目次

Editorials

今年は国連による国際土壌年であり、社会に大きな恩恵をもたらす土壌研究に世界が力を入れるべき時だ。

Down to earth p.411

A concerted focus on soils will benefit society in untold ways and should be embraced.

doi: 10.1038/517411b

人工栄養素なしには生存できない遺伝子組換え(GM)生物ならば、環境への漏出を防ぐことが可能になるだろう。

Kept on a leash p.411

A vital dependence on genetically modified organisms on an artificial nutrient could be a means of preventing their escape into the environment.

doi: 10.1038/517411a

行方不明だった欧州宇宙機関(ESA)の火星着陸機「ビーグル2号」の発見は、科学のさまざまな遺失物探しを加速させる契機になるだろう。

Lost and found p.412

The discovery of Beagle 2 on Mars should spur the search for other items lost to science.

doi: 10.1038/517412a

News

人間の行動の不確定性とデータ不足が、テロのリスクのモデル化を難しくする要因に。

Attempts to predict terrorist attacks hit limits p.419

Erratic human behaviour and incomplete information plague efforts to model risk.

doi: 10.1038/517419a

テロリストの過激化の過程を防げないか、心理学研究が。

Psychologists seek roots of terror p.420

Studies raise prospect of intervention in the radicalization process.

doi: 10.1038/517420a

LHC(大型ハドロン衝突型加速器)の再稼働が近付き、暗黒物質の正体の解明に期待が。

Crunch time for pet theory on dark matter p.422

Thought to make up the Universe’s missing matter, WIMPs are running out of places to hide.

doi: 10.1038/517422a

GM生物を「閉じこめる」方法として、人工アミノ酸が有用との報告が。

GM microbes created that can’t escape the lab p.423

Engineered bacteria kept in check with a designer diet.

doi: 10.1038/517423a

北米に洪水をもたらす「大気の川」(水蒸気を大量に含む大気の細長い流れ)の本格的な調査が。

CalWater 2015 targets atmospheric rivers off California p.424

Meteorologists investigate airborne jets that bring both floods and drought relief.

doi: 10.1038/517424a

News Features

加齢研究:血液に血液を

Ageing research: Blood to blood p.426

古い組織が若い血液によって若返ることがマウスで明らかになり、ヒトでも同様かどうかの研究が始まっている。

doi: 10.1038/517426a

天文学:レーザーを当てる

Astronomy: Laser focus p.430

米国カリフォルニア大学サンタクルーズ校の天文学者Claire Maxは、レーザー照射を利用した補償光学によって、望遠鏡の性能を大きく様変わりさせた。

doi: 10.1038/517430a

News & Views

触媒:解き放たれた3価金触媒の力

Catalysis: Gold unleashes the power of three p.440

+3価の酸化状態にある金は触媒反応に使われることがほとんどないが、それは金をこのような状態にするのに使われる酸化剤によって反応物が損傷を受けることがあるからである。酸化剤を使わないで金(III)触媒を得る経路が開発され、この触媒の力量が明らかになってきた。

doi: 10.1038/517440a

細胞分裂:つかんで、放す

Cell division: Hold on and let go p.441

マウスでMEIKINというタンパク質が見つかり、機能が調べられた。これによって、減数第一分裂と呼ばれる特別なタイプの細胞分裂の際に染色体分離を調節する仕組みの進化的に保存された原型が明らかになってきた。

doi: 10.1038/nature14087

抗生物質:天下無敵の新参者

Antibiotics: An irresistible newcomer p.442

本来の生息環境と同じ土壌中で培養した1万株の細菌のスクリーニングから、広範囲にわたって強力な活性を示す抗生物質が見つかった。また、この抗生物質は複数の脂質分子を標的とすることから、耐性の発生はおそらく難しいと推測される。

doi: 10.1038/nature14193

天文学:宇宙の霧やスモッグの中身

Astronomy: Cosmic fog and smog p.444

銀河にはヘリウムよりも重い元素の大半が見つからないことが分かっている。銀河では、これらが混合されて、恒星や惑星になった。その代わり、このような元素は主に、銀河から遠く離れたイオン化したガスや塵の粒子の中に存在している。

doi: 10.1038/517444a

古気候:モンスーンの問題

Palaeoclimate: Monsoon matters p.445

全球的な気候モデルを単純化し、地球の水循環系を介する水の移動を追跡し続けるようにしたモデルは、アジアで夏に発生するモンスーンが過去15万年間にどのように変化したかの解明に新たな光を当ててくれる。

doi: 10.1038/517445a

細胞生物学:エンドサイトーシスというジェットコースターに乗る細菌毒素

Cell biology: On the endocytosis rollercoaster p.446

エンドサイトーシスは、分子が細胞に接触できるようになる過程の1つである。異例な様式のエンドサイトーシスが今回明らかになり、これが細胞のシグナル伝達を調節していることや、細菌毒素によって乗っ取られたりすることが分かった。

doi: 10.1038/nature14081

Articles

有機化学:炭素–炭素結合の酸化的付加による安定な金(III)触媒の生成

Stable gold(III) catalysts by oxidative addition of a carbon–carbon bond p.449

The facile synthesis of a stable Au(III) cationic complex is described; this gold catalyst exhibits hard, oxophilic Lewis acidity, enabling selective conjugate additions and a [2 + 2] cycloaddition reaction.

doi: 10.1038/nature14104

創薬:検出可能な耐性を伴わずに病原菌を殺す新たな抗生物質

A new antibiotic kills pathogens without detectable resistance p.455

From a new species of β-proteobacteria, an antibiotic called teixobactin that does not generate resistance has been characterized; the antibiotic has two different lipid targets in different bacterial cell wall synthesis components, which may explain why resistance was not observed.

doi: 10.1038/nature14098

細胞生物学:エンドフィリンはクラスリン非依存性エンドサイトーシス経路の特徴であり、これを制御している

Endophilin marks and controls a clathrin-independent endocytic pathway p.460

This study describes a fast, clathrin-independent endocytic pathway mediated by endophilin, dynamin and actin; the pathway is activated by ligand binding to a variety of cargo receptors, and endophilin-mediated endocytosis occurs primarily at the leading edges of cells where lamellipodin and the lipid PtdIns(3,4)P2 ensure endophilin targeting.

doi: 10.1038/nature14067

細胞生物学:Meikinは減数第一分裂特異的な動原体機能の保存された調節因子である

Meikin is a conserved regulator of meiosis-I-specific kinetochore function p.466

The long elusive mammalian meiosis-specific kinetochore factor has been identified in mice; MEIKIN—which plays an equivalent role to the yeast proteins Spo13 and Moa1—ensures mono-orientation, protects sister chromatid cohesion and recruits the kinase PLK1 to the kinetochores.

doi: 10.1038/nature14097

Letters

惑星科学:パラサイトの母天体での凝固駆動対流による寿命の長い磁性

Long-lived magnetism from solidification-driven convection on the pallasite parent body p.472

Nanomagnetic imaging has been used to obtain a palaeomagnetic time series of two pallasite meteorites, revealing that their convection was driven by core solidification, which would have caused long-lived magnetic fields in the cores of early Solar System planetary bodies.

doi: 10.1038/nature14114

フォトニクス:高性能太陽電池用のペロブスカイト材料の組成工学

Compositional engineering of perovskite materials for high-performance solar cells p.476

Inorganic–organic lead halide perovskite could be efficient when used as the light-harvesting component of solar cells; here incorporation of methylammonium lead bromide into formamidinium lead iodide stabilizes the perovskite and improves the power conversion efficiency of the solar cell up to 17.9 per cent.

doi: 10.1038/nature14133

気候科学:20世紀の海水準上昇の確率論的再解析

Probabilistic reanalysis of twentieth-century sea-level rise p.481

A statistical reassessment of the tide gauge record concludes that sea level rose at a rate of about 1.2 millimetres per year from 1901 to 1990, slightly lower than prior estimates and now consistent with estimates based on individual contributions to sea-level change; the estimates reported here from 1990 onwards are consistent with other work, suggesting that the recent acceleration in sea-level rise is greater than previously thought.

doi: 10.1038/nature14093

古生物学:中国の下部三畳系で見つかった、短い吻部を持つ基部系統ichthyosauriform

A basal ichthyosauriform with a short snout from the Lower Triassic of China p.485

The Ichthyopterygia appeared in the fossil record as fully evolved, aquatic creatures, with nothing known about their transition from land to water, but now some light is shed on this transition by a fossil from the Lower Triassic of southern China of a small, primitive and possibly amphibious ichthyosaur-like creature, close to the common ancestry of ichthyosaurs and the obscure Hupehsuchia, a group of extinct aquatic reptiles known only from southern China.

doi: 10.1038/nature13866

がん:Krasによる肺がんの遺伝的モデルと化学的モデルにおける変異の全体像

The mutational landscapes of genetic and chemical models of Kras-driven lung cancer p.489

Whole-exome sequencing is used to compare the mutational landscape of adenomas from three mouse models of non-small-cell lung cancer, induced either by exposure to carcinogens or by genetic mutation of Kras; the results reveal that the two types of tumour have different mutational profiles and adopt different routes to tumour development.

doi: 10.1038/nature13898

細胞生物学:エンドフィリンA2は、クラスリンに依存しないエンドサイトーシスでの膜切り離しに関わっている

Endophilin-A2 functions in membrane scission in clathrin-independent endocytosis p.493

Endophilin-A2 (endoA2) is shown to mediate clathrin-independent endocytosis of Shiga and cholera toxins, and to function in parallel with dynamin and actin in the pulling-force-driven scission of Shiga-toxin-induced tubular structures.

doi: 10.1038/nature14064

がん:mTORC1を介した翻訳伸長が腸の腫瘍のイニシエーションと成長を制限する

mTORC1-mediated translational elongation limits intestinal tumour initiation and growth p.497

The mTORC1 complex has been implicated in tumorigenesis owing partially to its ability to increase protein translation; now, mTORC1 activity in the mouse intestine is shown not to be required for normal homeostasis but to be necessary for the triggering of tumorigenesis by APC mutations, suggesting that it could be a good target for the prevention of colorectal cancer in high-risk patients.

doi: 10.1038/nature13896

免疫学:IgG1はクリオグロブリン血症マウスモデルの腎疾患を防御する

IgG1 protects against renal disease in a mouse model of cryoglobulinaemia p.501

Here, the predominant murine immunoglobulin G subclass, IgG1, which is a poor activator of effector mechanisms, is shown to have a regulatory function, protecting against the development of IgG3 immune-complex-driven renal disease by competing with IgG3 for antigen and increasing immune complex solubility.

doi: 10.1038/nature13868

構造生物学:完全なウイルス粒子中の未成熟HIV-1キャプシドの分解能8.8 Åでの構造

Structure of the immature HIV-1 capsid in intact virus particles at 8.8 Å resolution p.505

Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) assembly proceeds in two stages. First, the 55 kilodalton viral Gag polyprotein assembles into a hexameric protein lattice at the plasma membrane of the infected cell, inducing budding and release of an immature particle. Second, Gag is cleaved by the viral protease, leading to internal rearrangement of the virus into the mature, infectious form. Immature and mature HIV-1 particles are heterogeneous in size and morphology, preventing high-resolution analysis of their protein arrangement in situ by conventional structural biology methods. Here we apply cryo-electron tomography and sub-tomogram averaging methods to resolve the structure of the capsid lattice within intact immature HIV-1 particles at subnanometre resolution, allowing unambiguous positioning of all α-helices. The resulting model reveals tertiary and quaternary structural interactions that mediate HIV-1 assembly. Strikingly, these interactions differ from those predicted by the current model based on in vitro-assembled arrays of Gag-derived proteins from Mason–Pfizer monkey virus. To validate this difference, we solve the structure of the capsid lattice within intact immature Mason–Pfizer monkey virus particles. Comparison with the immature HIV-1 structure reveals that retroviral capsid proteins, while having conserved tertiary structures, adopt different quaternary arrangements during virus assembly. The approach demonstrated here should be applicable to determine structures of other proteins at subnanometre resolution within heterogeneous environments.

doi: 10.1038/nature13838

生化学:tRNA依存性ランチビオティックデヒドラターゼNisBの構造と作用機序

Structure and mechanism of the tRNA-dependent lantibiotic dehydratase NisB p.509

Structural and biochemical studies show that the biosynthesis of the food preservative nisin involves the tRNA-dependent glutamylation of serine and threonine.

doi: 10.1038/nature13888

構造生物学:還元的デハロゲナーゼの構造はB12依存性脱ハロゲン化の機構を示唆する

Reductive dehalogenase structure suggests a mechanism for B12-dependent dehalogenation p.513

X-ray crystallography and EPR spectroscopy are used to characterize a soluble, oxygen-tolerant reductive dehalogenase from Nitratireductor pacific us pht-3B; the data suggest that the cobalt in the cobalamin cofactor ligates the halogen atom of the substrate, directly abstracting the halogen atom via an oxidative addition.

doi: 10.1038/nature13901

「Journal home」に戻る

プライバシーマーク制度