Volume 517 Number 7534



Science and satire p.243

The terrorist attacks in Paris were an assault on the fundamental values of free and democratic societies. Researchers, and humorists, must combat obscurantism everywhere.

doi: 10.1038/517243a


Out of the bag p.244

The preference for either cats or dogs affects science more than you might think.

doi: 10.1038/517244b


Deep mysteries p.244

Arguments among ocean scientists show how much remains to be discovered.

doi: 10.1038/517244a



Political appointments spur concerns for Amazon p.251

Environmentalists worried after Brazilian president picks ministers with ties to agriculture lobby.

doi: 10.1038/517251a


‘I can haz genomes’: cats claw their way into genetics p.252

Canine dominance bows to tabby chic as cat sequencing takes off.

doi: 10.1038/517252a


First biosimilar drug set to enter US market p.253

But such cheaper, generic versions of biological drugs face scientific, regulatory and patent hurdles.

doi: 10.1038/517253a


Blown-up brains reveal nanoscale details p.254

Material used in diaper absorbant can make brain tissue bigger and enable ordinary microscopes to resolve features down to 60 nanometres.

doi: 10.1038/nature.2015.16667


Tropical paradise inspires virtual ecology lab p.255

Digital version of Moorea will provide a way to experiment with an entire ecosystem.

doi: 10.1038/517255a


Al Gore’s dream spacecraft gears up for launch p.256

Delayed DSCOVR probe will monitor conditions on Earth and solar storms in space.

doi: 10.1038/517256a

News Features


Agriculture: State-of-the-art soil p.258


doi: 10.1038/517258a


Microbiology: Here's looking at you, squid p.262

ウィスコンシン大学マディソン校(米国)の動物学者Margaret McFall-Ngaiは、発光イカと共生細菌との関係の研究から、体内微生物相研究に役立つさまざまな知見を見いだしている。

doi: 10.1038/517262a

News & Views


Biomechanics: Boxed up and ready to go p.274


doi: 10.1038/517274a


Earth science: Mixing it up in the mantle p.275


doi: 10.1038/517275a


Genomics: African dawn p.276


doi: 10.1038/nature14077


Physical chemistry: Hydrophobic interactions in context p.277


doi: 10.1038/517277a


Neuroscience: Dragonflies predict and plan their hunts p.279


doi: 10.1038/nature14078


Organic chemistry: One catalyst, two reactions p.280


doi: 10.1038/517280a


HIV: Seeking ultimate victory p.281


doi: 10.1038/nature14194



The African Genome Variation Project shapes medical genetics in Africa OPEN p.327

The African Genome Variation Project contains the whole-genome sequences of 320 individuals and dense genotypes on 1,481 individuals from sub-Saharan Africa; it enables the design and interpretation of genomic studies, with implications for finding disease loci and clues to human origins.

doi: 10.1038/nature13997


Internal models direct dragonfly interception steering p.333

This study tracks dragonfly head and body movements during high-velocity and high-precision prey-capture flights, and shows that the dragonfly uses predictive internal models and reactive control to build an interception trajectory that complies with biomechanical constraints.

doi: 10.1038/nature14045



Impact jetting as the origin of chondrules p.339

The origin of most chondrules (small, previously molten spherules inside meteorites) is shown to be impact jetting; chondrules form from the shock-melted material ejected from a protoplanet on impact, making meteorites a byproduct of planet formation.

doi: 10.1038/nature14105


Direct observation of electron propagation and dielectric screening on the atomic length scale p.342

Attosecond light pulses are now available experimentally, enabling ultrafast processes on the atomic scale to be probed; here the free-electron-like propagation of electrons through ultrathin layers of magnesium is observed in real time.

doi: 10.1038/nature14094


Modulation of hydrophobic interactions by proximally immobilized ions p.347

Chemical force microscopy measurements show that the immobilization of specific cationic groups near non-polar domains produces pronounced changes in the domains’ hydrophobic interaction strengths: charged ammonium groups double interaction strengths, whereas guanidinium groups eliminate measurable interactions.

doi: 10.1038/nature14018


Non-stabilized nucleophiles in Cu-catalysed dynamic kinetic asymmetric allylic alkylation p.351

A copper-catalysed dynamic kinetic asymmetric transformation using racemic substrates and alkyl nucleophiles is reported; organometallic reagents are generated in situ from alkenes by hydrometallation, and give highly enantioenriched products under mild reaction conditions.

doi: 10.1038/nature14089


The terrestrial uranium isotope cycle p.356

Examination of the global uranium cycle — whereby uranium from the Earth’s crust is first transported to the oceans and then returned, by subduction, to the mantle — shows that the subducted uranium is isotopically distinct from the Earth as a whole and that this signature has been stirred throughout upper mantle, arguably within the past 600 million years.

doi: 10.1038/nature14062


Promoterless gene targeting without nucleases ameliorates haemophilia B in mice p.360

Promoterless recombinant adeno-associated virus is used without nucleases to target the human coagulation factor IX gene to the liver-expressed albumin locus in haemophilia B mice, with an on-target integration into ~0.5% of the albumin alleles in hepatocytes; stable F9 plasma levels at 7–20% of normal were obtained, leading to normal coagulation times in treated factor-IX-deficient mice.

doi: 10.1038/nature13864


Productivity limits and potentials of the principles of conservation agriculture p.365

A global meta-analysis of conservation agriculture principles indicates that the potential contribution of no-till to the sustainable intensification of agriculture is more limited than often assumed.

doi: 10.1038/nature13809


Long-term phenotypic evolution of bacteria p.369

A comparative analysis of bacterial growth and genetic phenotypes using hundreds of genome-scale metabolic models reveals a two-stage evolutionary process that consists of a rapid initial phenotypic diversification followed by a slow long-term divergence.

doi: 10.1038/nature13827


The neural representation of taste quality at the periphery p.373

Using two-photon microendoscopy and genetically encoded calcium indicators the tuning properties of the first neural station of the gustatory system are explored; results reveal that ganglion neurons are matched to specific taste receptor cells, supporting a labelled line model of information transfer in the taste system.

doi: 10.1038/nature13873


Control of plant stem cell function by conserved interacting transcriptional regulators p.377

Here, plant HAM proteins are shown to physically interact with the transcription factor WUSCHEL and the related WOX proteins, with this interaction driving downstream transcriptional programs and determining the activities of stem cells.

doi: 10.1038/nature13853


Broad CTL response is required to clear latent HIV-1 due to dominance of escape mutations p.381

Despite receiving antiretroviral therapy, most patients with HIV still have latent reservoirs of the virus; here, these reservoirs are shown to be dominated by viruses with cytotoxic T lymphocyte escape mutations, with potential implications for the development of therapeutic vaccines.

doi: 10.1038/nature14053


CEACAM1 regulates TIM-3-mediated tolerance and exhaustion p.386

CEACAM1 functions as a novel heterophilic ligand for TIM-3 and is necessary for TIM-3-mediated tolerance, which has marked consequences for inflammation, infection and cancer.

doi: 10.1038/nature13848


An ERK/Cdk5 axis controls the diabetogenic actions of PPARγ p.391

Blocking ERK/MAP kinases improves insulin sensitivity thorough a mechanism similar to the actions of the anti-diabetic thiazolidinediones drugs on PPARγ.

doi: 10.1038/nature13887


Subnanometre-resolution electron cryomicroscopy structure of a heterodimeric ABC exporter p.396

The subnanometre-resolution electron cryomicroscopy structure of TmrAB, a heterodimeric ABC transport protein, in a nucleotide-free, inward-facing conformation, is determined.

doi: 10.1038/nature13872

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