Health plan p.5

Proposals to improve the international emergency response to disease outbreaks in the wake of the Ebola epidemic should be implemented — but local solutions are the best defence.

doi: 10.1038/522005a

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To Pluto p.6

The coming months promise to shed new light on the Solar System’s underworld.

doi: 10.1038/522006b

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Misplaced faith p.6

The public trusts scientists much more than scientists think. But should it?

doi: 10.1038/522006a

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Italian scientists vilified in wake of olive-tree deaths p.13

Police investigate researchers' role in devastating bacterial epidemic.

doi: 10.1038/nature.2015.17651

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Retracted gay-marriage study debated at misconduct meet-up p.14

Over rum cocktails at the World Conference on Research Integrity, experts discussed what can be learnt from the fallout of a flawed political-science paper.

doi: 10.1038/522014a

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Hawaii prunes Mauna Kea telescope hub p.15

Cultural fight over sacred mountain accelerates observatory closures.

doi: 10.1038/522015a

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Hyper-precise atomic clocks face off to redefine time p.16

Next-generation timekeepers can only be tested against each other.

doi: 10.1038/522016a

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Ebola outbreak thrusts MSF into new roles p.18

Relief agency sees its mission expanding after leading response to West Africa epidemic.

doi: 10.1038/522018a

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News Features


CRISPR, the disruptor p.20


doi: 10.1038/522020a

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Business: The billion-dollar biotech p.26

Moderna Therapeutics社は、どのようにしてRNA薬分野のパワープレーヤーへと成長したのだろうか。

doi: 10.1038/522026a

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News & Views


Microbiology: Exclusive networks in the sea p.36


doi: 10.1038/nature14530

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Developmental biology: Diversity in the lymphatic vasculature p.37


doi: 10.1038/nature14523

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Cancer: Precise control of localized signals p.38


doi: 10.1038/nature14531

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Astronomy: Pluto leads the way in planet formation p.40


doi: 10.1038/522040a

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Cancer: Opening LOX to metastasis p.41


doi: 10.1038/nature14529

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High-energy physics: Proton smasher spots rare particle decays p.42


doi: 10.1038/nature14520

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Resonant interactions and chaotic rotation of Pluto’s small moons p.45

Analyses of the interactions and rotations of Pluto’s four small moons Styx, Nix, Kerberos and Hydra are reported.

doi: 10.1038/nature14469

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A prefrontal–thalamo–hippocampal circuit for goal-directed spatial navigation p.50

Trajectory-dependent firing of neurons within the nucleus reuniens of the thalamus–hippocampus circuit predicted subsequent running direction, and disruption of this circuit reduced predictive firing in the hippocampus, suggesting that the thalamus is a key node in the integration of signals during goal-oriented navigation.

doi: 10.1038/nature14396

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Lymphatic vessels arise from specialized angioblasts within a venous niche p.56

The lymphatic endothelium is thought to arise entirely from trans-differentiation of the venous endothelium; a new mechanism of lymphatic vessel formation is identified in zebrafish, whereby the lymphatic vessels derive from specialized angioblasts within the floor of the cardinal vein.

doi: 10.1038/nature14425

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Cardiac lymphatics are heterogeneous in origin and respond to injury p.62

The lymphatic system is thought to be derived by transdifferentiation of venous endothelium; this study shows that the origin of cardiac lymphatics is in fact more heterogeneous, including both venous and non-venous origins and that lymphangiogenesis occurs in the adult heart following myocardial infarction and can be enhanced to improve heart function.

doi: 10.1038/nature14483

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Observation of the rare Bs0µ+µ decay from the combined analysis of CMS and LHCb data OPEN p.68

The standard model of particle physics describes the fundamental particles and their interactions via the strong, electromagnetic and weak forces. It provides precise predictions for measurable quantities that can be tested experimentally. The probabilities, or branching fractions, of the strange B meson () and the B0 meson decaying into two oppositely charged muons (μ+ and μ) are especially interesting because of their sensitivity to theories that extend the standard model. The standard model predicts that the and decays are very rare, with about four of the former occurring for every billion mesons produced, and one of the latter occurring for every ten billion B0 mesons. A difference in the observed branching fractions with respect to the predictions of the standard model would provide a direction in which the standard model should be extended. Before the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN started operating, no evidence for either decay mode had been found. Upper limits on the branching fractions were an order of magnitude above the standard model predictions. The CMS (Compact Muon Solenoid) and LHCb (Large Hadron Collider beauty) collaborations have performed a joint analysis of the data from proton–proton collisions that they collected in 2011 at a centre-of-mass energy of seven teraelectronvolts and in 2012 at eight teraelectronvolts. Here we report the first observation of the µ+µ decay, with a statistical significance exceeding six standard deviations, and the best measurement so far of its branching fraction. Furthermore, we obtained evidence for the µ+µ decay with a statistical significance of three standard deviations. Both measurements are statistically compatible with standard model predictions and allow stringent constraints to be placed on theories beyond the standard model. The LHC experiments will resume taking data in 2015, recording proton–proton collisions at a centre-of-mass energy of 13 teraelectronvolts, which will approximately double the production rates of and B0 mesons and lead to further improvements in the precision of these crucial tests of the standard model.

doi: 10.1038/nature14474

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Greenland supraglacial lake drainages triggered by hydrologically induced basal slip p.73

A dense network of GPS observations shows that rapid lake drainage events on the western Greenland Ice Sheet are preceded by period of ice-sheet uplift and/or enhanced basal slip.

doi: 10.1038/nature14480

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Anomalocaridid trunk limb homology revealed by a giant filter-feeder with paired flaps p.77

New anomalocaridid specimens from the Early Ordovician Fezouata Biota of Morocco show well-preserved trunk anatomy, revealing evidence for the evolution of arthropod limbs.

doi: 10.1038/nature14256

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Ancient proteins resolve the evolutionary history of Darwin’s South American ungulates p.81

Protein sequences preserved in two Quaternary taxa, Macrauchenia and Toxodon, resolve the evolutionary history of South American native ungulates.

doi: 10.1038/nature14249

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New cosmogenic burial ages for Sterkfontein Member 2 Australopithecus and Member 5 Oldowan p.85

Isochron burial dating with cosmogenic nuclides 26Al and 10Be shows that the skeleton of the australopithecine individual known as ‘Little Foot’ is around 3.67 million years old, coeval with early Australopithecus from East Africa; a manuport dated to 2.18 million years ago from the Oldowan tool assemblage conforms with the oldest age previously suggested by fauna.

doi: 10.1038/nature14268

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Disruption of DNA-methylation-dependent long gene repression in Rett syndrome p.89

Rett syndrome is caused by mutation of the MECP2 gene that codes for a protein that binds methylated DNA; this study reveals that MeCP2 affects the expression of long genes, which often serve neuronal functions.

doi: 10.1038/nature14319

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Niche-induced cell death and epithelial phagocytosis regulate hair follicle stem cell pool p.94

Mouse hair follicles in the skin cycle between growth and regression, while maintaining a pool of stem cells for continued regeneration; here, live imaging is used to show that a combination of niche-induced stem cell apoptosis and epithelial phagocytosis underlies regression, regulating the stem cell pool.

doi: 10.1038/nature14306

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Interaction and signalling between a cosmopolitan phytoplankton and associated bacteria p.98

Molecular characterization of interactions between a globally distributed marine diatom and its bacterial consortium.

doi: 10.1038/nature14488

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Dissemination, divergence and establishment of H7N9 influenza viruses in China p.102

Influenza surveillance over 15 cities across 5 provinces in China from October 2013 to July 2014 shows that the virus has diverged into distinct clades, becoming established in chickens and also disseminating to wider geographic regions.

doi: 10.1038/nature14348

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The hypoxic cancer secretome induces pre-metastatic bone lesions through lysyl oxidase p.106

Metastasis to the bone of certain breast cancers can be driven by the enzyme lysyl oxidase (LOX) produced by primary tumour cells.

doi: 10.1038/nature14492

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eIF3 targets cell-proliferation messenger RNAs for translational activation or repression p.111

Eukaryotic initiation factor 3 (eIF3)—the deregulation of which has been linked with diverse cancers—is shown to bind to and direct the specialized translation of a subset of messenger RNAs, primarily involved in cell proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis, and can exert either translational activation or repression.

doi: 10.1038/nature14267

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