Volume 525 Number 7568



Keep a welcome p.157

The plight of a record number of refugees is something the West cannot ignore. Humanitarian values should be upheld, and people fleeing war and persecution must be offered protection.

doi: 10.1038/525157a


Money matters p.157

It is not how much people have, it is how much we know they have that stokes inequality.

doi: 10.1038/525157b


Loaded language p.158

There can be more to a question than appears at first sight.

doi: 10.1038/525158a



Autopsies reveal signs of Alzheimer's in growth-hormone patients p.165

Brain plaques may have been seeded by contaminated hormone extracts from cadavers.

doi: 10.1038/525165a


US agencies plan research-ethics overhaul p.166

Long-awaited revision proposed for regulations governing studies of human subjects.

doi: 10.1038/nature.2015.18309


Online security braces for quantum revolution p.167

Encryption fix begins in preparation for arrival of futuristic computers.

doi: 10.1038/525167a


Germany claims success for elite universities drive p.168

Report praises US$5-billion scheme for making leading universities more competitive — but some smaller institutions have done just as well.

doi: 10.1038/nature.2015.18312


Trillions of trees p.170

Survey of surveys finds 422 trees for every person on Earth.

doi: 10.1038/525170a

News Features


The revolution will not be crystallized: a new method sweeps through structural biology p.172


doi: 10.1038/525172a


Fishing for the first Americans p.176


doi: 10.1038/525176a

News & Views


Economics: Simple market models fail the test p.190


doi: 10.1038/nature15215


Cell biology: Countercurrents in lipid flow p.191


doi: 10.1038/525191a


Neurodegeneration: Amyloid-β pathology induced in humans p.193


doi: 10.1038/525193a


Atmospheric science: Sea-spray particles cause freezing in clouds p.194


doi: 10.1038/525194a


Astrophysics: Glimpse into a primitive stellar nursery p.195


doi: 10.1038/525195a


Computational biology: How to catch rare cell types p.197


doi: 10.1038/nature15204


Cancer: A moving target p.198

腫瘍進化のin silico三次元モデルから、細胞の運動性が腫瘍量の初期の増大における重要な因子であることが示唆されている。このモデルはまた、変異拡散の動態も明らかにした。

doi: 10.1038/nature15210


Cancer: Mutant p53 and chromatin regulation p.199


doi: 10.1038/nature15212



Mapping tree density at a global scale p.201

Ground-sourced tree density data is assembled to provide a global map of tree density, which reveals that there are three trillion trees (tenfold more than previous estimates); tree numbers have declined by nearly half since the start of human civilization and over 15 billion trees are lost on an annual basis.

doi: 10.1038/nature14967


Gain-of-function p53 mutants co-opt chromatin pathways to drive cancer growth p.206

A ChIP-seq analysis of the DNA-binding properties of mutant gain-of-function p53 protein compared to wild-type p53 reveals the gain-of-function proteins bind to and activate a distinct set of genes including chromatin modifying enzymes such as the histone methyltransferase MLL; small molecular inhibitors of MLL function may represent a new target for cancers with mutant p53.

doi: 10.1038/nature15251


An atomic structure of human γ-secretase p.212

The atomic structure of human γ-secretase at 3.4 Å resolution, determined by single-particle cryo-electron microscopy.

doi: 10.1038/nature14892



Dense cloud cores revealed by CO in the low metallicity dwarf galaxy WLM p.218

To understand the birth of stars, observations of the clouds in which they form are key; here, interferometric observations are reported of carbon monoxide clouds in the galaxy WLM, which has a metallicity that is 13 per cent of the value of our Sun.

doi: 10.1038/nature14901


Quadrature squeezed photons from a two-level system p.222

Measurements of a steady emission of single photons from a quantum dot demonstrate that the fluctuations of the electric field can periodically be 3% below the fundamental quantum limit and confirm the long-standing prediction that the quantum state of single photons can be squeezed.

doi: 10.1038/nature14868


The most incompressible metal osmium at static pressures above 750 gigapascals p.226

Subtle anomalies in how the structure of metallic osmium evolves with pressure are detected using powder X-ray diffraction measurements at ultra-high static pressures; the anomaly at 440 gigapascals is attributed to an electronic transition caused by pressure-induced interactions between core electrons.

doi: 10.1038/nature14681


Computational design of co-assembling protein–DNA nanowires p.230

Computational protein design is used to create a protein–DNA co-assembling nanomaterial; by varying the arrangement of protein-binding sites on the double-stranded DNA, a ‘nanowire’ with single-molecule width can be spontaneously formed by mixing the protein and double-stranded DNA building blocks.

doi: 10.1038/nature14874


A marine biogenic source of atmospheric ice-nucleating particles p.234

The presence of ice in clouds can influence cloud lifetime, precipitation and radiative properties; here, organic material at the sea–air interface, possibly associated with phytoplankton cell exudates, is shown to nucleate ice under conditions relevant for ice cloud formation in the atmospheric environment.

doi: 10.1038/nature14986


Evolutionary origin of the turtle skull p.239

Computed tomography and phylogenetic analysis of the Eunotosaurus africanus skull suggests that not only is Eunotosaurus an early relative of the group that eventually evolved into turtles, but that it is also a diapsid caught in the act of evolving towards a secondarily anapsid state.

doi: 10.1038/nature14900


Arithmetic and local circuitry underlying dopamine prediction errors p.243

Dopamine neurons in the ventral tegmental area calculate reward prediction error by subtracting input from neighbouring GABA neurons.

doi: 10.1038/nature14855


Evidence for human transmission of amyloid-β pathology and cerebral amyloid angiopathy p.247

Treatment of children with human cadaver-derived growth hormone (c-hGH) contaminated with prions resulted in transmission of Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease (CJD); unexpectedly, in an autopsy study of eight such iCJD patients, the authors found amyloid-β deposition in the grey matter typical of that seen in Alzheimer's disease and amyloid-β in the blood vessel walls characteristic of cerebral amyloid angiopathy, consistent with iatrogenic transmission of amyloid-β pathology in addition to CJD and suggests that healthy c-hGH-exposed individuals may also be at risk of Alzheimer's disease and cerebral amyloid angiopathy.

doi: 10.1038/nature15369


Single-cell messenger RNA sequencing reveals rare intestinal cell types p.251

An algorithm that allows rare cell type identification in a complex population of single cells, based on single-cell mRNA-sequencing, is applied to mouse intestinal cells, revealing novel subtypes of enteroendocrine cells and showing that the Lgr5-expressing population consists of a homogenous stem cell population with a few rare secretory cells, including Paneth cells.

doi: 10.1038/nature14966


Distinct EMT programs control normal mammary stem cells and tumour-initiating cells p.256

This study finds that the epithelial-to-mesenchymal (EMT) transition program, which is common to both mammary gland reconstituting stem cells and mammary tumour-initiating cells, is differentially regulated by two distinct EMT factors, Slug and Snail; the findings illustrate that although they appear similar, normal tissue stem cells and tumour-initiating cells are controlled by distinct regulatory processes.

doi: 10.1038/nature14897


A spatial model predicts that dispersal and cell turnover limit intratumour heterogeneity p.261

A new model of tumour evolution is presented to explain how short-range migration and cell turnover within the tumour can provide the basic environment of rapid cell mixing, allowing even a small selective advantage to dominate the mass within relevant time frames.

doi: 10.1038/nature14971


Allosteric receptor activation by the plant peptide hormone phytosulfokine p.265

Insights derived from the crystal structures of the extracellular domain of PSKR, the receptor for the plant hormone phytosulfokine (PSK) that affects plant growth and development, reveal that PSK interacts with PSKR and enhances PSKR interaction with its co-receptor SERK allosterically.

doi: 10.1038/nature14858


Structural basis of JAZ repression of MYC transcription factors in jasmonate signalling p.269

Structural view of a dynamic molecular switch mechanism that governs repression and activation of the jasmonate plant hormone pathway.

doi: 10.1038/nature14661


Real-time observation of the initiation of RNA polymerase II transcription p.274

A single-molecule optical tweezer assay is developed to monitor transcription initiation in eukaryotic RNA polymerase II in real-time, making use of a highly purified preinitiation complex (PIC) from yeast; observations show that a large bubble is opened up in the DNA template during initiation, driven by the TFIIH helicase that forms part of the PIC, along with synthesis of an extended transcript before the transition from transcription initiation into elongation.

doi: 10.1038/nature14882

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