air pollution sources to premature mortality on a global scale p.367

Investigation of premature mortality by seven emission sources of atmospheric pollutants shows that outdoor air pollution, mostly by fine particulate matter, leads to more than three million premature deaths per year worldwide, which could double by 2050.

doi: 10.1038/nature15371

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進化遺伝学:非適応的な可塑性は自然界で遺伝子発現の急速な適応進化を促進する

Non-adaptive plasticity potentiates rapid adaptive evolution of gene expression in nature p.372

Experimentally transplanting guppies to evolve in a novel, predator-free environment reveals that the direction of plasticity in gene expression is usually opposite to the direction of adaptive evolution; that is, those genes whose expression changes are disadvantageous are more strongly selected upon than those whose changes are advantageous.

doi: 10.1038/nature15256

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植物科学:シロイヌナズナの新規なシアン生成性代謝産物は誘導性の病原体防御に必要とされる

A new cyanogenic metabolite in Arabidopsis required for inducible pathogen defence p.376

Untargeted metabolomics and coexpression analysis uncovers the complete biosynthetic pathway of a previously unknown Arabidopsis metabolite, 4-hydroxyindole-3-carbonyl nitrile (4-OH-ICN), which harbours cyanogenic functionality.

doi: 10.1038/nature14907

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がん:PPARγアゴニストによる慢性骨髄性白血病幹細胞プールの崩壊

Erosion of the chronic myeloid leukaemia stem cell pool by PPARγ agonists p.380

Whether cancer is maintained by a small number of stem cells or is composed of proliferating cells with approximate phenotypic equivalency is a central question in cancer biology. In the stem cell hypothesis, relapse after treatment may occur by failure to eradicate cancer stem cells. Chronic myeloid leukaemia (CML) is quintessential to this hypothesis. CML is a myeloproliferative disorder that results from dysregulated tyrosine kinase activity of the fusion oncoprotein BCR–ABL. During the chronic phase, this sole genetic abnormality (chromosomal translocation Ph+: t(9;22)(q34;q11)) at the stem cell level causes increased proliferation of myeloid cells without loss of their capacity to differentiate. Without treatment, most patients progress to the blast phase when additional oncogenic mutations result in a fatal acute leukaemia made of proliferating immature cells. Imatinib mesylate and other tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) that target the kinase activity of BCR–ABL have improved patient survival markedly. However, fewer than 10% of patients reach the stage of complete molecular response (CMR), defined as the point when BCR-ABL transcripts become undetectable in blood cells. Failure to reach CMR results from the inability of TKIs to eradicate quiescent CML leukaemia stem cells (LSCs). Here we show that the residual CML LSC pool can be gradually purged by the glitazones, antidiabetic drugs that are agonists of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPARγ). We found that activation of PPARγ by the glitazones decreases expression of STAT5 and its downstream targets HIF2α and CITED2, which are key guardians of the quiescence and stemness of CML LSCs. When pioglitazone was given temporarily to three CML patients in chronic residual disease in spite of continuous treatment with imatinib, all of them achieved sustained CMR, up to 4.7 years after withdrawal of pioglitazone. This suggests that clinically relevant cancer eradication may become a generally attainable goal by combination therapy that erodes the cancer stem cell pool.

doi: 10.1038/nature15248

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がん:MYCが駆動するがんではスプライソソームが治療に対する脆弱性を示す

The spliceosome is a therapeutic vulnerability in MYC-driven cancer p.384

Splicing factors such as BUD31 are identified in a synthetic-lethal screen with cells overexpressing the transcription factor MYC; oncogenic MYC leads to an increase in pre-mRNA synthesis, and spliceosome inhibition impairs the growth and tumorigenicity of MYC-dependent breast cancers, suggesting that spliceosome components may be potential therapeutic targets for MYC-driven cancers.

doi: 10.1038/nature14985

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自然免疫:Tet2は、Hdac2動員による特異的なIL-6抑制によって炎症を消散させるのに必要である

Tet2 is required to resolve inflammation by recruiting Hdac2 to specifically repress IL-6 p.389

The Tet2 enzyme, which catalyses de novo hydroxymethylation of DNA, is shown here to act as a transcriptional repressor by recruiting the histone deacetylase Hdac2 to the Il6 promoter in the course of resolution of the LPS-induced inflammatory response.

doi: 10.1038/nature15252

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分子生物学:レプリソームの速度がTus–Ter複製終結障壁の効率を規定する

Replisome speed determines the efficiency of the Tus−Ter replication termination barrier p.394

In all domains of life, DNA synthesis occurs bidirectionally from replication origins. Despite variable rates of replication fork progression, fork convergence often occurs at specific sites. Escherichia coli sets a ‘replication fork trap’ that allows the first arriving fork to enter but not to leave the terminus region. The trap is set by oppositely oriented Tus-bound Ter sites that block forks on approach from only one direction. However, the efficiency of fork blockage by Tus–Ter does not exceed 50% in vivo despite its apparent ability to almost permanently arrest replication forks in vitro. Here we use data from single-molecule DNA replication assays and structural studies to show that both polarity and fork-arrest efficiency are determined by a competition between rates of Tus displacement and rearrangement of Tus–Ter interactions that leads to blockage of slower moving replisomes by two distinct mechanisms. To our knowledge this is the first example where intrinsic differences in rates of individual replisomes have different biological outcomes.

doi: 10.1038/nature14866

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分子生物学:インテグレーターはエンハンサーRNAの生合成を仲介する

Integrator mediates the biogenesis of enhancer RNAs p.399

This study demonstrates a role for the Integrator complex in the stimulus-dependent induction of eRNAs and their 3′ processing; together with previously known roles of Integrator in transcription elongation and RNA processing, these results indicate that Integrator has broad functions in the regulation of eukaryotic gene expression.

doi: 10.1038/nature14906

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構造生物学:ダイナミン四量体の結晶構造

Crystal structure of the dynamin tetramer p.404

The crystal structure of the large GTPase dynamin tetramer is presented, suggesting a mechanism by which oligomerization of dynamin is regulated, and revealing how mutations that interfere with tetramer formation and autoinhibition are of relevance to understanding the congenital muscle disorders Charcot–Marie–Tooth neuropathy and centronuclear myopathy.

doi: 10.1038/nature14880

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