目次

Editorials

エボラ出血熱の大流行を教訓に、感染症への国際的な緊急対策の改善が図られているが、究極の目標は、当事国で速やかに対処できるような研究、医療体制の整備だ。

Health plan p.5

Proposals to improve the international emergency response to disease outbreaks in the wake of the Ebola epidemic should be implemented — but local solutions are the best defence.

doi: 10.1038/522005a

科学者に対する社会的信頼感は予想外に高く、科学者はこれを裏切らないよう心すべきだ。

Misplaced faith p.6

The public trusts scientists much more than scientists think. But should it?

doi: 10.1038/522006a

NASAの探査機ニュー・ホライズンズの接近により、間もなく冥王星やその衛星に新たな光が当たるだろう。

To Pluto p.6

The coming months promise to shed new light on the Solar System’s underworld.

doi: 10.1038/522006b

News

イタリアで、オリーブを枯死させる細菌感染症拡大の原因がその研究にあるのではないかと、警察が捜査を。

Italian scientists vilified in wake of olive-tree deaths p.13

Police investigate researchers' role in devastating bacterial epidemic.

doi: 10.1038/nature.2015.17651

同性婚に関する論文の撤回が、研究不正を論じる国際会合の題材に。

Retracted gay-marriage study debated at misconduct meet-up p.14

Over rum cocktails at the World Conference on Research Integrity, experts discussed what can be learnt from the fallout of a flawed political-science paper.

doi: 10.1038/522014a

米国ハワイ州では、マウナケア山の新しい望遠鏡建設と引き換えに、古い望遠鏡を複数撤去へ。

Hawaii prunes Mauna Kea telescope hub p.15

Cultural fight over sacred mountain accelerates observatory closures.

doi: 10.1038/522015a

ヨーロッパの4つの研究所が、次世代の超高精度原子時計の精度を、直接対決で検証へ。

Hyper-precise atomic clocks face off to redefine time p.16

Next-generation timekeepers can only be tested against each other.

doi: 10.1038/522016a

エボラ出血熱の流行を契機に、国境なき医師団の担う役割がより大きなものに。

Ebola outbreak thrusts MSF into new roles p.18

Relief agency sees its mission expanding after leading response to West Africa epidemic.

doi: 10.1038/522018a

News Features

遺伝学:「破壊者」CRISPR

CRISPR, the disruptor p.20

生物学にPCR以来の最も大きな変化をもたらすと期待される遺伝子編集技術CRISPRは、倫理・安全面で、早急に考えねばならない問題を抱えている。

doi: 10.1038/522020a

ビジネス:潤沢な資金を持つ新興バイオテク企業

Business: The billion-dollar biotech p.26

Moderna Therapeutics社は、どのようにしてRNA薬分野のパワープレーヤーへと成長したのだろうか。

doi: 10.1038/522026a

News & Views

微生物学:海の中の非開放的ネットワーク

Microbiology: Exclusive networks in the sea p.36

プランクトン藻類の1つと細菌の一種の間で栄養素やシグナル伝達分子が交換されていることが突き止められ、海中の生命ドメイン間には標的を絞って相利共生的な相互作用が生じていることが明らかになった。

doi: 10.1038/nature14530

発生生物学:リンパ管構造の多様性

Developmental biology: Diversity in the lymphatic vasculature p.37

リンパ管を形成する細胞についての2つの研究によって、前駆細胞が意外な供給原から生じることが分かり、リンパ管構造の起源が予想されていたより多様であることが実証された。

doi: 10.1038/nature14523

がん:局所的シグナルを正確にコントロールする

Cancer: Precise control of localized signals p.38

腫瘍抑制タンパク質のPTENはほとんどが細胞質に存在し、エンドソーム小胞に結合している。このような局在が、この酵素の特定の脂質に対する活性を調節し、PTENによる細胞増殖の制御に影響していることが分かった。

doi: 10.1038/nature14531

天文学:冥王星が導く惑星形成への道

Astronomy: Pluto leads the way in planet formation p.40

ハッブル宇宙望遠鏡によって得られた画像から、冥王星の小型の衛星群の軌道、形態やサイズに関する新たな知見が得られた。この解析結果は、冥王星を訪れる初めての探査機が行おうとしている調査計画にちょうど間に合った。

doi: 10.1038/522040a

がん:転移への鍵を開けるLOX

Cancer: Opening LOX to metastasis p.41

酸素欠乏状態にある乳がん細胞が分泌する酵素のリシルオキシダーゼ(LOX)が骨損傷の誘導に関わっていて、転移に先立ってできた損傷はがん細胞が骨へと広がるのを促進していることが新たな研究によって示された。

doi: 10.1038/nature14529

高エネルギー物理学:大型ハドロン衝突型加速器で見つかったまれな素粒子崩壊

High-energy physics: Proton smasher spots rare particle decays p.42

B中間子と呼ばれる素粒子の極めてまれな崩壊が、CERNの大型ハドロン衝突型加速器(LHC)で観測された。この結果は素粒子物理学の標準模型を超える物理学を垣間見せるものかもしれない。

doi: 10.1038/nature14520

Articles

惑星科学:冥王星の小さな衛星の共鳴相互作用とカオス的な軌道運動

Resonant interactions and chaotic rotation of Pluto’s small moons p.45

Analyses of the interactions and rotations of Pluto’s four small moons Styx, Nix, Kerberos and Hydra are reported.

doi: 10.1038/nature14469

神経科学:目標に向かう空間ナビゲーションのための前頭前野–視床–海馬回路

A prefrontal–thalamo–hippocampal circuit for goal-directed spatial navigation p.50

Trajectory-dependent firing of neurons within the nucleus reuniens of the thalamus–hippocampus circuit predicted subsequent running direction, and disruption of this circuit reduced predictive firing in the hippocampus, suggesting that the thalamus is a key node in the integration of signals during goal-oriented navigation.

doi: 10.1038/nature14396

発生生物学:リンパ管は静脈ニッチ内の特殊な血管芽細胞から生じる

Lymphatic vessels arise from specialized angioblasts within a venous niche p.56

The lymphatic endothelium is thought to arise entirely from trans-differentiation of the venous endothelium; a new mechanism of lymphatic vessel formation is identified in zebrafish, whereby the lymphatic vessels derive from specialized angioblasts within the floor of the cardinal vein.

doi: 10.1038/nature14425

発生生物学:心臓のリンパ管は起源が多様で、損傷に応答する

Cardiac lymphatics are heterogeneous in origin and respond to injury p.62

The lymphatic system is thought to be derived by transdifferentiation of venous endothelium; this study shows that the origin of cardiac lymphatics is in fact more heterogeneous, including both venous and non-venous origins and that lymphangiogenesis occurs in the adult heart following myocardial infarction and can be enhanced to improve heart function.

doi: 10.1038/nature14483

Letters

高エネルギー物理学:CMSとLHCbのデータを組み合せた解析によるまれなBs0μ+μ崩壊の観測

Observation of the rare Bs0µ+µ decay from the combined analysis of CMS and LHCb data OPEN p.68

The standard model of particle physics describes the fundamental particles and their interactions via the strong, electromagnetic and weak forces. It provides precise predictions for measurable quantities that can be tested experimentally. The probabilities, or branching fractions, of the strange B meson () and the B0 meson decaying into two oppositely charged muons (μ+ and μ) are especially interesting because of their sensitivity to theories that extend the standard model. The standard model predicts that the and decays are very rare, with about four of the former occurring for every billion mesons produced, and one of the latter occurring for every ten billion B0 mesons. A difference in the observed branching fractions with respect to the predictions of the standard model would provide a direction in which the standard model should be extended. Before the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN started operating, no evidence for either decay mode had been found. Upper limits on the branching fractions were an order of magnitude above the standard model predictions. The CMS (Compact Muon Solenoid) and LHCb (Large Hadron Collider beauty) collaborations have performed a joint analysis of the data from proton–proton collisions that they collected in 2011 at a centre-of-mass energy of seven teraelectronvolts and in 2012 at eight teraelectronvolts. Here we report the first observation of the µ+µ decay, with a statistical significance exceeding six standard deviations, and the best measurement so far of its branching fraction. Furthermore, we obtained evidence for the µ+µ decay with a statistical significance of three standard deviations. Both measurements are statistically compatible with standard model predictions and allow stringent constraints to be placed on theories beyond the standard model. The LHC experiments will resume taking data in 2015, recording proton–proton collisions at a centre-of-mass energy of 13 teraelectronvolts, which will approximately double the production rates of and B0 mesons and lead to further improvements in the precision of these crucial tests of the standard model.

doi: 10.1038/nature14474

地球物理学:水文学的に引き起こされた底面すべりによって生じるグリーンランド氷河上湖の排水

Greenland supraglacial lake drainages triggered by hydrologically induced basal slip p.73

A dense network of GPS observations shows that rapid lake drainage events on the western Greenland Ice Sheet are preceded by period of ice-sheet uplift and/or enhanced basal slip.

doi: 10.1038/nature14480

古生物学:対をなすフラップを有する巨大な濾過摂食性アノマロカリスによって明らかになったアノマロカリス類の胴部付属肢の相同性

Anomalocaridid trunk limb homology revealed by a giant filter-feeder with paired flaps p.77

New anomalocaridid specimens from the Early Ordovician Fezouata Biota of Morocco show well-preserved trunk anatomy, revealing evidence for the evolution of arthropod limbs.

doi: 10.1038/nature14256

古生物学:古代のタンパク質からダーウィンの南米有蹄類の進化史が明らかになる

Ancient proteins resolve the evolutionary history of Darwin’s South American ungulates p.81

Protein sequences preserved in two Quaternary taxa, Macrauchenia and Toxodon, resolve the evolutionary history of South American native ungulates.

doi: 10.1038/nature14249

古人類学:宇宙線埋没年代測定法によって新たに明らかになった、スタークフォンテンの部層2のアウストラロピテクスと部層5のオルドワン石器群の年代

New cosmogenic burial ages for Sterkfontein Member 2 Australopithecus and Member 5 Oldowan p.85

Isochron burial dating with cosmogenic nuclides 26Al and 10Be shows that the skeleton of the australopithecine individual known as ‘Little Foot’ is around 3.67 million years old, coeval with early Australopithecus from East Africa; a manuport dated to 2.18 million years ago from the Oldowan tool assemblage conforms with the oldest age previously suggested by fauna.

doi: 10.1038/nature14268

神経科学:レット症候群におけるDNAメチル化に依存する長い遺伝子の抑制の阻害

Disruption of DNA-methylation-dependent long gene repression in Rett syndrome p.89

Rett syndrome is caused by mutation of the MECP2 gene that codes for a protein that binds methylated DNA; this study reveals that MeCP2 affects the expression of long genes, which often serve neuronal functions.

doi: 10.1038/nature14319

幹細胞:ニッチが誘導する細胞死と上皮のファゴサイトーシスは毛包幹細胞プールを調節する

Niche-induced cell death and epithelial phagocytosis regulate hair follicle stem cell pool p.94

Mouse hair follicles in the skin cycle between growth and regression, while maintaining a pool of stem cells for continued regeneration; here, live imaging is used to show that a combination of niche-induced stem cell apoptosis and epithelial phagocytosis underlies regression, regulating the stem cell pool.

doi: 10.1038/nature14306

生物海洋学:汎存植物プランクトンとそれらと共存する細菌の間の相互作用とシグナル伝達

Interaction and signalling between a cosmopolitan phytoplankton and associated bacteria p.98

Molecular characterization of interactions between a globally distributed marine diatom and its bacterial consortium.

doi: 10.1038/nature14488

ウイルス学:中国におけるH7N9インフルエンザウイルスの伝播、分岐および確立

Dissemination, divergence and establishment of H7N9 influenza viruses in China p.102

Influenza surveillance over 15 cities across 5 provinces in China from October 2013 to July 2014 shows that the virus has diverged into distinct clades, becoming established in chickens and also disseminating to wider geographic regions.

doi: 10.1038/nature14348

がん:がんの低酸素性セクレトームはリシルオキシダーゼを介して、前転移骨損傷を誘発する

The hypoxic cancer secretome induces pre-metastatic bone lesions through lysyl oxidase p.106

Metastasis to the bone of certain breast cancers can be driven by the enzyme lysyl oxidase (LOX) produced by primary tumour cells.

doi: 10.1038/nature14492

分子生物学:eIF3は細胞増殖メッセンジャーRNAを標的として翻訳を活性化あるいは抑制する

eIF3 targets cell-proliferation messenger RNAs for translational activation or repression p.111

Eukaryotic initiation factor 3 (eIF3)—the deregulation of which has been linked with diverse cancers—is shown to bind to and direct the specialized translation of a subset of messenger RNAs, primarily involved in cell proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis, and can exert either translational activation or repression.

doi: 10.1038/nature14267

「Journal home」に戻る

プライバシーマーク制度