目次

Editorials

米大統領選に向け、共和党内部から気候変動に対する姿勢に変化の兆しが見えてきたことは喜ばしい。

The right climate p.255

A Republican US presidential candidate speaks on climate change, but will his party listen?

doi: 10.1038/522255b

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ノーベル賞受賞者Timothy Huntの女性科学者を軽視した発言は、科学における男女平等の実現がいまだはるか遠いことを示している。

Sexism has no place in science p.255

The comments about women in the laboratory made by Nobel laureate Tim Hunt are a reminder that equality in science is a battle still far from won.

doi: 10.1038/522255a

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助成機関は、科学への社会の信頼を支え、研究を後押しするために、危機管理における自らの役割を認識すべきだ。

Risky business p.256

Funding agencies should highlight their roles as risk managers to underpin public trust.

doi: 10.1038/522256a

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News

欧州宇宙機関(ESA)の彗星着陸機フィラエが目覚め、実験が可能に。

Revived Philae poised to do comet science p.263

Comet lander has enough power to do experiments but needs a better communications link.

doi: 10.1038/522263a

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トルコの総選挙で与党が過半数割れし、科学界に研究の自由への期待が。

Turkey election results delight scientists p.264

Researchers hope that a more pluralistic parliament will put an end to interference and slipping standards.

doi: 10.1038/522264a

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老化は治療可能な「疾患」なのかを探るため、米国でメトホルミンの効果を評価する長期で大規模な臨床試験が。

Anti-ageing pill pushed as bona fide drug p.265

Regulators asked to consider ageing a treatable condition.

doi: 10.1038/522265a

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米国の安全保障規制の見直しが、外国の科学者や企業との協同の制約になる懸念が。

US ‘export rules’ threaten research p.266

Proposed updates to national-security regulations would restrict collaboration with foreign scientists and industry.

doi: 10.1038/522266a

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グラフェンが脚光を浴びているが、商業的成功にはまだ難しさも。

Graphene booms in factories but lacks a killer app p.268

Although the wonder material is being made in record volume, commercial success is elusive.

doi: 10.1038/522268a

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News Features

抗生物質:微生物の「暗黒物質」を探索

Mining the microbial dark matter p.270

未培養の微生物の広大な世界から抗生物質を探索する、新しい方法の研究が進んでいる。

doi: 10.1038/522270a

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材料研究:2Dにすべきか3Dにすべきか

The super materials that could trump graphene p.274

グラフェンに続き、新しい有用な二次元材料の研究が盛んだが、画期的な応用は、それを三次元に積み重ねることから生まれる可能性がある。

doi: 10.1038/522274a

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News & Views

天文学:火星サイズの系外惑星

Astronomy: A Mars-sized exoplanet p.290

ケプラー宇宙望遠鏡のデータの解析から、普通の星を周回している系外惑星の1つの質量がこれまでで最小であることが分かった。この惑星の質量とサイズは火星とほぼ同じで、地球よりも小さな系外惑星の性質についての基準を設定できる。

doi: 10.1038/522290a

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細胞生物学:選択的リサイクルのための受容体

Cell biology: Receptors for selective recycling p.291

細胞内膜構造の一部がオートファゴソームと呼ばれる小胞中に取り込まれる現象は、こうした膜構造を受容体とタンパク質を介して選択的に分解する過程を調節していることが、2つの研究によって明らかになった。

doi: 10.1038/nature14532

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材料科学:マイクロ波で曲がり道を滑らかに進む

Materials science: Round the bend with microwaves p.292

導波路を伝搬するマイクロ波はデバイスの鋭い屈曲部でも反射されずに進んで行くことがシミュレーションにより明らかになった。この知見は、こうした珍しい現象を利用する技術への道を開くと思われる。

doi: 10.1038/nature14533

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神経科学:積極性の効能

Neuroscience: The power of positivity p.294

マウス脳の海馬中にあって、本来なら快い経験によって活性化される神経を刺激すると、ストレスに曝露された結果のうつ病関連行動が抑制されることが分かった。

doi: 10.1038/522294a

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地球温暖化:海洋炭素から気候へのフィードバックの拡大

Global warming: Growing feedback from ocean carbon to climate p.295

海洋の炭素循環と気候のフィードバックが、陸域の炭素循環と気候のフィードバックよりも大きくなる可能性があることが分かった。これは化石燃料からの現在の炭素放出量の社会経済学的影響に関わってくる。

doi: 10.1038/522295a

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神経変性:タンパク質凝集体の構造のばらつきは病態の変動につながる

Neurodegeneration: Aggregates feel the strain p.296

α-シヌクレインタンパク質の凝集体は多様な種類の細胞で形成され、さまざまな神経変性疾患の原因となることがある。構造コンホメーションがそれぞれ異なる凝集体群が複数存在することが、病態のこのような変動の原因なのかもしれない。

doi: 10.1038/nature14526

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無機化学:ホウ素でまた見つかった奇妙な性質

Inorganic chemistry: Peculiar boron startles again p.297

ホウ素の異例な性質は化学の大きな進歩のきっかけとなった。今回、ホウ素が2個の一酸化炭素分子と結合した化合物が見つかり、また別の風変わりな性質が明らかになった。この元素は遷移金属に似た結合を形成するのである。

doi: 10.1038/522297a

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Review

気候:太平洋の西岸境界流と気候におけるその役割

Pacific western boundary currents and their roles in climate p.299

A review of western boundary currents in the Pacific Ocean explores their far-reaching influence on the El Niño/Southern Oscillation, the Indonesian Throughflow, Asian monsoons, and ocean circulation in the South China Sea, and concludes that major conceptual and technical progress will be needed to close the regional mass budget and provide robust projections of Pacific western boundary currents in a changing climate.

doi: 10.1038/nature14504

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Articles

神経科学:作業記憶の際の空間符号化に必要な海馬–前頭前野間入力

Hippocampal–prefrontal input supports spatial encoding in working memory p.309

Spatial working memory is known to involve the prefrontal cortex and the hippocampus, but the specificities of the connection have been unclear; now, a direct path between these two areas is defined that is necessary for the encoding of spatial cues in mice, but is not required for the maintenance or retrieval of these cues.

doi: 10.1038/nature14445

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感染症:タンパク質合成を阻害し、複数ステージで作用する新規の抗マラリア薬

A novel multiple-stage antimalarial agent that inhibits protein synthesis p.315

The description of a compound (DDD107498) with antimalarial activity against multiple life-cycle stages of Plasmodium falciparum and good pharmacokinetic and safety properties, with potential for single-dose treatment, chemoprotection and prevention of transmission.

doi: 10.1038/nature14451

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Letters

惑星科学:トランジットのタイミングから導出された火星サイズの系外惑星Kepler-138 bの質量

The mass of the Mars-sized exoplanet Kepler-138 b from transit timing p.321

Transit timing reveals the masses for the three small planets orbiting the star Kepler-138.

doi: 10.1038/nature14494

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惑星科学:月の周囲の永続的な非対称の塵雲

A permanent, asymmetric dust cloud around the Moon p.324

Observations are reported of a permanent, asymmetric dust cloud around the Moon, caused by impacts of high-speed cometary dust particles on eccentric orbits, as opposed to particles of asteroidal origin following near-circular paths striking the Moon at lower speeds.

doi: 10.1038/nature14479

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有機金属化学:主族元素と複数のCOおよび関連配位子の錯体化

Multiple complexation of CO and related ligands to a main-group element p.327

Transition metal–ligand fragments are often able to bind and release several carbon monoxide molecules, such as the catalysts used in industrial-scale acetic acid synthesis and the active sites of hydrogenase enzymes, but main-group elements have never shown an ability to bind more than one carbon monoxide molecule; here a boron-based compound stable to moisture and air is synthesized and shown to contain multiple carbon monoxide units bound to the central boron atom.

doi: 10.1038/nature14489

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古生物学:チリで見つかった後期ジュラ紀の謎めいた植食性獣脚類の化石

An enigmatic plant-eating theropod from the Late Jurassic period of Chile p.331

A new dinosaur from the Late Jurassic period of Chile (about 150 million years ago) has been discovered and identified as a primitive kind of theropod that, unusually, was herbivore.

doi: 10.1038/nature14307

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神経科学:快記憶エングラムの活性化によってうつ様行動を抑制する

Activating positive memory engrams suppresses depression-like behaviour p.335

Acute re-activation of a positive memory engram suppresses depression-like behaviour in mice exposed to chronic stress, mediated by a hippocampus–amygdala–nucleus-accumbens pathway.

doi: 10.1038/nature14514

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神経変性:異なったα-シヌクレイン株の局所的および全身的投与後に異なったシヌクレイノパチーが引き起こされる

α-Synuclein strains cause distinct synucleinopathies after local and systemic administration p.340

Misfolded protein aggregates represent a continuum with overlapping features in neurodegenerative diseases, but differences in protein components and affected brain regions. The molecular hallmark of synucleinopathies such as Parkinson’s disease, dementia with Lewy bodies and multiple system atrophy are megadalton α-synuclein-rich deposits suggestive of one molecular event causing distinct disease phenotypes. Glial α-synuclein (α-SYN) filamentous deposits are prominent in multiple system atrophy and neuronal α-SYN inclusions are found in Parkinson’s disease and dementia with Lewy bodies. The discovery of α-SYN assemblies with different structural characteristics or ‘strains’ has led to the hypothesis that strains could account for the different clinico-pathological traits within synucleinopathies. In this study we show that α-SYN strain conformation and seeding propensity lead to distinct histopathological and behavioural phenotypes. We assess the properties of structurally well-defined α-SYN assemblies (oligomers, ribbons and fibrils) after injection in rat brain. We prove that α-SYN strains amplify in vivo. Fibrils seem to be the major toxic strain, resulting in progressive motor impairment and cell death, whereas ribbons cause a distinct histopathological phenotype displaying Parkinson’s disease and multiple system atrophy traits. Additionally, we show that α-SYN assemblies cross the blood–brain barrier and distribute to the central nervous system after intravenous injection. Our results demonstrate that distinct α-SYN strains display differential seeding capacities, inducing strain-specific pathology and neurotoxic phenotypes.

doi: 10.1038/nature14547

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がん:IL-17を産生するγδ T細胞と好中球は協働して乳がんの転移を促進する

IL-17-producing γδ T cells and neutrophils conspire to promote breast cancer metastasis p.345

Metastatic disease remains the primary cause of death for patients with breast cancer. The different steps of the metastatic cascade rely on reciprocal interactions between cancer cells and their microenvironment. Within this local microenvironment and in distant organs, immune cells and their mediators are known to facilitate metastasis formation. However, the precise contribution of tumour-induced systemic inflammation to metastasis and the mechanisms regulating systemic inflammation are poorly understood. Here we show that tumours maximize their chance of metastasizing by evoking a systemic inflammatory cascade in mouse models of spontaneous breast cancer metastasis. We mechanistically demonstrate that interleukin (IL)-1β elicits IL-17 expression from gamma delta (γδ) T cells, resulting in systemic, granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF)-dependent expansion and polarization of neutrophils in mice bearing mammary tumours. Tumour-induced neutrophils acquire the ability to suppress cytotoxic T lymphocytes carrying the CD8 antigen, which limit the establishment of metastases. Neutralization of IL-17 or G-CSF and absence of γδ T cells prevents neutrophil accumulation and downregulates the T-cell-suppressive phenotype of neutrophils. Moreover, the absence of γδ T cells or neutrophils profoundly reduces pulmonary and lymph node metastases without influencing primary tumour progression. Our data indicate that targeting this novel cancer-cell-initiated domino effect within the immune system—the γδ T cell/IL-17/neutrophil axis—represents a new strategy to inhibit metastatic disease.

doi: 10.1038/nature14282

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がん:METは抗腫瘍性好中球の補充に必要である

MET is required for the recruitment of anti-tumoural neutrophils p.349

Whether neutrophils exert an anti- or pro-tumorigenic function has remained controversial; now, expression of the receptor molecule MET in neutrophils is shown to be required for their ability to restrict tumour growth in several mouse cancer models, with potential implications for human cancer therapy.

doi: 10.1038/nature14407

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細胞生物学:選択的オートファジーによる小胞体代謝回転の調節

Regulation of endoplasmic reticulum turnover by selective autophagy p.354

The protein FAM134B is an endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-resident receptor that facilitates ER autophagy, and downregulation of this protein (mutations of which are also known to cause sensory neuropathy in humans) results in expanded ER structures and degeneration of mouse sensory neurons.

doi: 10.1038/nature14498

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細胞生物学:受容体を介した選択的オートファジーが小胞体と核を分解する

Receptor-mediated selective autophagy degrades the endoplasmic reticulum and the nucleus p.359

In yeast, the novel protein Atg40 is enriched in the cortical and cytoplasmic endoplasmic reticulum (ER), and loads these ER subdomains into autophagosomes to facilitate ER autophagy; Atg39 localizes to the perinuclear ER and induces autophagic sequestration of part of the nucleus, thus ensuring cell survival under nitrogen-deprived conditions.

doi: 10.1038/nature14506

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細胞生物学:選択的3′ UTRは膜タンパク質の局在を調節する足場として機能する

Alternative 3′ UTRs act as scaffolds to regulate membrane protein localization p.363

About half of human genes use alternative cleavage and polyadenylation (ApA) to generate messenger RNA transcripts that differ in the length of their 3′ untranslated regions (3′ UTRs) while producing the same protein. Here we show in human cell lines that alternative 3′ UTRs differentially regulate the localization of membrane proteins. The long 3′ UTR of CD47 enables efficient cell surface expression of CD47 protein, whereas the short 3′ UTR primarily localizes CD47 protein to the endoplasmic reticulum. CD47 protein localization occurs post-translationally and independently of RNA localization. In our model of 3′ UTR-dependent protein localization, the long 3′ UTR of CD47 acts as a scaffold to recruit a protein complex containing the RNA-binding protein HuR (also known as ELAVL1) and SET to the site of translation. This facilitates interaction of SET with the newly translated cytoplasmic domains of CD47 and results in subsequent translocation of CD47 to the plasma membrane via activated RAC1 (ref. 5). We also show that CD47 protein has different functions depending on whether it was generated by the short or long 3′ UTR isoforms. Thus, ApA contributes to the functional diversity of the proteome without changing the amino acid sequence. 3′ UTR-dependent protein localization has the potential to be a widespread trafficking mechanism for membrane proteins because HuR binds to thousands of mRNAs, and we show that the long 3′ UTRs of CD44, ITGA1 and TNFRSF13C, which are bound by HuR, increase surface protein expression compared to their corresponding short 3′ UTRs. We propose that during translation the scaffold function of 3′ UTRs facilitates binding of proteins to nascent proteins to direct their transport or function—and this role of 3′ UTRs can be regulated by ApA.

doi: 10.1038/nature14321

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細胞生物学:部位選択的に標識され、モザイク状構成を持つRNAの合成と応用

Synthesis and applications of RNAs with position-selective labelling and mosaic composition p.368

A hybrid solid–liquid phase transcription method and automated robotic platform synthesizes position-specific, fluorescence- or isotope-labelled RNA.

doi: 10.1038/nature14352

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