Volume 517 Number 7536



Senate vs science p.527

A few Republicans agreeing with basic climate research is not an environmental victory.

doi: 10.1038/517527b


Human history defies easy stories p.527

The discovery of part of a 55,000-year-old human skull in Israel will help to answer some questions about our species' evolution — but it shows that the tale is complicated.

doi: 10.1038/517527a


Technical support p.528

Technicians are often under appreciated, but without them there could be no research.

doi: 10.1038/517528a



Obama acts alone on climate p.535

US president defies hostile Congress and takes action on global warming.

doi: 10.1038/517535a


Hunt for Philae hangs in the balance p.536

Rosetta mission would have to sacrifice other science to search for comet lander.

doi: 10.1038/nature.2015.16775


Unconscious thought not so smart after all p.537

Study on decision-making stokes controversy over power of distracted mind.

doi: 10.1038/517537a


US ocean sciences told to steer a new course p.538

Major report calls for cuts to infrastructure, including fledgling Ocean Observatories Initiative, to increase spending on science.

doi: 10.1038/nature.2015.16780

米政府が、より正確な個別化医療(precision medicine)を重点的に推進する方針を。

US precision-medicine proposal sparks questions p.540

Announcement by President Obama comes amidst growing interest in targeted therapies.

doi: 10.1038/nature.2015.16774


Neanderthals gain human neighbour p.541

Cranium discovery shows that Homo sapiens was living in Middle East 55,000 years ago.

doi: 10.1038/517541a

News Features


Not your average technician p.542


doi: 10.1038/517542a

News & Views


Stem cells: Emergency back-up for lung repair p.556


doi: 10.1038/517556a


Astrophysics: Stellar clocks p.557


doi: 10.1038/517557a


Plant biology: Seeing the wood and the trees p.558


doi: 10.1038/nature14085


Precision measurement: Relativity tested with a split electron p.559


doi: 10.1038/517559a


Genomics: CRISPR engineering turns on genes p.560


doi: 10.1038/517560a


Earth science: Free and forced climate variations p.562


doi: 10.1038/517562a


Cancer: Risk factors and random chances p.563


doi: 10.1038/517563a



Forcing, feedback and internal variability in global temperature trends p.565

A study of the effect of radiative forcing, climate feedback and ocean heat uptake on global-mean surface temperature indicates that overestimation of the response of climate models to radiative forcing from increasing greenhouse gas concentrations is not responsible for the post-1998 discrepancy between model simulations and observations.

doi: 10.1038/nature14117


An Arabidopsis gene regulatory network for secondary cell wall synthesis p.571

The full complement of transcriptional regulators that affect synthesis of the plant secondary cell wall remains largely undetermined; here, the network of protein–DNA interactions controlling secondary cell wall synthesis of Arabidopsis thaliana is determined, showing that gene expression is regulated by a series of feed-forward loops to ensure that the secondary cell wall is deposited at the right time and in the right place.

doi: 10.1038/nature14099


Comprehensive genomic characterization of head and neck squamous cell carcinomas OPEN p.576

The Cancer Genome Atlas presents an integrative genome-wide analysis of genetic alterations in 279 head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCCs), which are classified by human papillomavirus (HPV) status; alterations in EGFR, FGFR, PIK3CA and cyclin-dependent kinases are shown to represent candidate targets for therapeutic intervention in most HNSCCs.

doi: 10.1038/nature14129


Genome-scale transcriptional activation by an engineered CRISPR-Cas9 complex p.583

The CRISPR-Cas9 system, a powerful tool for genome editing, has been engineered to activate endogenous gene transcription specifically and potently on a genome-wide scale and applied to a large-scale gain-of-function screen for studying melanoma drug resistance.

doi: 10.1038/nature14136



A spin-down clock for cool stars from observations of a 2.5-billion-year-old cluster p.589

The measurement of the rotational periods of 30 cool stars in the 2.5-billion-year-old cluster NGC 6819 allows the calibration of gyrochronology — the determination of a star’s age on the basis of its rotation period — over a much broader age range than hitherto, meaning that it might be possible to determine the ages of many cool stars in the Galactic field with a precision of roughly 10 per cent.

doi: 10.1038/nature14118


Michelson–Morley analogue for electrons using trapped ions to test Lorentz symmetry p.592

An electronic analogue of a Michelson–Morley experiment, in which an electron wave packet bound inside a calcium ion is split into two parts and subsequently recombined, demonstrates that the relative change in orientation of the two parts that results from the Earth’s rotation reveals no anisotropy in the electron dispersion; this verification of Lorentz symmetry improves on the precision of previous tests by a factor of 100.

doi: 10.1038/nature14091


Anomalous dispersions of ‘hedgehog’ particles p.596

Micrometre-sized particles covered with stiff, nanoscale spikes are shown to exhibit long-term colloidal stability in both hydrophilic and hydrophobic media, without the need for chemical coating, owing to the effect of the spikes on the contact area and, consequently, the force between the particles.

doi: 10.1038/nature14092


Metal-catalysed azidation of tertiary C–H bonds suitable for late-stage functionalization p.600

Most currently used catalysts for the amination of C–H bonds are ill suited to the functionalization of complex molecules; here it is shown that a mild, selective, iron-catalysed azidation of tertiary C–H bonds is suitable for the amination of complex molecules containing a range of functional groups.

doi: 10.1038/nature14127


Effects of electron correlations on transport properties of iron at Earth’s core conditions p.605

Based on first-principles resistivity calculations, it was recently concluded that the thermal conductivity of iron in Earth’s core was too high to sustain thermal convection, thus invalidating such geodynamo models; new calculations including electron correlations find that electron–electron scattering is comparable to the electron–phonon scattering at high temperatures in iron, doubling the expected resistivity, and reviving conventional geodynamo models.

doi: 10.1038/nature14090


Resolving the complexity of the human genome using single-molecule sequencing p.608

Single-molecule, real-time DNA sequencing is used to analyse a haploid human genome (CHM1), thus closing or extending more than half of the remaining 164 euchromatic gaps in the human genome; the complete sequences of euchromatic structural variants (including inversions, complex insertions and tandem repeats) are resolved at the base-pair level, suggesting that a greater complexity of the human genome can now be accessed.

doi: 10.1038/nature13907


Interception of host angiogenic signalling limits mycobacterial growth p.612

Using a model of tuberculosis in zebrafish, granuloma formation is shown to coincide with hypoxia and angiogenesis; furthermore, the pharmacological inhibition of the pro-angiogenic VEGF pathway reduces infection burden, suggesting a possible treatment strategy in patients with the disease.

doi: 10.1038/nature13967


p63+Krt5+ distal airway stem cells are essential for lung regeneration p.616

Many patients experiencing sudden loss of lung tissue somehow undergo full recovery; here this recovery is traced to a discrete population of lung stem cells that are not only essential for lung regeneration but can be cloned and then transplanted to other mice to contribute new lung tissue.

doi: 10.1038/nature13903


Lineage-negative progenitors mobilize to regenerate lung epithelium after major injury p.621

Lineage-tracing experiments identify a rare, undifferentiated population of quiescent cells in the mouse distal lung that are activated through a Notch signalling pathway to repair the epithelium after bleomycin- or influenza-mediated injury; inappropriate Notch signalling may be a major contributor to failed regeneration within the lungs of patients with chronic lung disease.

doi: 10.1038/nature14112

がん:IAPPによる代謝の再プログラミングはin vivop53欠失腫瘍の退縮を引き起こす

IAPP-driven metabolic reprogramming induces regression of p53-deficient tumours in vivo p.626

p53 is often mutated or lost in cancer; here inactivation of ΔNp63 and ΔNp73 in the absence of p53 is shown to result in metabolic reprogramming and tumour regression via activation of IAPP (islet amyloid polypeptide or amylin), and IAPP-based anti-diabetes therapeutic strategies show potential for the treatment of p53-deficient and mutant tumours.

doi: 10.1038/nature13910


The mitotic checkpoint complex binds a second CDC20 to inhibit active APC/C p.631

By binding and inhibiting a second CDC20 molecule, the mitotic checkpoint complex can convert a local ‘wait’ signal from unattached kinetochores to inhibit the anaphase promoting complex/cyclosome throughout the cell and avoid premature cell division.

doi: 10.1038/nature13911


Uncovering the polymerase-induced cytotoxicity of an oxidized nucleotide p.635

Time--β bound to substrate DNA as it inserts 8-oxo-dGTP opposite either cytosine or adenine.

doi: 10.1038/nature13886


Structural insight into autoinhibition and histone H3-induced activation of DNMT3A p.640

A working model for histone H3-induced dynamic regulation of the de novo DNA methyltransferase.

doi: 10.1038/nature13899

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